Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 16-2024/ International Environmental Bulletin No. 16-2024

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QLMT - Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 16-2024.

The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 16-2024, featuring the following key topics:

Về quản lý môi trường

- Mối liên hệ giữa khung lãng phí thực phẩm và biến đổi khí hậu: Làm sáng tỏ mối liên hệ giữa các tác động, dự báo và phát thải.

- Những hiểu biết mới về cơ chế phát thải bụi trong môi trường tự nhiên dựa trên một loạt quan sát thực địa.

- Giải mã sự biến đổi theo mùa của các chất gây ô nhiễm không khí với các yếu tố khí hậu: Phương pháp tiếp cận địa thống kê sử dụng mô hình hồi quy đa phương thức để giảm thiểu biến đổi khí hậu.

- Tác động của khí thải và khí tượng do con người tạo ra đối với sự khác biệt về tầng ozone vào mùa xuân ở San Antonio, Texas từ năm 2017 đến năm 2021.

- Đóng góp cho SDG7: Đánh giá vai trò của rủi ro địa chính trị, suy thoái môi trường, tiến bộ công nghệ và thuế môi trường.

- Ưu tiên nghiên cứu ô nhiễm nhựa trong hệ sinh thái carbon xanh: Tổng quan về mặt khoa học.

- Nền kinh tế số nhằm khuyến khích tiêu dùng bền vững và giảm lượng khí thải carbon.

- Các cảng và ảnh hưởng của chúng đối với ô nhiễm không khí tại địa phương và sức khỏe cộng đồng: Một phân tích toàn cầu.

- Quá trình chuyển đổi cơ cấu kinh tế toàn cầu tăng cường tác động đến sức khỏe con người liên quan đến PM2.5 trong Sáng kiến Vành đai và Con đường.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Một cuộc điều tra dựa trên đặc điểm của cây gỗ thường xanh để giảm thiểu ô nhiễm không khí liên quan đến giao thông theo thời gian.

- Sự xuất hiện của các loại kháng sinh chọn lọc ở các dòng sông đô thị ở phía tây bắc Pakistan và đánh giá nguy cơ kháng độc tố sinh thái và kháng thuốc.

- Diện tích không gian xanh đô thị giảm thiểu sự tích tụ kim loại nặng trong đất đô thị.

- Kiểm tra những thay đổi về ô nhiễm PFAS trong nước ngầm từ các bãi chôn lấp cũ trong khoảng thời gian ba năm tại địa điểm cải tạo đô thị lớn nhất của Úc.

- Phân bổ nguồn nồng độ số lượng hạt mịn và siêu mịn tại một thành phố lớn ở Đông Địa Trung Hải.

- Quá trình oxy hóa nâng cao các nhiễm sắc thể khó phân hủy trong nước thải MBR quy mô đầy đủ để tái sử dụng nước thải đô thị được xử lý bằng nước rỉ rác không thể uống được..

- Đặc điểm hình thành nấm trong cống đô thị ở các điều kiện dòng chảy khác nhau: Phân bố, trao đổi chất và khả năng gây bệnh

- Tăng cường khả năng khử độc xúc tác của hydrocarbon thơm đa vòng trong tro bay từ quá trình đốt chất thải rắn đô thị thông qua xử lý thủy nhiệt có hỗ trợ hydroxyapatite từ tính..

- Sản xuất khí mêtan từ chất thải rắn đô thị khô: Lộ trình hoàn chỉnh và ảnh hưởng của xúc tác than

- Thuốc trừ sâu sử dụng ở đô thị trong ao nước mưa và sự tích tụ của chúng trong màng sinh học.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Đặc tính và xử lý bùn dầu: Đánh giá có hệ thống.

- Cách mạng hóa việc xử lý kim loại nặng trong đất: Những đổi mới tiên tiến trong công nghệ xử lý nhà máy.

- Tác dụng gây độc thần kinh của các chất ô nhiễm kim loại nặng trong môi trường: Tập trung vào cơ chế biểu sinh.

- Mô hình hóa và đánh giá khả năng tích hợp thu giữ CO2 trong các nhà máy chuyển đổi chất thải thành năng lượng cung cấp hệ thống sưởi ấm cho khu vực.

- Việc dân cư tiếp xúc với các nhà máy lọc dầu có phải là yếu tố nguy cơ mới theo ngữ cảnh đối với bệnh tim mạch vành không?

- Hoạt tính estrogen trong các nhà máy xử lý nước thải thông qua các thử nghiệm dựa trên hiệu ứng in vitro: Hiểu biết sâu sắc về giai đoạn chiết xuất.

- Xử lý nước thải công nghiệp chế biến thực phẩm bằng màng vô cơ gốc đất sét mới: Đánh giá hiệu suất và phân tích cặn bẩn.

- Phân tích khả năng xử lý sinh khối Aspergillus flavus trong nước thải ngành nhuộm: Nghiên cứu trong ống nghiệm.

- Hệ số phát thải và hồ sơ nguồn của các hợp chất hữu cơ dễ bay hơi trong ngành sản xuất container.


