Về quản lý môi trường
- Lập bản đồ những thay đổi của lượng phát thải CH4 trong chuỗi cung ứng toàn cầu.
- Tác động của khóa COVID-19 đối với lớp ranh giới khí quyển và quá trình bất ổn đối với khu vực Ấn Độ.
- Những thay đổi sâu sắc về tác động sức khỏe liên quan đến PM2.5 ở Trung Quốc từ năm 1990 đến năm 2019 và những tác động đối với việc kiểm soát phát thải hiện tại và tương lai.
- Điều chỉnh các nguồn đầu vào trung gian để giảm phát thải carbon toàn cầu: Mô hình tối ưu hóa đầu vào - đầu ra.
- Dự báo quỹ đạo phát thải khí nhà kính trong tương lai cho Ấn Độ bằng cách sử dụng năng lượng và chỉ số kinh tế với các thuật toán tổng hợp khác nhau.
- Ảnh hưởng của việc thu phí từ thuế đến nước thải sạch hơn và bền vững đối với sự đổi mới kinh doanh.
- Trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp tại các thị trường mới nổi: Cơ hội và thách thức để hội nhập bền vững.
- Làm thế nào để cải thiện khả năng tồn tại của các doanh nghiệp đổi mới về môi trường: Trường hợp của các doanh nghiệp vừa và nhỏ của Việt Nam.
- Một trò chơi khác biệt cho cơ chế bồi thường sinh thái lưu vực dựa trên sự hợp tác giữa chính phủ và doanh nghiệp giữa các khu vực.
- Ảnh hưởng của các công cụ thông tin, xã hội, sự thuận tiện và tài chính đối với hành vi giao thông bền vững: Trường hợp của Lithuania.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Làm sáng tỏ các nguồn ô nhiễm NOX trong khí quyển trong môi trường đô thị hóa nặng bằng cách sử dụng nhiều đồng vị ổn định.
- Vi nhựa trong bụi từ các môi trường trong nhà khác nhau.
- Hiệu suất môi trường của hệ thống cấp nước và nước thải tích hợp thông qua đánh giá vòng đời - Một nghiên cứu điển hình của Brazil.
- Khả năng tiếp cận sinh học qua da và độc tính tế bào của kim loại nặng trong đất đô thị từ một thành phố cao nguyên điển hình: Ý nghĩa đối với sức khỏe con người.
- Nguồn gốc tự nhiên và nhân sinh của ô nhiễm kim loại và đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe: Một nghiên cứu địa hóa thủy văn của Sehwan Sharif, Pakistan.
- Đồng xử lý chất thải xây dựng và phá dỡ (CDW) và tro bay đốt chất thải rắn đô thị (MSWI FA) thông qua công nghệ geopolymer.
- Việc xây dựng thành phố bọt biển ảnh hưởng như thế nào đến phát thải carbon từ hệ thống thoát nước đô thị tích hợp?
- Sản xuất hydro tái tạo từ phần hữu cơ của chất thải rắn đô thị thông qua một khái niệm mới về quy trình âm carbon.
- Các mô hình dự báo về nồng độ phốt pho và tải lượng trong nước mưa chảy tràn từ các lưu vực dân cư đô thị nhỏ vào mùa thu.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Theo dõi nguồn rò rỉ dựa trên cảm biến ngoại vi trong khu công nghiệp hóa chất với các chướng ngại vật phức tạp.
- Cơ hội và thách thức đối với việc quản lý chất thải ở các nước mới nổi và cận biên thông qua cộng sinh công nghiệp.
- Các yếu tố quyết định và đóng góp theo khu vực của bất bình đẳng phát thải CO2 công nghiệp: Quan điểm dựa trên tiêu dùng.
- Đặc điểm của việc phát sinh chất thải nguy hại công nghiệp ở Hàn Quốc sử dụng cách tiếp cận đầu vào - đầu ra.
- Khung giảm thiểu carbon dioxide toàn diện cho khu công nghiệp bằng cách sử dụng các công cụ phân tích nhúm với cấu hình pin nhiên liệu.
- Việc trồng Leptochloa fusca không cần đất trong nước thải đô thị và công nghiệp đã tạo ra sinh khối lignin thấp để sản xuất cồn sinh học.
- Khảo sát khả năng phân hủy kỵ khí và sản xuất khí sinh học của hỗn hợp tinh bột và nước thải công nghiệp.
- Xử lý tiên tiến nước thải khu công nghiệp sử dụng quy trình màng ôzôn dựa trên mô hình rừng ngẫu nhiên được tối ưu hóa.
- Khảo sát loại bỏ chất thơm nhẹ từ nước thải công nghiệp sử dụng khung hữu cơ kim loại nano.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Mapping the changes of CH4 emissions in global supply chains
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 155019
This study aims to identify methane (CH4) emission flows along global supply chains from both production- and consumption-based perspectives and their temporal changes from 2000 to 2014. We employed the structural path analysis (SPA) method to examine the embodied CH4 emission trade through inter-sectoral and inter-regional supply chains. Production activities in the sector of Agriculture (such as crop and animal production) and consumption activities in Construction (such as infrastructure) were the most significant contributors to global CH4 emission increases during 2000–2014. Agriculture and Mining (such as coal mining) accounted for large shares of global embodied CH4 trade at the final consumption tier (i.e., the trade of final goods or services), while Food (such as beverages and tobacco) and Heavy manufacturing (such as steel or automobile manufacturing) were significant contributors to embodied CH4 emissions in the trade of intermediate goods or services directly used to produce final goods or services. This finding highlights the different potential of the sectors for CH4 abatement along global supply chains. The United States imported the most embodied CH4 emissions from foreign areas in 2000 in contrast to China, which dominated imports in 2014. Over 80% of China's embodied CH4 emissions in 2014 were related to intermediate production along global supply chains due to industrial upgrading. India surpassed China as the largest direct emitter for producing final goods or services. Given the critical role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in global climate change, the spatiotemporal changes of CH4 emissions in global supply chains can help explore the justified allocation of reduction responsibility between countries and sectors connected by the chains.
2. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the atmospheric boundary layer and instability process over Indian region
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 154995
The abrupt reduction in the human activities during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic created unprecedented changes in the background atmospheric conditions. Several studies reported the anthropogenic and air quality changes observed during the lockdown. However, no attempts are made to investigate the lockdown effects on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and background instability processes. In this study, we assess the lockdown impacts on the ABL altitude and instability parameters (Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE)) using WRF model simulations. Results showed a unique footprint of COVID-19 lockdown in all these parameters. Increase in the visibility, surface temperature and wind speed and decrease in relative humidity during the lockdown is noticed. However, these responses are not uniform throughout India and are significant in the inland compared to the coastal regions. The spatial variation of temperature (wind speed) and relative humidity shows an increase and decrease over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) and central parts of India by 20% (100%) and 40%, respectively. Increase (80%) in the ABL altitude is larger over the IGP and central parts of India during lockdown of 2020 compared to similar time period in 2015–2019. This increase is attributed to the stronger insolation due to absence of anthropogenic activity and other background conditions. At the same time, CAPE decreased by 98% in the IGP and central parts of India, where it shows an increase in other parts of India. A prominent strengthening of CINE in the IGP and a weakening elsewhere is also noticed. These changes in CAPE and CINE are mainly attributed to the dearth of saturation in lower troposphere levels, which prevented the development of strong adiabatic ascent during the lockdown. These results provide a comprehensive observation and model-based insight for lockdown induced changes in the meteorological and thermo-dynamical parameters.
3. Will China's carbon intensity achieve its policy goals by 2030? Dynamic scenario analysis based on STIRPAT-PLS framework
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 155060
China is the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, and the Chinese government proposes to reduce carbon intensity (CI) by 65% in 2030 compared with 2005. However, literature analyzing whether the current emission reduction policies can effectively help CI reach the policy target is rare. China's CI data from 1978 to 2019, divided into phases using the Bai and Perron (BP) breakpoint test, are evaluated in this study. A dynamic scenario simulation analysis using the STIRPAT-PLS framework and Monte Carlo simulation is established. The dynamic trajectory of CI is observed, and its possible value in 2030 is determined. Finally, a dynamic sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the contribution of different influencing factors. According to research, from 1978 to 2019, CI has three structural breakpoints, 1992, 2002, and 2008, resulting in four specific growth tendencies. Our scenario analysis based on the recent phase shows that under the reference scenario, the CI would drop to 1.912 in 2030, which cannot achieve the Chinese government's policy goals. Under the outlook scenario, CI would fall to 1.638 in 2030, and the policy target can be achieved. Improving energy efficiency and optimizing energy consumption structure would be the most critical factors in reducing CI. As the only barrier, foreign trade should be guided by green trade policies. The study concludes that completing the relevant policies of the Chinese government's 14th Five-Year Report is critical to achieving CI reduction targets.