Ảnh minh hoạ. ITN

The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 16-2024, featuring the following key topics: 
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT / QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG 

1. Nexus of food waste and climate change framework: Unravelling the links between impacts, projections, and emissions
Environmental Pollution, Volume 344, 1 March 2024, 123387

Abstract

This communication explores the intricate relationship between food waste and climate change, considering aspects such as impacts, projections, and emissions. It focuses on the pressing issue of waste generation and its potential consequences if current trends persist, and emphasises the importance of efficient solid waste management in improving environmental quality and fostering economic development. It also highlights the challenges faced by developing countries in waste collection and disposal, drawing comparisons with the waste utilisation methods used by developed nations. The review delves into the link between food waste and climate change, noting the paradoxical situation of food wastage against the backdrop of global hunger and malnutrition. It underscores the scientific evidence connecting food waste to climate change and its implications for food security and climate systems. Additionally, it examines the environmental burden imposed by food waste, including its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and the depletion of resources such as energy, water, and land. Besides environmental concerns, this communication also highlights the ethical and socioeconomic dimensions of food waste, discussing its influence on Sustainable Development Goals, poverty, and social inequality. The communication concludes by advocating for collective action and the development of successful mitigation strategies, technological solutions, and policy interventions to address food waste and its climate impacts. It emphasises the need for collaboration, awareness, and informed decision-making to ensure a more sustainable and equitable future.

2. New insights into dust emission mechanism in natural environments based on a series of field observations
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169888

Abstract

Most scholars have suggested that dust emission mainly depends on the bombardment of saltation particles based on wind tunnel experiments, because the cohesive forces between finer particles. However, in recent years, researchers have found that dust can be entrained directly in field. To detect the dust emission mechanism in natural environments, two types of field observations were carried out. Long-term observations were implemented on the shore of the Zu Lake, and the results show that the sediments contain large fractions of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10), which indicates that the entrainment of PM10 in sediment cannot solely depend on saltation bombardment. Short-term observations were conducted across the Desert Steppe, the Mu Us Sandy Land, and the shore of the Zu Lake, and a total of 31 plots were observed, which revealed that in most of the plots, the threshold of the friction velocities (TFVs) for PM10 entrainment was lower than for the entrainment of saltation particles, indicating that the PM10 was easier to entrain than the saltation particles. Large fractions of emitted PM10 were directly entrained, especially when the PM10 emission was continuous regardless of whether the PM10 contents of the soils were low or high, because the strong wind environment could renew the surface frequently and provided sufficient PM10 to be emitted. Based on our observations, we concluded that in natural environments, direct dust entrainment is the dominant dust emission mechanism, especially in continuous emission processes. Herein, we developed a parameterization scheme for continuous dust emission in natural environments, and this scheme can accurately simulate dust emission on different surfaces. The results of this study provide robust validation for the fact that direct dust entrainment dominates the dust emission mechanism in natural environments. In addition, the results provide valuable observation data for parameterization of dust emission.

3. Decoding seasonal variability of air pollutants with climate factors: A geostatistical approach using multimodal regression models for informed climate change mitigation
Environmental Pollution, Volume 345, 15 March 2024, 123463

Abstract

In response to changes in climatic patterns, a profound comprehension of air pollutants (AP) variability is vital for enhancing climate models and facilitating informed decision-making in nations susceptible to climate change. Earlier research primarily depended on limited models, potentially neglecting intricate relationships and not fully encapsulating associations. This study, in contrast, probed the spatiotemporal variability of airborne particles (CO, CH4, SO2, and NO2) under varying climatic conditions within a climate-sensitive nation, utilizing multiple regression models. Spatial and seasonal AP data were acquired via the Google Earth Engine platform, which indicated elevated AP concentrations in primarily urban areas. Remarkably, the average airborne particle levels were lower in 2020 than in 2019, though they escalated during winter. The study employed linear regression, Pearson's correlation (PC), Spearman rank correlation models, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models to probe the relationship between pollutant variability and climatic elements such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. Across all seasons, APs showed a negative correlation with rainfall while displaying positive correlations with temperature and humidity. The GWR and PC models produced the most reliable results from all the models employed, with the GWR model superseding the rest. Moreover, heightened aerosol levels were detected within a rainfall range of 600 mm/season, a temperature range of 25–30 °C, and humidity levels of 75 %–85 %. Overall, this study emphasizes the growing levels of APs in correlation with meteorological changes. By adopting a comprehensive approach and considering multiple factors, this research provides a more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between AP variability and climatic shifts.

4. Impacts of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology on spring ozone differences in San Antonio, Texas between 2017 and 2021
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169693

Abstract

San Antonio has been designated as ozone nonattainment under the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Ozone events in the city typically occur in two peaks, characterized by a pronounced spring peak followed by a late summer peak. Despite higher ozone levels, the spring peak has received less attention than the summer peak. To address this research gap, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-driven GEOS-Chem (WRF-GC) model to simulate San Antonio's ozone changes in the spring month of May from 2017 to 2021 and quantified the respective contributions from changes in anthropogenic emissions and meteorology. In addition to modeling, observations from the San Antonio Field Studies (SAFS), the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations (CAMS), and the spaceborne TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) are used to examine and validate changes in ozone and precursors. Results show that the simulated daytime mean surface ozone in May 2021 is 3.8 ± 0.6 ppbv lower than in May 2017, which is slightly less than the observed average differences of −5.3 ppbv at CAMS sites. The model predicted that the anthropogenic emission-induced changes contribute to a 1.4 ± 0.5 ppbv reduction in daytime ozone levels, while the meteorology-induced changes account for a 2.4 ± 0.6 ppbv reduction over 2017–2021. This suggests that meteorology plays a relatively more important role than anthropogenic emissions in explaining the spring ozone differences between the two years. We additionally identified (1) reduced NO2 and HCHO concentrations as chemical reasons, and (2) lower temperature, higher humidity, increased wind speed, and a stronger Bermuda High as meteorological reasons for lower ozone levels in 2021 compared to 2017. The quantification of the different roles of meteorology and ozone precursor concentrations helps understand the cause and variation of ozone changes in San Antonio over recent years.

5. Contributing to SDG7: Assessing the role of geopolitical risk, environmental degradation, technological progress, and environmental taxes
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 141185

Abstract

Renewable energy consumption is a crucial aspect of global sustainability efforts, particularly in light of climate change mitigation and the pursuit of energy security. Technological innovation can play a pivotal role in driving the advancement and adoption of renewable energy. However, geopolitical risks can exert profound influences on the landscape of renewable energy deployment, posing challenges to energy security and the transition to a sustainable energy future. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing new empirical evidence on how geopolitical risk, along with technological innovation, environmental taxes, and environmental degradation affect renewable energy consumption in G7 countries. The findings indicate that geopolitical risks exert a negative influence on renewable energy consumption in G7 countries, whereas environmental degradation, technological advancements, and environmental taxes have positive effects. The results further indicate that at different quantile levels, the impact of each variable on renewable energy consumption has heterogeneous characteristics. Panel Grager causality results revealed a one-way causal relationship between environmental taxes and renewable energy consumption, while other variables have a two-way causal relationship with renewable energy consumption. Based on the results, the study suggests design policies to address geopolitical tension, increased funding for research and development to drive technological innovation, and supportive regulatory frameworks that incentivize renewable energy investment and innovation to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7).

6. Prioritising plastic pollution research in blue carbon ecosystems: A scientometric overview
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169868

Abstract

The Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCEs), comprising mangroves, saltmarshes, and seagrasses, located at the land-ocean interface provide crucial ecosystem services. These ecosystems serve as a natural barrier against the transportation of plastic waste from land to the ocean, effectively intercepting and mitigating plastic pollution in the ocean. To gain insights into the current state of research, and uncover key research gaps related to plastic pollution in BCEs, this study conveyed a comprehensive overview using bibliometric, altmetric, and literature synthesis approaches. The bibliometric analysis revealed a significant increase in publications addressing plastic pollution in BCEs, particularly since 2018. Geographically, Chinese institutions have made substantial contributions to this research field compared to countries and regions with extensive BCEs and established blue carbon science programs. Furthermore, many studies have focused on mangrove ecosystems, while limited attention was given to exploring plastic pollution in saltmarsh, seagrass, and multiple ecosystems simultaneously. Through a systematic analysis, this study identified four major research themes in BCE-plastics research: a) plastic trapping by vegetated coastal ecosystems, b) microbial plastic degradation, c) ingestion of plastic by benthic organisms, and d) effects of plastic on blue carbon biogeochemistry. Upon synthesising the current knowledge in each theme, we employed a perspective lens to outline future research frameworks, specifically emphasising habitat characteristics and blue carbon biogeochemistry. Emphasising the importance of synergistic research between plastic pollution and blue carbon science, we underscore the opportunities to progress our understanding of plastic reservoirs across BCEs and their subsequent effects on blue carbon sequestration and mineralisation. Together, the outcomes of this review have overarching implications for managing plastic pollution and optimising climate mitigation outcomes through the blue carbon strategies.

7. Digital economy to encourage sustainable consumption and reduce carbon emissions
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 140867

Abstract

The study aims to empirically analyze the complex interrelationships between the digital economy, consumption upgrading, and carbon emissions across 30 Chinese provinces from 2011 to 2021. Employing spatial econometric approaches, results show that a 1 % increase in the digital economy reduces carbon emissions by 0.082–0.092 %. Findings also determine the digital economy lowers emissions in neighboring provinces. Analyses identify the advancement of the digital economy positively affects consumption upgrading, which then diminishes emissions by 0.738 units. However, this effect significantly varies based on urban versus rural divisions. Non-linear dynamics are uncovered, with the marginal effect of the digital economy intensifying from −0.023 to −0.060 once consumption upgrading surpasses an identified threshold. Promoting digital infrastructure can address disparities, foster sustainable urban consumption, and encourage innovation. The robust methodology substantiates the emissions payoffs from digital adoption and guides sustainability policymaking in other developing countries. As countries worldwide increasingly prioritize environmental sustainability, the study provides insights to leverage the digital economy and manage consumption demand levers in service of emissions mitigation goals.