4. Decadal changes in PM2.5-related health impacts in China from 1990 to 2019 and implications for current and future emission controls
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 834, 15 August 2022, 155334
In China, the rapid development of the economy and implementation of multiple emission control policies in recent decades have been accompanied by dramatic changes in air quality. In this study, PM2.5 concentrations estimated by using MERRA-2 reanalysis data were integrated into the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM) to explore the spatiotemporal variation of nationwide PM2.5-related premature mortality from 1990 to 2019, and the driving factors behind decadal changes were evaluated. Since 2000, as a result of PM2.5 pollution, air quality in China has deteriorated substantially, especially in the fast-developing eastern and southern parts. In 2009, the nationwide population-weighted (PW) PM2.5 concentration peaked at 41.4 μg/m3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7–46.2). Simultaneously, the GEMM results revealed that nationwide PM2.5-related deaths increased remarkably from 1089 (95% CI, 965–1210) thousand in 1990 to 1795 (1597–1986) thousand in 2009. The implementation of the toughest-ever Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) in 2013 effectively controlled PM2.5 pollution in China. By 2018, the nationwide PW PM2.5 concentration had decreased to 34.0 (29.2–38.9) μg/m3. Dynamic trend prediction revealed that, although the APPCAP achieved substantial health benefits, the policy did not result in further remarkable reductions in PM2.5-related deaths; in 2019, deaths peaked at 1932 (1716–2140) thousand. PM2.5-related deaths in 2030 were projected for each of four emission control scenarios. The results of the driving factor analysis and the future projections indicated that the health benefits from improving air quality are likely to be counterbalanced by changes in the population age structure. Because population ageing is becoming more and more rapid in China and the challenge of climate change is increasing, the results of this study imply that policymakers need to implement more stringent measures and set more ambitious emission control targets to reduce nationwide PM2.5-related premature mortality in the future.
5. Adjusting the intermediate input sources for global carbon emission reduction: An input–output optimization model
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155582
The domestic industrial structure optimization for carbon emission reduction usually causes carbon transfer to other countries, while the global industrial structure adjustment would possibly lead to the unbalance of regional economy development. Based on the previous studies, this paper built an intermediate input source optimization model to reduce the global carbon emissions by adjusting the international input sources of countries (regions). The results showed that the proposed model could effectively realize the goals of global carbon emission reduction and economic development. After optimization, the requirements for the inputs from some sectors would significantly decrease, such as the materials in China, while the requirements for the inputs from some sectors would significantly increase, such as energy in the EU countries. The results also showed that the important sectors in the domestic industrial structures were more sensitive to the global intermediate input source adjustment. Furthermore, the global input source changes would indirectly improve the industrial structures of some countries including China, India and Russia. Our work suggested that countries should further promote the technology advantages of some important sectors to avoid the probable industrial risks bought by the global actions toward carbon neutrality.
6. Evaluating the real changes of air quality due to clean air actions using a machine learning technique: Results from 12 Chinese mega-cities during 2013-2020
Chemosphere, Volume 300, August 2022, 134608
China has implemented two national clean air actions in 2013–2017 and 2018–2020, respectively, with the aim of reducing primary emissions and hence improving air quality at a national level. It is important to examine the effectiveness of such emission reductions and assess the resulting changes in air quality. However, such evaluation is difficult as meteorological factors can amplify, or obscure the changes of air pollutants, in addition to the emission reduction. In this study, we applied the random forest machine learning technique to decouple meteorological influences from emissions changes, and examined the deweathered trends of air pollutants in 12 Chinese mega-cities during 2013–2020. The observed concentrations of all criteria pollutants except O3 showed significant declines from 2013 to 2020, with PM2.5 annual decline rates of 6–9% in most cities. In contrast, O3 concentrations increased with annual growth rates of 1–9%. Compared with the observed results, all the pollutants showed smoothed but similar variation in trend and annual rate-of-change after weather normalization. The response of O3 to NO2 concentrations indicated significant regional differences in photochemical regimes, and the differences between observed and deweathered results provided implications for volatile organic compound emission reductions in O3 pollution mitigation. We further evaluated the effectiveness of first and second clean air actions by removing the meteorological influence. We found that the meteorology can make negative or positive contribution in reducing pollutant concentrations from emission reduction, depending on type of pollutants, locations, and time period. Among the 12 mega-cities, only Beijing showed a positive meteorological contribution in amplifying reductions in main pollutants except O3 during both clean air action periods. Considering the large and variable impact of meteorological effects in changing air quality, we suggest that similar deweathered analysis is needed as a routine policy evaluation tool on a regional basis.
7. Forecasting of future greenhouse gas emission trajectory for India using energy and economic indexes with various metaheuristic algorithms
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 360, 1 August 2022, 131946
The accelerating increment of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration in the atmosphere already reached an alarming level, and nowadays its adverse impacts on the living organisms, environment, and ecological balance of nature have been well-understood. India is one of the top countries that contribute the most to global GHG emissions. Therefore, it is of great significance to forecast the future GHG trends of the country in advance and accordingly take measures against the parameters that cause these emissions, considerably. In this direction, the present research has centered on forecasting the greenhouse gas trajectory of India with various metaheuristic algorithms. In this framework, marine predators algorithm (MPA), lightning search algorithm (LSA), equilibrium optimizer (EO), symbiotic organisms search (SOS), and backtracking search algorithm (BSA) are used for modeling the future GHG emission trajectory of India. Accordingly, the significant economic and energy indicators of India such as renewable energy generation, electricity generation from coal, electricity generation from gas, electricity generation from oil, gross domestic product, and population between 1990 and 2018 are collected to make a nexus with GHG emissions. As GHG emissions, CO2, CH4, F-gases, N2O, as well as total GHG emissions are separately forecasted by the year 2050. To make a better comparison, each GHG emission data in the last year five years is used for the testing phase of the algorithms, and then statistically discussed in terms of R2, MBE, rRMSE, and MAPE benchmarks. In the results, it is found that the R2 value changes between 0.8822 and 0.9923 for CO2, 0.2855–0.9945 for CH4, 0.9–0.9904 for F-gases, 0.4655–0.9964 for N2O, and 0.9016–0.9943 for total GHG emission, and the results in terms of rRMSE are very satisfying for all algorithms. In the study, it is forecasted that the two greenhouse gas emissions with the highest increase rate in 2050 will be between 2.5 and 2.87 times for CO2 emissions and between 2.8 and 3.5 times for F-gases, compared to today's data. According to the results of the present paper, the total GHG emission for India is forecasted to be 2.1–2.4 times higher in the year 2050 as compared to today. Given all forecasting results together, it is seen that the MPA algorithm generally gives the best results according to the statistical metric results, while the LSA algorithm generally gives the worst results. Consequently, the present paper strongly reports that the decision-makers and policy-makers should take some serious steps in advance for the mitigation of GHG emissions, and to revise their energy investments in the upcoming years.
8. A comparative analysis of China's provincial carbon emission allowances allocation schemes by 2030: A resource misallocation perspective
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 361, 10 August 2022, 132192
Carbon emission allowance (CEA) has become a scarce resource against global climate change. Hence, the CEA allocation scheme is critical to improving its utilization efficiency and balancing regional development. However, most of the existing literature mainly focused on the formulation of allocation schemes but ignored the examination of CEA misallocation, which may damage productivity and regional development. This study intends to conduct a comparative analysis of Chinese provincial CEA allocation schemes by 2030 from a perspective of resource misallocation. For this purpose, 15 provincial CEA allocation schemes by 2030 based on the indicator method are developed first. Then a CEA misallocation index deriving from the extended Gini coefficient is proposed to examine the CEA misallocation of proposed schemes. Finally, an empirical analysis of China's provincial CEA allocation by 2030 is conducted. The results indicate that provincial CEA misallocation indeed occurs under the proposed allocation schemes with the CEA misallocation index ranging from 0.209 to 0.311, and the scheme based upon the efficiency principle has a relatively minimum misallocation index at 0.209. Furthermore, CEA misallocation is related to the carbon intensity reduction rate, and the scheme based on the efficiency principle could further achieve optimal CEA allocation when the carbon intensity reduction rate decreases. We suggest relevant decision-makers focus on the efficiency principle when developing a provincial CEA allocation scheme as it has strength in avoiding CEA misallocation.
9. The effect of cleaner and sustainable sewage fee-to-tax on business innovation
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 361, 10 August 2022, 132287
Can reform of "sewage fee-to-tax” promote corporate technological innovation by internalising environmental cost and strengthening environmental control? The difference between environmental tax and sewage charges were analysed along with summarising the economic consequences of environmental tax. The influence mechanism of the reform of "sewage fee-to-tax” on corporate technological innovation from the dual perspectives of tax and environmental regulation, based on tax theory, Porter hypothesis, and supply and demand theory, were explored. Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share listed companies about 1,150 in the years 2017–2021 are taken as the research sample. The impact of imposing environmental taxes on corporate technological innovation was empirically tested. It is found that imposing an environmental tax stimulates the innovation motivation of enterprises and significantly improves the input and output of corporate technology innovation. This paper has profound implications for perfecting the cleaner sustainable environmental tax system, stimulating corporate innovation, and promoting economic transformation.
10. Corporate social responsibility in emerging markets: Opportunities and challenges for sustainability integration
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132224
In emerging markets, Corporate Social Responsibility and social entrepreneurship practices emerge as drivers of social inclusion and welfare. In countries with considerable demands for social and economic transformations, Corporate Social Responsibility provides a positive force for addressing society's major challenges such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this paper, we examine how two projects selected by the United Nations Development Programme (UNPD) orient their operations toward responsible management practices in a transition economy context and answer two questions: 1) Does Corporate Social Responsibility supporting social entrepreneurship pave the way for greater inclusion?, and, 2) How do the Corporate Social Responsibility practices help achieve the SDGs? By focusing our analysis on stakeholder theory, we highlight how context can influence the strategic management process of social inclusion choices. Both cases provide practical implications of how the insertion of responsibility thematic in core business strategy acts as an effective driver for the development of fundamentally important SDGs.
11. How to improve the survivability of environmentally innovative firms: The case of Vietnam's SMEs
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132223
Environmental innovation (EI) is a complicated task with high investment costs and long-lasting administration demands. These challenges discourage firms from implementing EI, while firms that do perform this activity are exposed to a risk of failure and may be forced to leave the market. This paper seeks to show how to improve the survivability of environmentally innovative firms. We used survey data on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam from 2007 to 2015 to examine the effects of EI implementation on firm survival, taking into account different internal capacities, operating in a corrupt environment, and unfair competition. In this paper, the provincial competitiveness index is employed to measure corruption in the economy, based on different dimensions, namely transparency, informal costs, time costs, fair competition, proactive and creative provincial leadership, and fair and effective legal procedures. Firm size and exporting status are employed to capture firms' internal capacities. By employing the semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model and two parametric specifications, including Weibull and exponential, the results show that only conventional innovation promotes firm longer-term survival, while there is a negative association between EI and the probability of firm survival. We conduct a robustness check using the propensity matching method. We show that the relationship is most evident for firms operating in an economy that features low-quality institutions or unfair competition. Firms’ internal capacities are essential in permitting firms to earn greater benefits from EI implementation. The findings of our study are an essential foundation for economists and policymakers in the design and implementation of processes to assist firms in dealing with environmental issues and ensuring that firms benefit when undertaking EI activities.
12. A differential game for basin ecological compensation mechanism based on cross-regional government-enterprise cooperation
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132335
Cross-regional cooperation among upstream and downstream governments and enterprises is crucial for the efficiently implementation of basin ecological compensation mechanism. In this study, we propose and study a differential game model for basin ecological compensation mechanism based on cross-regional cooperation among governments and enterprises. We have considered three different cooperation settings: mechanisms with no cost sharing, mechanisms with cost sharing and collaborative cooperation mechanism. Under these three settings, all the players' optimal ecological protection efforts, cost sharing rates and optimal revenues are derived. Comparison analysis shows that (1) all the players’ revenues are increasing in the partially ordered set of vectors of cost sharing; (2) the total revenue of the whole system achieves optimal under the collaborative cooperation mechanism. Finally, we conduct several numerical experiments to verify the performance of the solutions to the model, and reveal many interesting managerial insights after hence.
13. Influence of informational, social, convenience and financial tools on sustainable transport behaviour: The case of Lithuania
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132457
The fast growth of the environmental impact of mobility is a significant issue for environmental policymakers. The primary condition of sustainable transport policy is human behaviour. The willingness to use sustainable transport mode is the leading trigger to implement sustainable transport policy successfully. Thus, the aim of this paper is to reveal the most effective tools and the reflection of the actual situation of the contribution of these tools to the sustainable transport behaviour. Referring to the representative survey performed in the transition country, i.e., Lithuania, at the beginning of 2020 and by applying the structural equation modeling, the results showed that the level of sustainable transport behaviour is relatively low. When analysing the impact of the main tools (financial, informational, social and convenience) on sustainable transport behaviour, the results revealed that informational, social and convenience tools were significantly related to this behaviour. Meanwhile, the financial tool insignificantly influenced sustainable transport behaviour. Considering the model of statements about the current situation, only financial and convenience aspects significantly influenced sustainable transport behaviour. Thus, this study revealed valuable insights for policymakеrs on the tools that contribute to and effectively promote sustainable transport behaviour.
14. Impact of local environmental standards on water environmental carrying capacity in large water diversion project: A system dynamics analysis in Shandong, China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132423
Large water diversion projects have extensive impact on the water systems in the receiving areas, where inevitable regional responses are aroused and alert to local environmental carrying capacity. To ensure the water quality of China's eastern South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), Shandong Province had issued strict local wastewater discharge standards since 2006. However, some flexibility exists in the enforcement of local standards, which created uncertainty to the outcomes. A system dynamic (SD) model and Water Environmental Carrying Capacity (WECC) method were integrated to dynamically illustrate the interaction between the enforcement of the local standards and the performance of the regional water system. The WECC was calculated based on an indicator system representing the multi-dimensional impact of the local standards on the regional water system. The SD model was constructed to simulate and forecast the variations of those indicators of WECC. The SD-WECC model was trained and validated with yearly data from 2000 to 2020, then four scenarios with different levels of enforcement of local standards were illustrated. The results showed that overall WECC improves during period from 2000 to 2025, and that the SNWDP improves the balance of water supply and demand in Shandong in the long run in the three scenarios that have introduced the local standards. The adoption of the local standard helps the concentration of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge to meet the discharging standards earlier by stimulating the investment in pollution control. Therefore, the flexibility in local water environment management enabled the local actors to pursue a balance between environmental protection and economic growth in a dynamic context with multi-objects for local development.