8. Ports and their influence on local air pollution and public health: A global analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170099

Abstract

Despite the skyrocketing growth in recent decades of environmental studies on ports and shipping, their local health impacts remain largely under-researched. This article tackles this gap in research by statistically analyzing data on global shipping flows across nearly 5000 ports in 35 OECD countries between 2001 and 2018. The different traffic types, from containers to bulk and passengers, are analyzed jointly with data on natural conditions, air pollution, socio-economic indicators, and public health. The principal results show that port regions pollute more than non-port regions on average, while health impacts vary according to the size and specialization of the port region. Three types of port regions are clearly differentiated: industrial, intermediate, and metropolitan port regions.

9. Global economic structure transition boosts PM2.5-related human health impact in Belt and Road Initiative
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170071

Abstract

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an open platform for international cooperation proposed by China to promote common global development and prosperity. The BRI can promote the optimal allocation of resources and promote in-depth cooperation in international trade. Meanwhile, it can establish a green supply chain cooperation network to help BRI countries achieve green transformation. BRI has made a notable contribution to the rapid growth of cross-border trade. However, it has also brought environmental impacts. Given that little attention has been paid to the trade-embodied particulate matter 2.5 related human health impacts (PM2.5-HHI) throughout the BRI, this study accounts for and traces the embodied PM2.5-HHI flows between the BRI countries and non-Belt and Road Initiative (non-BRI) countries. Moreover, this study also uncovers the critical socioeconomic drivers of PM2.5-HHI changes in BRI countries during 1990–2015, based on the multi-regional input-output based structural decomposition analysis (MRIO-SDA). Results show that, firstly, BRI countries had significantly increased their economic added value by exporting products to the non-BRI countries. They also have brought PM2.5-HHI to themselves. Secondly, the final demand of BRI countries was the largest potential driving force of PM2.5-HHI of BRI countries. Thirdly, the emission intensity change of BRI is the key socioeconomic factor for reducing PM2.5-HHI. While per capita final demand level change of BRI and production structure change of non-BRI are the key socioeconomic factors for increasing PM2.5-HHI. The study's findings on the one hand can help reduce the PM2.5-HHI and impacts of environmental pollution of BRI countries from a global perspective by providing scientific support. On the other hand, they can help provide relevant policy recommendations for the green transformation of BRI and the construction of green BRI.

10. A comprehensive study on carbon emissions flows and key drivers within China's domestic and global value chains
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 169894

Abstract

Numerous studies have examined the transfer of carbon emissions in China's trade. However, few papers have established a link between China's domestic value chains (DVCs) and the global value chains (GVCs) to comprehensively trace the flows of carbon emissions within a unified framework. To address this research gap, our paper aims to connect China's DVCs with the GVCs and map the carbon emissions flows of China's eight regions in both domestic and international trade. Using structural decomposition analysis (SDA), it studies the driving factors behind change in carbon emissions transfer (CET). Our findings are as follows: Firstly, in 2018, the total carbon emissions transfer of China's eight regions amounted to 5122.0mt, a significant increase of 31.1 % compared to 2012. Notably, the carbon emissions transfer through intermediate product trade is more than four times that of the final product trade. Secondly, significant variations exist in the sources and destinations under different trade patterns, which have been largely overlooked in the existing literature. Over 70.0 % of carbon emissions resulting from final product trade are directed towards regions outside of Chinese mainland, while approximately two-thirds of carbon emissions resulting from intermediate product trade are allocated to Chinese mainland's internal regions. Thirdly, the reduction of carbon emissions transfer increment is primarily driven by the carbon intensity, while the indirect demand scale effect of Chinese mainland's internal regions emerges as the most significant driving factor, playing a substantial role in the increase of carbon emissions transfer. Additionally, the unreasonable input-output structure between regions within Chinese mainland has contributed to the rise in carbon emissions transfer. The research findings offer valuable insights and policy recommendations for the formulation of regional carbon reduction policies in China.

11. The impact of environmental protection tax reform on low-carbon total factor productivity: Evidence from China's fee-to-tax reform
Energy, Volume 290, 1 March 2024, 130216

Abstract

The low-carbon transformation is the key to China's high-quality economic development. This paper uses the panel data of 278 Chinese cities to measure low-carbon total factor productivity (LCTFP) and examines the impact of environmental protection tax (EPT) reform on LCTFP. EPT significantly promotes LCTFP. The promotion effect is more significant in the lower administrative level and resource-based cities in central and western regions. EPT promotes LCTFP through three channels including green technology innovation (GTI) effect, industrial structure upgrading effect and forcing effect. EPT has a negative spatial spillover effect on LCTFP in neighboring areas. This paper provides important empirical evidence for further advancing the EPT in China.

12. Atmospheric fate and impacts of HFO-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in East Asia
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170137

Abstract

HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is being used as refrigerant to replace HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), a potent greenhouse gas, in mobile air conditioners. However, the environmental impacts of HFO-1234yf, which is quickly and almost completely transformed to the persistent and phytotoxic trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), is of great concern. Here, we used the nested-grid chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, to assess the fate and environmental impacts of HFO-1234yf emissions from mobile air conditioners in East Asia. With total emissions of 30.3 Gg yr−1, the annual mean concentrations of HFO-1234yf in China, Japan, and South Korea were 4.00, 3.23, and 5.54 pptv (parts per trillion volume), respectively, and the annual deposition fluxes (dry plus wet) of TFA in these regions were 0.35, 0.48, and 0.53 kg km−2 yr−1, dominated by wet deposition. About 14 %, 13 % and 11 % of HFO-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA in China, Japan and South Korea, respectively, i.e. a large portion of TFA was deposited in areas outside of the emission boundary regions. The TFA characteristics in Japan and South Korea was significantly influenced by emission from China, which contributions ranged from 43 % to 94 % for the TFA concentrations and 44 % to 98 % for the TFA depositions across the four seasons. This suggests that the influence of neighboring emission sources cannot be ignored when assessing the impact of HFO-1234yf emissions in individual countries.

13. Temperature shocks as an accelerator for digital transformation of manufacturing firms: Evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 141236

Abstract

Temperature shocks can cause various adverse effects on manufacturing firms, such that the adaptation activities of manufacturing firms to temperature shocks need to be focused on. Accordingly, this paper aims to investigate whether and why temperature shocks could be an accelerator for digital transformation of manufacturing firms. Empirical results suggest that extreme heat waves can propel manufacturing firms to strengthen their digital transformation orientation, while cold waves cannot. The effect of extreme heat waves on digital transformation orientation is likely to be performance-driven, rather than pro-environmental responsibility-driven. In addition, we indicate that there exist temperature adaptation effects, such that manufacturing firms located in areas with long-term exposure to extreme temperatures are less likely to strengthen digital transformation orientation after extreme temperature shocks, relative to those located in long-term temperature comfort regions.

14. The spatial and source heterogeneity of agricultural emissions highlight necessity of tailored regional mitigation strategies
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169917

Abstract

Agriculture contributes considerable greenhouse gas emissions while feed the constantly expanding world population. The challenge of balancing food security with emissions reduction to create a mutually beneficial situation is paramount. However, assessing targeted mitigation potential for agricultural emissions remains challenging, lacking comprehensive sub-national evaluations. Here, we have meticulously compiled the agricultural greenhouse gas emission inventories of China spanning the years 2000 to 2019, employing spatial analysis techniques to identify regional characteristics. We find that the peak of China's agricultural production emissions occurred in 2015 (1.03 × 109 tCO2 equivalent), followed by a valley in 2019 (0.94 tCO2 equivalent), largely attributed to shifts in livestock-related activities. Notably, methane emissions were the most dominant greenhouse gas, the Hunan province emerged as a prominent contributor, livestock raising stood out as a major activity, and enteric fermentation ranked as the primary emission source. There were substantial differences in the emission structure and sources among the provinces. Further spatial analysis showed geographical disparities in both total emissions and per capita emissions. The west-east blocked spatial characteristics of per capita emissions at the Hu Line sides emerged. We advocate that tailored mitigation strategy focusing on specific emission sources and regions can achieve substantial progress with minimal effort.

15. Climate change and tourism: Assessing the nexus and climate-related disasters in diverse economies
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 141097

Abstract

This study explores the intricate interplay between tourism and climate change across diverse country groups: the G7, BRICS, and CIVET. It uncovers bidirectional relationships between CO2 emissions and international tourist arrivals (ITA), emphasizing the importance of region-specific environmental policies and comprehensive climate change strategies in the tourism sector. Surprisingly, the analysis reveals differing correlations between foreign direct investment (FDI) and CO2 emissions, supporting the pollution haven hypothesis in the G7 and the pollution halo effect in the BRICS and CIVET groups, necessitating tailored policies and stakeholder engagement. Additionally, the study highlights renewable energy consumption's potential to mitigate CO2 emissions, particularly in developing countries, underscoring the significance of policies promoting eco-friendly investments and technology transfer. Human Development Index (HDI) analysis unveils varying impacts, emphasizing targeted interventions in developed nations and sustainable development in developing countries. Surprising correlations between climate-related disasters (CRDs) and ITA underscore the need for improved disaster risk mitigation in emerging countries and global cooperation. In summary, this research calls for region-specific policies, sustainable tourism practices, and international collaboration to address climate change's multifaceted challenges in tourism.