15. Influence mechanisms of the National Pollution Source Census on public participation and environmental consciousness in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 363, 20 August 2022, 132397
The National Pollution Source Census has been conducted in China to strengthen environmental supervision and management while mobilizing the public to participate in census work. Public participation usually plays an important role in environmental governance, but its development in China is relatively inadequate at present. However, the implementation of the National Pollution Source Census has created favorable conditions for promoting public participation. To explore the influence of the National Pollution Source Census on public participation, we conducted a nationwide questionnaire-based survey, recording the public's perceptions and behaviors related to environmental issues following the census. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression were conducted to analyze the data. The main findings indicate the following. First, the implementation of the National Pollution Source Census has had a strong positive impact on environmental consciousness, which, in turn, has had a positive effect on public participation. Environmental consciousness plays a fully mediating role in the relationship between the implementation of the National Pollution Source Census and public participation. Second, among the measurement indicators of the implementation of the National Pollution Source Census, environmental information disclosure, the extent of the popularization of environmental pollution knowledge, media-based publicizing of the significance of pollution source censuses, and the legislation-driven establishment of channels for public participation have a significant positive impact on environmental consciousness and public participation. Third, demographic characteristics such as the age and income of the public further affect their environmental consciousness and participation in environmental governance activities.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Elucidating sources of atmospheric NOX pollution in a heavily urbanized environment using multiple stable isotopes
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 154781
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) from rain and aerosols can be a significant non-point source – particularly in urbanized coastal areas and contribute to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Here, we present geochemical and isotopic data from surface waters coupled with an 18-month time series of geochemical and isotopic data measured on wet and dry deposition over Hong Kong from June 2018. Dual stable isotopes of nitrate (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3−) of rain and total suspended particulates (TSP) were analyzed to trace the sources and understand seasonal pattern of atmospheric nitrate. The δ15N of TSP, δ15N-NO3 in rain and TSP ranged from +0.94 to +17.6‰, −4.1 to +3.0‰ and −1.3 to +9.0‰ respectively. δ15N varied seasonally with higher values in winter and lower values in summer. This variation can be explained by a change in the sources of atmospheric NOx driven by the East Asian Monsoon. It was found that most NOx comes from coal burning in winter and a mix of vehicle emissions, fossil fuel combustion and lightning in summer. Moreover, the estimated dry and wet deposition of nitrate and ammonium in Hong Kong is around 18 kg N ha−1 annually, which is of the same order of magnitude as N released by sewage effluents and groundwater. This implies that atmospheric N deposition over the N-limited waters of the eastern side of Hong Kong could contribute significantly to the N budget. Therefore, atmospheric N deposition may alter the local N marine cycling, thus monitoring its impact is crucial for water quality in Southern China.
2. Effect and attributable burden of hot extremes on bacillary dysentery in 31 Chinese provincial capital cities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 155028
High atmospheric temperature has been associated with the occurrence of bacillary dysentery (BD). Recent studies have suggested that hot extremes may influence health outcomes, however, none have examined the association between hot extremes and BD risk, especially at the national level.
To assess the effect and attributable burden of hot extremes on BD cases and to identify populations at high risk of BD.
Daily incident BD data of 31 provincial capital cities from 2010 to 2018 were collected from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, weather data was obtained from the fifth generation of the European Re-Analysis Dataset. Three types of hot extremes, including hot day, hot night, and hot day and night, were defined according to single or sequential occurrence of daytime hot and nighttime hot within 24 h. A two-stage analytical strategy combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) was used to evaluate city-specific associations and national pooled estimates.
Hot extremes were significantly associated with the risk of BD on lagged 1–6 days. The overall cumulative relative risk (RR) was 1.136 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.022, 1.263] for hot day, 1.181 (95% CI: 1.019, 1.369) for hot night, and 1.154 (95% CI: 1.038, 1.283) for hot day and night. Northern residents, females, and children younger than or equal to 14 years old were vulnerable under hot night, southern residents were vulnerable under hot day, and males were vulnerable under hot day and night. 1.854% (95% CI: 1.294%, 2.205%) of BD cases can be attributable to hot extremes, among which, hot night accounted for a large proportion.
Hot extremes may significantly increase the incidence risk and disease burden of BD. Type-specific protective measures should be taken to reduce the risk of BD, especially in those we found to be particularly vulnerable.
3. Microplastics in dust from different indoor environments
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 833, 10 August 2022, 155256
Microplastics (MPs) are present in global indoor dust, which is an important source of MPs for humans. However, few researchers have investigated differences in the abundance and characteristics of MPs in dust in different indoor environments. In this study, we found that residential apartments (mean: 1174 MPs/g; n = 47) had the highest abundance of MPs in indoor dust samples, followed by offices (896 MPs/g; n = 50), business hotels (843 MPs/g; n = 53), university dormitories (775 MPs/g; n = 48), and university classrooms (209 MPs/g; n = 44). The predominant shape of MPs was fiber in most indoor dust samples. The main size fraction of the MPs in the indoor dust samples from university classrooms and business hotels was 201–500 μm, and it was 501–1000 μm in those from offices, university dormitories, and residential apartments. The main MP polymer in indoor dust samples from business hotels, university dormitories, and residential apartments was polyester, whereas those from offices and university classrooms were mainly polyethylene and polypropylene. We calculated the estimated daily intake (EDI) of MPs through the inhalation of indoor dust, and found that infants (7.4 MPs/kg bw/day) had a higher mean EDI of MPs than toddlers (1.4 MPs/kg bw/day), children (0.49 MPs/kg bw/day), adults (0.23 MPs/kg bw/day), and university students (0.22 MPs/kg bw/day). To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report differences in MP occurrence in dust samples from different indoor environments, and our findings provide a more accurate understanding of exposure risks of MPs to humans.
4. Identifying spatiotemporal characteristics and driving factors for road traffic CO2 emissions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 834, 15 August 2022, 155270
Road traffic is an important contributor to CO2 emissions. Previous studies lack enough spatiotemporal resolution in emission calculation at the road level and ignore the impact of the built environment on road traffic emissions. Therefore, this study develops a bottom-up methodology based on the traffic trajectory data to analyze the CO2 emission characteristics of road traffic with a high level of spatial-temporal resolution in Shenzhen. Then, the effects of built environment factors on road traffic emissions are investigated using multiscale geographically weighted regression. The results show a highly detailed map of CO2 emissions with high temporal (hour) and space (road) resolutions. The emission characteristics reflect the spatial non-equilibrium in road traffic CO2 emissions. In addition, six factors, including population density, number of workplaces, number of dwellings, density of main road, access to metro stations, and access to bus stops, have a significant effect on road traffic CO2 emissions. Finally, the policy suggestions are proposed for the reduction of road traffic CO2 emissions.
5. Environmental performance of an integrated water supply and wastewater system through life cycle assessment - A Brazilian case study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155213
The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental performance of an integrated water supply and wastewater system that employs a system of ponds at the wastewater treatment system. Additionally, this study aimed to understand the contribution of each stage of the system to the analyzed impact categories, and to evaluate alternative scenarios that consider the reduction of water losses in distribution, as well as the operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The evaluation was performed through life cycle assessment (LCA) that considered the stages of water withdrawal, treatment, and distribution along with wastewater collection and treatment. The system was modeled in the OpenLCA software using the Ecoinvent 3.7.1 database. Environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe method and cumulative energy demand. The results show that the water withdrawal stage is the potential source of the greatest environmental impacts. There are exceptions in the categories of climate change and photochemical oxidant formation, which are most impacted by the WWTP. Analysis of alternative scenarios revealed that the decrease in water loss rates during distribution contribute to a linear reduction in potential environmental impacts of the analyzed categories. The operation of a UASB reactor in the WWTP leads to a reduction in impacts on the categories of climate change (41.4%) and formation of photochemical oxidants (11.6%), and to increases in impacts on the other categories analyzed. The data presented provide important information for the improvement of public policies aimed at sanitation in developing countries.
6. Quantifying factors affecting contributions of roadway exhaust and non-exhaust emissions to ambient PM10–2.5 and PM2.5–0.2 particles
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155368
Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in urban air pollution. However, sources of urban pollution are difficult to distinguish. This study utilises a mobile particle concentrator platform and statistical tools to investigate factors affecting roadway ambient coarse particle (PM10–2.5) and fine particle (PM2.5–0.2) concentrations in greater Boston, USA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified six PM10–2.5 sources (exhaust, road salt, brake wear, regional pollution, road dust resuspension and tyre-road abrasion) and seven fine particle sources. The seven PM2.5–0.2 sources include the six PM10–2.5 sources and a source rich in Cr and Ni. Non- exhaust traffic-related sources together accounted for 65.6% and 29.1% of the PM10–2.5 and PM2.5–0.2 mass, respectively. While the respective contributions of exhaust sources were 10.4% and 20.7%. The biggest non-exhaust contributor in the PM10–2.5 was road dust resuspension, accounting for 29.6%, while for the PM2.5–0.2, the biggest non-exhaust source was road-tyre abrasion, accounting for 12.3%. We used stepwise general additive models (sGAMs) and found statistically significant (p < 0.05) effects of temperature, number of vehicles and rush hour periods on exhaust, brake wear, road dust resuspension and road-tyre abrasion with relative importance between 19.1 and 62.2%, 12.5–42.1% and 4.4–42.2% of the sGAM model's explained variability. Speed limit and road type were also important factors for exhaust, road-tyre and brake wear sources. Meteorological variables of wind speed and relative humidity were significantly associated with both coarse and fine road dust resuspension and had a combined relative importance of 38% and 48%. The quantifying results of the factors that influence traffic-related sources can offer key insights to policies aiming to improve near-road air quality.
7. Dermal bioaccessibility and cytotoxicity of heavy metals in urban soils from a typical plateau city: Implication for human health
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155544
The dermal exposure of heavy metals in contaminated urban soils poses huge environmental health risks globally. However, their dermal bioaccessibility and adverse effects on human skin cells were not fully understood. In this study, we measured the total and dermal bioaccessibility of Cr, As, Cd, Pb, and Cu in four selected urban soil samples from Kunming, Yunnan, China, and evaluated the cellular responses of these bioaccessible extracts on human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Among all the metals, only As in Soil-3 (S3) exceeded Chinese risk screening and Yunnan background values at 38.2 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Cr, As, Cd, Pb, and Cu in all soil samples were 47.79, 15.50, 3.11, 104.27, and 180.29 mg/kg respectively. Although relatively high concentrations of heavy metals were detected in soil samples, the highest dermal bioaccessibility of Cd was 3.57% with others' being lower than 1%. The bioaccessible dermal-absorbed doses (DADs) of Cr, As, Cd, Pb, and Cu from soils reflected acceptable health risks since all DADs were below the corresponding derived dermal reference values. However, the toxic data showed the extracts of S3 and S4 presented certain cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells, indicating the existing models based on dermal bioaccessibility and DADs may be not accurate enough to assess their human health risk. Taken together, the human health risk assessment should be modified by taking their skin cytotoxicity into account.
8. Natural and anthropogenic origin of metallic contamination and health risk assessment: A hydro-geochemical study of Sehwan Sharif, Pakistan
Chemosphere, Volume 300, August 2022, 134611
Heavy metal contamination in groundwater is a serious threat to the environment and therefore its proper monitoring is a matter of great concern these days. In the present research, groundwater samples from Sehwan Sharif district Jamshoro, Pakistan were collected to estimate the concentration of various elements including potentially hazardous metals. Statistical analysis of the collected data based on Pearson co-relation metal clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) divides the elements into three groups; Group I contains As, Cu, Ni, and Cd, Group II contains Mn, Fe, B, and Cr and Group III contains Pb and Zn. The elements Cu, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Zn found with higher RSD values demonstrate their anthropogenic origin whereas the lower concentration of Mn, Fe, B, and Cr indicate their natural origin (Tepanosyan et al., 2016). The histograms and box-plots of Mn, Fe, B and Cr were found normally distributed while abnormal for Cu, Ni, Pb, As, Cd and Zn. The HQs of these elements indicate their non-carcinogenic risks. However, results of individual metallic behavior indicate the highest HQ measured for B followed by HQs for Cu, and As. The toxic effects of investigated metal (loid)s calculated using HI were found to be 1.58 for adults and 1.35 for the child which is considered the medium chromic risk and cancer risk. About the toxicity of these heavy metals, their cancer risk was assessed on the levels of Cd, As, and Cr in groundwater. The carcinogenic risk of As was found to be 2.78 × 10−4 and 1.62 × 10−3 for child and adult, respectively. Furthermore, the values of this carcinogenic risk are 2.64 × 10−6 and 1.54 × 10−5 for Cd while 4.24 × 10−3 and 2.48 × 10−2 for Cr in child and adult, respectively.
Since cancer risk exceeded the target risk of 1 × 10−4 for As and Cr in adults and children, it can thus be considered ‘non-acceptable’. The Geographic Information System (GIS) based maps were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation which showed the Spatial distribution of all elements throughout Sehwan Sharif from different sources of environment. Spatial maps of elements produced by ArcGIS show the hotspots of potentially hazardous elements such as the highest concentration of Pb, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd were found in urban areas of Sehwan Sharif district Jamshoro, Pakistan.
9. Co-disposal of construction and demolition waste (CDW) and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) through geopolymer technology
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132502
To simultaneously address the environmental issues induced by construction and demolition waste (CDW) and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA), this paper studied the feasibility of utilizing CDW-based geopolymer (CDWG) as the solidification/stabilization (S/S) solid for MSWI FA. The effects of MSWI FA addition on the performance and reaction of CDWG were investigated by compressive strength, reaction heat evaluation, FTIR, XRD, TGA, SEM, and EDXA tests. The S/S effect of CDWG was evaluated by the leaching tests. Results showed that the CDWG implemented the S/S of MSWI FA, with an immobilization efficiency of Pb > Ba > Zn > Cd > Ni > Cr > Cu. Heavy metals were partly immobilized in the geopolymeric gels. MSWI FA altered the reaction kinetics and promoted the reaction product formation in CDWG, without resulting in the generation of new crystalline phases. An MSWI FA dosage lower than 5 wt% can improve the compressive strength of geopolymer. CDWG shows significantly lower energy consumption (a reduction up to 75.7%) and carbon dioxide emissions (a decline up to 75.9%) than OPC when immobilizing the same amount of MSWI FA.
10. Incentive strategy models of household waste separation based on cost uncertainties: A perspective of social networks
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 363, 20 August 2022, 132429
Waste management has become a serious problem in China, with households generating an increasing amount of waste. To tackle this problem, many city administrations have implemented regulations on household waste separation and are stepping up efforts to improve awareness. Moreover, the existence of individual interactions in social networks makes the cost of raising awareness highly uncertain. Therefore, this paper aims to describe the individual interactions based on dynamics of opinion spread method and build the incentive strategy model that is extended to three robust incentive strategy models based on various uncertain sets by robust optimization: Box-SO Model, Ellipsoid-SO Model and Box-Ellipsoid-SO Model. The simulation results indicated that a higher uncertain level parameter or a lower interaction threshold leads to lower public awareness, in which the Ellipsoid-SO Model has the best robustness with sacrificing 7.96% of the total awareness value, but the Box-Ellipsoid-SO Model loses 24.24%. Meanwhile, cost constraint has a direct effect on public awareness, and people with a high frequency of social interactions are key to improving public awareness of household waste separation. Additionally, the results have several management implications that are conducive to improving public awareness and behavior of household waste separation in social networks: (1) The fundamental premise of improving public waste separation behavior is to stimulate awareness; (2) Small-scale activities are more efficient than large-scale activities in improving pro-environment opinion; (3) Given the existence of opinion leaders, propaganda for residents should be pertinently targeted.
11. How does sponge city construction affect carbon emission from integrated urban drainage system?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 363, 20 August 2022, 132595
The integrated urban drainage system has complicated sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, which is one of contribute to climate change. As a new model of low-carbon ecological city development in China, sponge city has great potential of carbon emission reduction. However, limited by the lack of awareness of the importance of carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system, few studies have focused on the impact of sponge city construction on the carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system. This study proposed an accounting framework for carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system. The emission factor method was used to calculate carbon emissions. A case study was conducted in Xiamen, China, the carbon emission level of integrated urban drainage system and the carbon emission reduction effect of sponge city construction were discussed. The results show that the carbon emission from traditional city drainage system and sponge city drainage system accounts for about 3.4% and 1.7% of the city's carbon emission, respectively. Wastewater treatment and Sludge Treatment and Disposal are the main contributors to the carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system. Electricity consumption is the main contributors to the indirect carbon emissions. Adjusting the sludge disposal method has the best carbon emission reduction effect, raising the standard of wastewater treatment plant tail water will lead to an increase in carbon emissions. Compared with the traditional city drainage system, the sponge city drainage system can reduce carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system by an average of 49%, and the corresponding economic benefit was approximately 91–297 CNY/104 m3 wastewater. This study plays a positive role in understanding the carbon emission level of integrated urban drainage system and planning the low-carbon development of the city in the future.
12. Renewable hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste through a novel carbon-negative process concept
Energy, Volume 252, 1 August 2022, 124056
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is one of the prevailing negative carbon emission technologies. Ensuring a hydrogen economy is essential to achieving the carbon-neutral goal. In this regard, the present study contributed by proposing a carbon negative process for producing high purity hydrogen from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). This integrated process comprises anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis, catalytic reforming, water-gas shift, and pressure swing adsorption technologies. By focusing on Sweden, the proposed process was developed and evaluated through sensitivity analysis, mass and energy balance calculations, techno-economic assessment, and practical feasibility analysis. By employing the optimum operating conditions from the sensitivity analysis, 72.2 kg H2 and 701.47 kg negative CO2 equivalent emissions were obtained by treating 1 ton of dry OFMSW. To achieve these results, 6621.4 MJ electricity and 325 kg of steam were utilized during this process. Based on this techno-economic assessment of implementing the proposed process in Stockholm, when the negative CO2 equivalent emissions are recognized as income, the internal rate of return and the discounted payback period can be obtained as 26% and 4.3 years, respectively. Otherwise, these values will be 13% and 7.2 years.