16. Multi-season mobile monitoring campaign of on-road air pollution in Bengaluru, India: High-resolution mapping and estimation of quasi-emission factors
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169987

Abstract

Mobile monitoring can supplement regulatory measurements, particularly in low-income countries where stationary monitoring is sparse. Here, we report results from a ~ year-long mobile monitoring campaign of on-road concentrations of black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bengaluru, India. The study route included 150 unique kms (average: ~22 repeat measurements per monitored road segment). After cleaning the data for known instrument artifacts and sensitivities, we generated 30 m high-resolution stable ‘data only’ spatial maps of BC, UFP, and CO2 for the study route. For the urban residential areas, the mean BC levels for residential roads, arterials, and highways were ~ 10, 22, and 56 μg m−3, respectively. A similar pattern (highways being characterized by highest pollution levels) was also observed for UFP and CO2. Using the data from repeat measurements, we carried out a Monte Carlo subsampling analysis to understand the minimum number of repeat measures to generate stable maps of pollution in the city. Leveraging the simultaneous nature of the measurements, we also mapped the quasi-emission factors (QEF) of the pollutants under investigation. The current study is the first multi-season mobile monitoring exercise conducted in a low or middle -income country (LMIC) urban setting that oversampled the study route and investigated the optimum number of repeat rides required to achieve representative pollution spatial patterns characterized with high precision and low bias. Finally, the results are discussed in the context of technical aspects of the campaign, limitations, and their policy relevance for our study location and for other locations. Given the day-to-day variability in the pollution levels, the presence of dynamic and unorganized sources, and active government pollution mitigation policies, multi-year mobile measurement campaigns would help test the long-term representativeness of the current results.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ 

1. Associations between fine particulate air pollution with small-airway inflammation: A nationwide analysis in 122 Chinese cities
Environmental Pollution, Volume 344, 1 March 2024, 123330

Abstract

Alveolar nitric oxide is a non-invasive indicator of small-airway inflammation, a key pathophysiologic mechanism underlying lower respiratory diseases. However, no epidemiological studies have investigated the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on the concentration of alveolar nitric oxide (CANO). To explore the associations between PM2.5 exposure in multiple periods and CANO, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study in 122 Chinese cities between 2019 and 2021. Utilizing a satellite-based model with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km, we matched long-term, mid-term, and short-term PM2.5 exposure for 28,399 individuals based on their home addresses. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations between PM2.5 at multiple exposure windows and CANO. Stratified analyses were also performed to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups. We found that per interquartile range (IQR) unit higher in 1-year average, 1-month average, and 7-day average PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increments of 17.78% [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 12.54%, 23.26%], 8.76% (95%CI: 7.35%, 10.19%), and 4.00% (95%CI: 2.81%, 5.20%) increment in CANO, respectively. The exposure-response relationship curves consistently increased with the slope becoming statistically significant beyond 20 μg/m3. Males, children, smokers, individuals with respiratory symptoms or using inhaled corticosteroids, and those living in Southern China were more vulnerable to PM2.5 exposure. In conclusion, our study provided novel evidence that PM2.5 exposure in long-term, mid-term, and short-term periods could significantly elevate small-airway inflammation represented by CANO. Our results highlight the significance of CANO measurement as a non-invasive tool for early screening in the management of PM2.5-related inflammatory respiratory diseases.

2. A trait-based investigation into evergreen woody plants for traffic-related air pollution mitigation over time
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169713

Abstract

This study investigated influences of leaf traits on particulate matter (PM) wash-off and (re)capture (i.e., net removal) over time. Leaf samples were taken before and after three rainfall events from a range of 10 evergreen woody plants (including five different leaf types), which were positioned with an optical particle counter alongside a busy road. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify the density (no./mm2), mass (μg/cm2), and elemental composition of deposited particles. To enable leaf area comparison between scale-like leaves and other leaf types, a novel metric (FSA: foliage surface area per unit branch length) was developed, which may be utilised by future research. Vehicle-related particles constituted 15 % of total deposition, and there was a notable 50 % decrease in the proportion of tyre wear particles after rainfall. T. baccata presented the lowest proportion (11.1 %) of vehicle-related particle deposition but the most consistent performance in terms of net PM removal. Only four of the 10 plant specimens (C. japonica, C. lawsoniana, J. chinensis, and T. baccata) presented effective PM wash-off across all particle size fractions and rainfall intensities, with a generally positive relationship observed between rainfall intensity and wash-off. Mass deposition was more significantly determined by particle size than number density. Interestingly, larger particles were also less easily washed off than smaller particles. Some traits typically considered to be advantageous (e.g., greater hairiness) may in fact hinder net removal over time due to retention under rainfall. Small leaf area is one trait that may promote both accumulation and wash-off. However, FSA was found to be the most influential trait, with an inverse relationship between FSA and wash-off efficacy. This finding poses trade-offs and opportunities for green infrastructure design, which are discussed. Finally, numerous areas for future research are recommended, underlining the importance of systems approaches in developing vegetation management frameworks.