13. Predictive models of phosphorus concentration and load in stormwater runoff from small urban residential watersheds in fall season
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 315, 1 August 2022, 115171
Urban street trees are a key part of public green infrastructure in many cities, however, leaf litter on streets is a critical biogenic source of phosphorus (P) in urban stormwater runoff during Fall. This study identified mass of street leaf litter (Mleaf) and antecedent dry days (ADD) as the top two explanatory parameters that have significant predictive power of event end-of-pipe P concentrations through multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. Mleaf and volume of runoff (Vol) were the top two key explanatory parameters of event end-of-pipe P loads. Two-predictor MLR models were developed with these explanatory parameters using a 40-storm dataset derived from six small urban residential watersheds in Wisconsin, USA, and evaluated using storms specific to each study basin. The MLR model validation results indicated sensitivity to storm composition in the datasets. Our analysis shows selected parameters can be used by environmental managers to facilitate end-of-pipe P prediction in urban areas. This information can be used to reduce the amount of P in stormwater runoff by adjusting the timing and frequency of municipal leaf collection and street cleaning programs in urban areas.
14. Urban form centrality and thermal environment: An empirical study of Chinese megacitiesAbstract
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 83, August 2022, 103955
This paper examines the response of the urban thermal environment to the centrality of urban spatial development. By investigating 27 cases of Chinese megacities, the study quantified the urban form centrality and the spatial pattern of land surface temperature (LST) within built-up areas. Specifically, urban form centrality was measured using the concentric-ring partitioning model, and the landscape metrics and Moran's I were employed to characterize the LST pattern. Then, the correlation between urban form centrality and the LST pattern was examined through ordinary least squares models and global and local bivariate Moran's I. There are three significant findings. First, the urban form centrality dominates the LST centrality along the urban-rural gradient. Second, stably concentric urban forms were inclined toward shape agglomerative and autocorrelated hot areas. Third, enhancing the intensity and reducing the stability of the urban form centrality are preferable to mitigate the urban thermal environment. Fourth, the green space should be embedded around the edge of the built-up area to increase the energy exchange surface. In general, this study has developed a nuanced understanding of the urban form and urban thermal environment and provide climate change adoption strategies for urban planning and public health policies.
15. Exploring non-linear built environment effects on the integration of free-floating bike-share and urban rail transport: A quantile regression approach
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 162, August 2022
Bike-sharing offers a convenient feeder mode for connecting to public transport, which helps to address the last-mile problem. However, few studies have examined the nuanced relationship between the built environment and the integration of free-floating bike-sharing (FFBS) with urban rail transport (URT). Drawing on weekly records of 3.12 million trips of the FFBS system in Nanjing, China, we examined the nonlinear effects of the built environment on FFBS-URT integrated use. A quantile regression method is utilised to estimate the relationships for morning and evening peaks, respectively. The results demonstrate the existence of the nonlinearity of the relationships. The effects of the built environment show variations in the significance levels and magnitudes of coefficients, depending on the quantiles. For example, the length of minor roads in station areas is strongly related to the integrated use at low quantile stations, whereas this effect is not statistically significant at medium and high quantiles. We also find that bicycle infrastructure displays more salient nonlinear effects than land-use variables and external transport facilities. In addition, temporal differences in the relationships between the built environment and the integrated use are also unveiled. Our findings help to inform dedicated and effective built environment interventions which support the planning of seamless connections between bike-sharing and urban rail transport.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Life cycle assessment and sustainable production evaluation of calcium carbide industry in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 360, 1 August 2022, 132176
With the rapid development of the calcium carbide (CaC2) industry in China, the growth in CaC2 demand is confronting an increasing pressure to reduce environmental emissions. However, the environmental impacts of CaC2 production remain poorly understood. Life cycle assessment is employed in this study to provide a comprehensive analysis of the environmental performance of CaC2 production in China. The results show that the environmental load of the semi-closed furnace process is higher than that of the closed furnace process. Electricity supported by thermal power is the most sensitive factor. A significant regional layout of CaC2 production, adjoining the coal-electricity-intensive areas, has been observed in China. The sustainable scenarios are developed to evaluate the environmental reduction potential in terms of technical progress and electric grid improvement. It is noted that increasing the proportion of renewable power in the electric grid has obvious environmental benefits for CaC2 production. The average energy conservation and emission reduction index of CaC2 production in the northwest China is 1.81–2.10 times higher than that in the southwest China. The findings of this study will give a reference for the decision-makers to take conducive emission reduction measures for the sustainable development of the CaC2 industry in China.
2. Acyl hydrazone-based reversible optical switch for reporting of cyanide ion in industrial wastewater samples
Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1262, 15 August 2022, 132968
The anion binding property of a series of easily synthesizable, isonicotine acid hydrazide based optical switches were studied in the semi-aqueous environment. Irrespective to the position of the hydrazide units, all three compounds show color change (as well as turn-off fluorescence response) with CN− ion, presumably due to hydrogen bonding triggered intramolecular charge transfer interaction. The compound with phenanthroline as the signaling unit, shows effective E Z isomerization with substantial amount of kinetically stable Z-isomer in the equilibrium, stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. This compound showed a 1:1 binding interaction with CN− ion due to its ‘U’ shaped conformation. On the other hand, compound with two isoniazid hydrazide moieties at 1,4-positions, shows 1:2 interaction with CN− ions. Further, the probe molecules were utilized for the detection of CN− ions in water samples collected from different natural resources. Low-cost portable optical kit based on reusable paper strips were designed for rapid, on-location detection purpose.
3. Peripheric sensors-based leaking source tracking in a chemical industrial park with complex obstacles
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 78, August 2022, 104828
Hazardous gas leakage can cause irreversible damage to the environment and human health. When it happens, it's necessary to find the accurate position of the leaking source efficiently and take effective measures to reduce or prevent more irreversible losses. However, source tracking in the scenario with complex obstacles faces the challenge caused by turbulent wind flow. In this paper, ethane leak scenarios with different leaking sources and environmental conditions are simulated using the Flame acceleration simulator (FLACS). Considering that sensors are often deployed at the boundaries of industrial parks for the detection of hazardous gas leakage, the concentration information of these peripheric sensors is mapped to images, which serve as inputs to a convolutional neural network (CNN) to determine the location of the leaking source and wind direction in a chemical industrial park with complex obstacles. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, fixed failure rates of the sensor along with additional meteorological conditions are considered to evaluate the performance of generalization.
4. Opportunities and challenges for the waste management in emerging and frontier countries through industrial symbiosis
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 363, 20 August 2022, 132607
The development of industrial and commercial activities in developing countries has increased the amount of waste generated by economic activities, which has generated environmental problems due to the complexity of waste management. Due to the economic, environmental, social, and sustainability implications, proper waste management has become a worldwide concern. In response to this problem, strategies have been implemented to develop clean energy, improve the efficiency of industrial resources, and recycle and reuse materials. As a result, the concept of industrial symbiosis (IS) has emerged as a strategy for waste utilization in a productive chain, based on physical exchanges of waste and materials, which finds ways to use the waste from one industry as inputs or raw materials for the other, all supported by business collaboration. This work aims to identify the opportunities and challenges that emerging and frontier countries have for waste utilization through the IS approach through a literature review. The needs that triggered the IS and how researchers materialized this approach to integrate the harnessing resources and materials in economic activities were identified. This paper identifies how emerging and frontier countries realize solid waste management through IS, and highlights opportunities for governments, researchers, and stakeholders to make effective decisions to achieve sustainable development, reduce environmental concerns and address current waste management issues. The literature review identified IS as an excellent way to dispose of and use the solid waste but also showed that emerging and frontier countries face many challenges in solid waste management due to the lack of policies focused on sustainability, lack of communication and trust among stakeholders, low use of technology in the industrial sector and technical barriers.
5. How does industrial agglomeration affect urban land use efficiency? A spatial analysis of Chinese cities
Land Use Policy, Volume 119, August 2022, 106178
While urbanization promotes both economic development and job opportunities, it also exerts enormous pressures on the urban land resource. Increasing urban land use efficiency (ULUE) is important towards achieving the sustainable development of China. This paper theoretically analyzes the impact of industrial agglomeration on ULUE and its spillover effects. Furthermore, the influence of industrial agglomeration is empirically studied by a spatial panel model based on Landsat-TM/ETM remote sensing image data and socioeconomic data of Chinese cities at prefecture-level and above for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. The following results were obtained: First, from the perspective of the underlying theoretical mechanism, industrial agglomeration can increase ULUE through labor market externalities, technology externalities, and capital externalities; moreover, spillover effects of industrial agglomeration on ULUE of neighboring cities occurred through spatial interaction among local governments and the spatial flow of production factors. Second, ULUE showed strong spatial correlation, and both specialized and diversified agglomerations exerted significant positive spillover effects on ULUE. Third, the direct effects of specialized agglomeration were significantly positive for northeastern, central, and northwestern China; the direct effects of diversified agglomeration were significantly positive for northwestern China; the indirect effects of specialized agglomeration were significantly negative for eastern China and significantly positive for northwestern and southwestern China; the indirect effects of diversified agglomeration were significantly negative for eastern China and significantly positive for northwestern China. Considering these results, China’s future industrial development should be based on sub-regional characteristics. More targeted industrial agglomeration policies are therefore needed to improve ULUE and support the economic development of the Chinese society.
6. Associations between estimates of perinatal industrial pollution exposures and intellectual disability in Utah children
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 836, 25 August 2022, 155630
While heavy metals exposure is associated with intellectual disability (ID), little is known about associations between industrial pollution and ID. The objective of this analysis is to assess associations between estimated perinatal industrial pollution exposures from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Screening Environmental Indicators Microdata and children's ID risk. We conducted a case-control study of children born in Utah from 2000 to 2008 (n = 1679). Cases were identified through the Center for Disease Control's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network's Utah site and matched with controls based on birth year, sex, and birth county. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations to examine associations between estimated perinatal industrial pollution exposures and ID risk. The fourth quartile of industrial pollution exposure was associated with increased odds of ID relative to the first (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.73, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.23–2.44) and second (OR: 1.67, CI: 1.19–2.35) quartiles. Similarly, the third quartile was associated with increased odds of ID relative to the first (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.06–2.03) and second (OR: 1.41, CI: 1.02–1.96) quartiles. Findings were robust to varied model specifications. Maternal residential exposures to industrial pollution were associated with increased ID prevalence in Utah. Since environmental correlates of ID are understudied, additional research is needed.
7. Determinants and regional contributions of industrial CO2 emissions inequality: A consumption-based perspective
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 52, Part C, August 2022, 102270
The assessment of industrial consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions could explain interregional differences in carbon dioxide emissions resulting from economic activity. This study aims to assess per capita industrial consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions inequality across provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China from 2002 to 2017. The status and main determinants of per capita industrial consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions inequality are calculated using environmentally multi-regional input–output models and the Theil index, respectively. Comparisons with accounting results from the production side are then analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) From 2002 to 2012, both per capita industrial consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions and per capita industrial production-based carbon dioxide emissions in China show an obvious upward trend, and gradually stabilize in 2015 and beyond. (2) Economic trade leads to obvious carbon leakage among Chinese provinces and industrial sectors: the consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions of the downstream sector of the industrial supply chain is less than its production-based carbon dioxide emissions, while the carbon dioxide emissions of upstream industrial sectors is on the contrary. (3) China's per capita industrial production-based carbon dioxide emissions inequality is significantly greater than consumption-based inequality, and this gap is gradually widening. Among them, between-group inequality is the key component, but the contribution of within-group inequality is gradually increasing, which tends to exceed between-group inequality. (4) Among the eight economic groups in China, per capita consumption is the main driving factor of consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions inequality, but the industrial production carbon dioxide emissions intensity is the main contributor to production-based inequality. The above findings would provide certain theoretical support and policy references for policymakers when formulating industrial carbon emissions reduction policies.
8. Evaluating the recycling efficiency of industrial water use systems in China: Basin differences and factor analysis
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 316, 15 August 2022, 115313
Numerous studies have divided industrial water use system into stages of industrial water use (IWU) and wastewater treatment (IWT) subsystems, named as the IWUWT system, yet scant studies have examined its dynamic recycling efficiency with non-discretionary variables. This paper proposes a dynamic two-stage recycling model with non-discretionary variables to compare and analyze the basin differences of the efficiency, and further reveal the driving forces of this efficiency in the Yangtze River basin and Yellow River basin. The results are as follows. (1) The average overall efficiency of the IWUWT system for the 30 provinces during 2011–2018 was 0.79 due to the bad performance of the IWT subsystem with an efficiency score of 0.74, especially for Yunnan and Guangxi. (2) The influence of economic policy uncertainty on circulating industrial water use is more significant in the south basin. (3) Economic development and water use intensity were the main drivers of IWUWT efficiency in the Yangtze River basin, while economic development and environmental consciousness were for the Yellow River basin. The results have important implications for Chinese government and different provinces to improve IWUWT efficiency by policy-making.
9. Characterization of industrial hazardous waste generation in South Korea using input-output approach
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 183, August 2022, 106365
The industrial hazardous waste (IHW) regulation has been highlighted by the Basel Convention, and the South Korean government has announced a plan for the great transition to resource circulation in 2020 to strengthen waste management. Accordingly, South Korea is faced with the challenge of efficiently managing IHW at the national level. For this, research to understand national IHW generation characteristics considering economic activities should be prioritized, but there have been few studies on this. As a first try, this paper aimed to compile the waste extended input-output table for IHW in South Korea for a systematic evaluation of waste generation from the supply and demand perspectives across all economic sectors. This study developed the waste extended input-output table using the 2018 monetary input-output table and industrial sectorial IHW generation. From a supply perspective, considering direct and indirect generation, ‘Electronic and electrical equipment’, ‘Chemical’, and ‘Basic metals’ industries were identified as the top three key sectors in direct IHW generation, with the contribution to more than half of the total amount. Meanwhile, from a demand perspective, considering domestic consumption, investment and exports, domestic consumption contributed more than 48% to the IHW generation. In comparison, net exports contributed about 15%, despite the total output from net exports being only about 6%, implying that scientific regulations and improvements in IHW management from the demand perspective are also required. The results provide insightful policy recommendations for establishing IHW management reflecting the characteristics of industrial waste generation in the national economic system.
10. A comprehensive carbon dioxide reduction framework for industrial site using pinch analysis tools with a fuel cell configuration
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132497
Removing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from existing industrial sites is essential to slow down climate change. A multipronged approach is required to reduce the carbon dioxide footprint of an existing industrial site by including carbon dioxide capture and utilisation, industrial symbiosis, heat integration and the introduction of renewable power sources. This work extends the current systematic framework for low carbon dioxide industrial site planning by proposing an alternative carbon dioxide lowering sequential framework for existing high carbon dioxide footprint industrial sites. The sequential framework will set out a four-step process using a suite of optimisation tools to guide industrial site managers to lower the carbon dioxide footprint of an existing industrial site that also features a fuel cell configuration. The framework includes a baseline study to analyse the current carbon dioxide footprint of the industrial site. The study then proposes a carbon capture and utilisation step to collate the carbon dioxide captured for chemical mineralisation for in-situ utilisation. The inclusion of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell configuration is important to the site because it generates clean carbon-neutral power to the hybrid power system while utilising methanol, a carbon dioxide mineralised product. The following steps involve using Pinch Analysis tools to optimise the energy usage and renewable power usage within the industrial site. The energy produced at the site would be integrated to reduce external utilities required by using the Total Sites Heat Integration technique. The Power Pinch Analysis technique optimises power distribution from the hybrid power system hub. The illustrative case study is a typical industrial site in the Western Cape province in South Africa. It was determined that a potential 105 ton/day of carbon dioxide could be captured from the flue gas from industries on the site. The overall heat utility saving of 79.95% of the hot utility requirements for the participating industries in the site. It was also determined that the renewable sources of power which incorporated the fuel cell configuration would be sufficient to provide carbon-neutral power to the industrial site. The rate of return on the investment of the hybrid power system is found to be 20.68%. The carbon dioxide lowering framework for existing industrial sites could provide a sustainable, impactful guide for site planners to assist the country's commitment to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
11. Soil-free cultivation of Leptochloa fusca in the urban and industrial wastewaters produced a low-lignin biomass for bioethanol production
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 52, Part C, August 2022, 102305
Biomass needed to fulfill the global demands of liquid fuels cannot be produced on arable lands. Hence, alternative sustainable approaches are required. In the present study, biomass of Leptochloa fusca was produced using industrial and urban wastewaters as sole growth media without using any soil. The biomass produced was studied for its possible utilization as a feedstock in a bioethanol biorefinery employing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation approach. Interestingly, wastewater cultivation improved the cellulose content by 33.03% and reduced the lignin content by 15.58% when compared to the land-based cultivation. This effect was more pronounced in urban wastewater cultivation which improved the pretreatment efficiency. Interestingly, a mild hydrothermal pretreatment was found to be the most suitable and eco-friendly pretreatment where 68.78 g/L and 54.21 g/L of glucose was released from UWB (urban wastewater biomass) and IWB (industrial wastewater biomass), respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass resulted in 48.64 g/L and 41.17 g/L of bioethanol titer for UWB and IWB, respectively, with a fermentation efficiency of 93%. The present study is the first study of its kind which indicated the possibility of developing cost-effective and ecofriendly biotransformation of wastewater grown biomass into liquid fuels with the concurrent possibilities of resource recovery and phytoremediation.