3. Occurrence of selected antibiotics in urban rivers in northwest Pakistan and assessment of ecotoxicological and antimicrobial resistance risks
Chemosphere, Volume 352, March 2024, 141357

Abstract 

Antibiotics in aquatic systems of developing countries are a growing concern, particularly with the potential ecological risks and emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In Pakistan, antibiotics are widely consumed and released untreated into rivers, however, there is little information on their occurrence and potential risks. In this study, the concentrations and risk assessment of three commonly consumed antibiotics, ciprofloxacin (CIP), amoxicillin (AMX), and cefixime (CFM) belonging to different classes of fluoroquinolone, penicillin, and cephalosporin respectively were investigated in the Kabul River and its two tributaries, Bara River and Shah Alam River in the northwest region of the country. Composite samples were collected in different sampling campaigns and analyzed using the LC-ESI-MS/MS technique. All three antibiotics were found in higher concentrations ranging from 410 to 1810 ng/L, 180–850 ng/L, and 120–600 ng/L for CIP, AMX, and CFM respectively. The Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests revealed insignificant differences in average concentrations of each antibiotic in the three rivers and the Pearson Correlation showed a significant positive correlation of CIP with both AMX and CFM indicating their similar pollution sources. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed a higher risk to algae and bacteria (P. putida) in the rivers with CIP posing a greater risk. The potential risk of antimicrobial resistance development (ARD) was higher in all the three rivers, particularly in Kabul River where maximum risk quotients (RQARD) of 28.3, 9.4 and 3.4 were noted for CIP, CFM and AMX respectively. The human health (HH) risk was insignificant, though the RQHH was higher for the lower age groups (0–3 months). In addition, the combined flux of the antibiotics in the Kabul River was estimated as 59 tons/year with CIP having a significant flux relative to the other antibiotics.

4. New insight into and characterization of DOC, DON and CDOM for urban waters in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169828

Abstract

Dissolved organic matter (DOM), usually measured as concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), plays a crucial role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles in inland waters. The aim of this study is to characterize spatial variations of DOC, DON, and C:N molar ratios and CDOM using absorption spectroscopy and further determine their relationships using pearson correlations (r) for urban waters along trophic gradients in the lower reaches of the Yellow River (YR) of China. A dataset of 122 urban water samples were collected from four typical cities during 2021–2022. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to assess the relative distribution of these urban water samples. These urban waters can be grouped into two categories: mesotrophic waters (n = 57) and eutrophic waters (n = 65) based on trophic state index (TSI) threshold value of 50. Results revealed that there were significantly higher DOC, CDOM absorption and SUVA254 along with lower S275–295 and M (t-test, p < 0.01) in eutrophic waters compared with mesotrophic waters. DOC was significantly higher than DON (p < 0.01). DOC was highly related to DON (R2 = 0.649) and COD (R2 = 0.840) suggesting they were derived from a common source. CDOM absorption a(254) was strongly correlated with DOC (R2 = 0.770) and COD (R2 = 0.800). DON can be calculated based on the strong correlations between DOC and DON and then C:N molar ratios can be further obtained for these urban waters. These results implied that CDOM optical absorption a(254) can be viewed as the best indicators of DOC and associated with water quality parameters. These findings can help us to better understand DOC, DON and CDOM of DOM coupled cycling processes for urban waters with similar climatic and hydrologic conditions on basin scale in China.

5. Urban green space area mitigates the accumulation of heavy metals in urban soils
Chemosphere, Volume 352, March 2024, 141266

Abstract 

Despite that the heavy metals in urban soils pose a threat to public health, the critical factors that influence their concentrations in urban soils are not well understood. In this study, we conducted a survey of surface soil samples from urban green spaces in Shanghai, to analyze the concentrations of the key heavy metals. The results showed that Zn was the most abundant metal with an average concentration of 122.99 mg kg−1, followed by Pb (32.72 mg kg−1) and Cd (0.23 mg kg−1). All concentrations were found to be below the risk screening values defined by the National Environmental Quality Standards for soils of development land in China (GB36600-2018), indicating no current risk in Shanghai. However, there was a clear accumulation of heavy metals, as the mean concentrations were significantly higher than the background values. Furthermore, we explored the relationships between key heavy metals with population density, GDP and green space area. Both Spearman correlation and Random Forest analysis indicated that per capita green space area (pGSA) and population density were the most crucial factors influencing the status of heavy metals in urban soils, unlike edaphic factors e.g. SOM content in farmland soils. Specifically, there was a significantly positive linear correlation between heavy metal concentrations and population density, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. However, the correlation with pGSA was found to be non-linear. The nonlinear regression analysis revealed threshold values between heavy metals concentrations and pGSA (e.g Zn 22.22 m2, Pb 24.92 m2, and Cd 25.92 m2), with a sharp reduction in heavy metal concentrations below the threshold and a slow reduction above the threshold. It suggests that an increase in per capita green space area can mitigate the accumulation of heavy metals caused by growing population density, but the effect is limited after the threshold. Our findings not only provide insights into the distribution patterns of heavy metals in the urban soils at the local scale, but also contribute to the urban greening at the global scale and offer guidance for city planning in the face of increasing population densities over the coming decades.