12. Contamination and source-specific risk analysis of soil heavy metals in a typical coal industrial city, central China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 836, 25 August 2022, 155694
Source-specific risk apportionment for soil heavy metals (HMs) is crucial for pollution mitigation and risk control in coal-mining areas. The ecological and human health risks resulting from different sources were evaluated through an integrated method that combines risk assessments with positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Thirty soil samples were collected from a typical coal-mining city in central China and analyzed for six HMs (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). The results indicate that surface soil in the study area suffered from moderate HMs pollution, especially pollution by Cd and Hg. Four potential sources of soil HMs were identified and quantified in the study area, including natural source (27.7%), traffic emissions (33.4%), agricultural practices (16.2%), and industrial activities (22.7%). The ecological risk of the study area was at moderate level, and the leading contributions in urban and suburban areas were from industrial activities and agricultural practices, respectively. The non-carcinogenic risks for adults and children were lower than the risk threshold, while the carcinogenic risks ranged between 1E−06 and 1E−04, suggesting that carcinogenic risks and hazards to human health should not be neglected. Traffic emissions and natural sources mainly contributed to the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, due to the strong non-carcinogenicity and carcinogenicity of As and Ni. These findings highlight the ecological and health risks linked to potential sources of soil HMs contamination and provide valuable information on the reduction of corresponding risks for local environmental managers.
13. Investigation of anaerobic degradability and biogas production of the starch and industrial sewage mixtures
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 52, Part A, August 2022, 102054
Today, with the increase in industrialization, the disposal of organic sludge formed after industrial activities has started to pose a serious problem. For this reason, biogas production from such organic wastes under anaerobic conditions is very valuable in terms of both sustainable environmental policy and renewable energy recovery. In this study, the effects of mono-digestion and co-digestion of starch sludge (SS), industrial sewage sludge (IS), and wastewater (CIWW) from the cardboard manufacturing industry on the biogas production potential and the changes in parameters such as dissolved COD, carbohydrates and pH were presented. In addition, a pH-controlled study was carried out with the sample with the lowest final pH level (100% SS) after anaerobic fermentation. The mixtures were prepared to contain 100%SS, 100%IS, 100%CIWW, 75%SS-25IS, 66%SS-33IS, 50%SS-50%IS, 33%SS-66IS, and 25%SS-75%IS on a dry weight basis. The amount of biogas produced by 100%SS (257 mL) was almost 5 times greater than 100%IS (56 mL). The utilization of the CIWW together with SS and IS increased the biogas production potential approximately 10 times and 2 times, respectively. The highest biogas production was achieved with the anaerobic co-digestion (ACoD) of 25%SS and 75%IS as 332 mL. Under these conditions, biogas production increased by 29% and 493%, respectively, compared to mono-digestion of the substrates. As the SS ratio in the mixture increased, the pH value decreased due to VFA accumulation in the medium. In addition, there was a decrease of approximately 11% in biogas production. The soluble COD concentration of all mixtures increased after anaerobic fermentation except 100%IS. On the contrary, carbohydrate removal was observed in all reactors except 50%SS-50%IS mixture.
14. Advanced treatment of industrial estate effluent using ozone-membrane processes based on optimized random forest model
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 48, August 2022, 102897
This study aimed to survey ozone-membrane processes for advanced treatment of secondary effluent in the industrial estate wastewater treatment plant. The performance of a pilot-scale system combining chemical treatment (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation), sand filtration, ultrafiltration, activated carbon, and reverse osmosis were evaluated without and with ozonation at three different points of the set up. Ozone at the reaction time of 30 min and concentration of 24 ppm was injected before chemical treatment, before UF and before RO. UV254, COD, TOC, TSS, TDS, pH, turbidity and ozone efficiency were evaluated. For estimating the value of UV254, a random forest (RF) model was presented. The model uses supervised learning to estimate UV254 from an input vector consisting of step, location pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and turbidity. The residue of organic matters, as UV254, that enter the membrane systems (UF and RO) were 0.125, 0.080, and 0.198 cm−1, respectively, which is desirable compared to the ozone-free state which is equal to 0.251 cm−1. Ozonation before UF, showed the lowest value (0.080 cm−1). TOC concentrations in the step of ozonation before UF were 12.1, 11.2, 10.8, 7.7, and 0.75 mg/l after SF, ozonation, UF, AC, and RO, respectively. Estimation of UV254 using RF-BO method represents MAE, MSE, and RMSE indexes equal to 0.01632, 0.00044191, and 0.021022, respectively. The results showed better efficiency of ozone injection before UF, compared to the other two cases. In the UV254 estimation section, the model shows enhanced accuracy in terms of error indexes in comparison with SVM-BO and GPR-BO methods.
15. Experiments and adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system modelling in a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor to assess industrial azadirachtin effluent quality
Bioresource Technology, Volume 358, August 2022, 127395
Experimental investigations were carried out for the treatment of industrial azadirachtin effluent in a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor continuously for 115 days in three stages at mesophilic temperature (30 − 35˚C). An adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modelling and statistical regression analysis were applied with the raw data. In the ANFIS modelling as well as in the statistical regression analysis, the operating parameters such as initial pH, influent COD, effluent COD and biogas generation (X1, X2, X3 and X4) were taken as variables and effluent BOD values as a response (Y). The average percentage error (APE) values of ANFIS modelling were 2.18, 12.29, and 0.01%, for stage-I, II and III respectively. These values indicated that ANFIS modelling performed well in all the three stages and provided more accurate results.
16. Investigation of light aromatics removal from industrial wastewater using nano metal organic framework
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Volume 249, August 2022, 104048
In this study, the adsorption of benzoic acid and phenols in the aqueous phase by MOF-Cu adsorbent was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) device was used to analyze the concentration of contaminants in the solution. Three isotherms, Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin were performed for adsorption of Benzoic Acid (BA) and Phenol contaminants. Correlation factor for adsorption isotherms were fitted into Langmuir aqueous BA and Phenol would be 99.89 and 99.98%, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption capacity MOF-Cu of BA and Phenol is 636.73 and 524.42 mg/g, respectively. In this study, high contaminant adsorption with π-π interaction and hydrogen bonding leads to the high capacity of MOFsingle bondCu. In addition, the increase in adsorption capacity of benzoic acid is due to the electronegative property of oxygen in the carbonyl group and the similarity of the carboxylic acid functional group with the adsorbent. The result shows, that at initial time adsorption, has been a non-linear trend. In addition, the first-order kinetic model is not a suitable option for fitting the experimental data of adsorption kinetics and the adsorption kinetics of BA and Phenol is very well compatible with the semi-second order with the correlation Factor being 99.7 and 99.78, respectively. Also, the equilibrium adsorption capacity in pseudo-second order kinetic for BA and Phenol is 613.5 and 523.56 mg/g respectively.
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