6. PM2.5 air quality and health gains in the quest for carbon peaking: A case study of Fujian Province, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170161

Abstract

China faces a dual challenge of improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stringent clean air actions gradually narrow the end-of-pipe (EOP) pollution control potential. Meanwhile, pursuing carbon peaking will reduce air pollution and health risks. However, the impact on air quality and health gains in individual Chinese provinces has not been assessed with a specific focus on local policies. Here, typical shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and local policies (i.e., business as usual, BAU; end-of-pipe controls, EOP; co-control mitigation, CCM) are combined to set three scenarios (i.e., BAU-SSP3, EOP-SSP4, CCM-SSP1). Under these three scenarios, we couple the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) model, an air quality model and health risk assessment methodology to evaluate the characteristics of carbon peaking in Fujian Province. PM2.5 air quality and impacts on public health are assessed, using the metric of the deaths attributable to PM2.5 pollution (DAPP). The results show that energy-related CO2 emissions will only peak before 2030 in the CCM-SSP1 scenario. In this context, air pollutant emission pathways reveal that mitigation is limited under the EOP-SSP4 scenario, necessitating further mitigation under the CCM-SSP1 scenario. The annual average PM2.5 level is projected to be 16.5 μg·m−3 in 2035 with a corresponding decrease in DAPP of 297 (95 % confidence intervals: 217–308) compared with that of 2020. Despite the significant improvements in PM2.5 air quality and health gains under the CCM-SSP1 scenario, reaching the 5 μg·m−3 target of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains difficult. Furthermore, population aging will require stronger PM2.5 mitigation to enhance health gains. This study provides a valuable reference for other developing regions to co-control air pollution and GHGs.

7. Examining changes in groundwater PFAS contamination from legacy landfills over a three-year period at Australia's largest urban renewal site
Chemosphere, Volume 352, March 2024, 141345

Abstract

Understanding groundwater contamination from legacy landfills, including fate and transport of Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), is a critical challenge for sustainable urban renewal. We analysed groundwater within and surrounding legacy landfills at Fishermans Bend for PFAS and complementary hydrochemical indicators. Sampling in 2017 revealed extensive PFAS contamination from the landfills. We re-examined concentrations after a 3-year period, to assess natural source attenuation and evolution of the contaminant plumes. Total PFAS (∑38PFAS) ranged from 88 to 973 ng/L, with relatively high concentrations (mean = 500 ng/L, n = 4) in samples directly within the waste mass of a large legacy municipal and industrial landfill (Port Melbourne Tip). Two samples on the boundary of a former construction and demolition waste landfill also had elevated PFAS concentrations (∑38PFAS = 232 and 761.5 ng/L). Down-gradient of the landfills, groundwater showed reductions in total PFAS, though still maintained considerable loads (∑PFAS = 107.5–207.5 ng/L). Long-chained PFAS showed greatest reductions relative to chloride concentrations down-gradient of the landfills, consistent with sorption as the predominant removal mechanism. The dominant mass fractions detected were similar in 2017 and 2020 (median: PFOS > PFHxS > PFHxA > PFOA); comprising the widely known, persistent ‘legacy’ PFAS. Re-sampled bores returned similar concentrations of these PFAS in 2017 and 2020 (median %RPDs of 0.0, 9.3 and 15.4, for PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS, respectively). However, there were marked increases in concentrations of certain PFAS in three bores - including a previously un-impacted background site. The results show limited attenuation of legacy landfill PFAS contamination in groundwater over a 3-year period.

8. Source apportionment of fine and ultrafine particle number concentrations in a major city of the Eastern Mediterranean
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170042

Abstract

Ultrafine particles (UFP) are recognized as an emerging pollutant able to induce serious health effects. However, quantitative information regarding the contributions of UFP sources is generally limited. This study evaluates statistical (k-means clustering) and receptor models (Positive Matrix Factorization - PMF) using particle number size distributions (PNSD), along with chemical speciation data, measured at an urban background supersite in Athens, Greece, aiming to characterize their sources. PNSD measurements (10–487 nm) were performed during three distinct periods (warm, cold, and lockdown cold). Traffic and residential biomass burning (BB) produced high UFP number concentrations (NUFP) in the cold period (+107 % compared to summer), while the lockdown restrictions reduced NUFP (−42 %). The five groups produced by cluster analysis that were common among periods were linked to high- and low-traffic, new particle formation (NPF), urban background and regional aerosols. PMF source apportionment identified 5 and 6 factors during warm and cold periods, respectively, indicating that traffic particles dominated NUFP (64–78 % in all periods), while accumulation-mode particles and volume concentrations were controlled by processed aerosol, and especially in the cold periods by BB emissions. A nucleation factor linked to NPF contributed 7–11 % to NUFP. Comparing the two cold periods (business-as-usual, lockdown), important lockdown reductions (−46 %) were seen for fresh traffic contributions to total number concentration (Ntotal). The impact of the source attributed to NPF also eroded (−41 % for Ntotal). Due to the large reduction (−47 % for Ntotal) observed also for the BB source during the lockdown (reduced wood usage due to a milder winter), the relative contributions of all sources did not change considerably (fractional reductions <7 % for Ntotal). The quantitative results, bolstered by source apportionment combining PNSD and online chemical composition measurements, indicate the potential to constrain UFP levels by regulating traffic and residential emissions, with a large upside for population exposure control.

9. Advanced oxidation of recalcitrant chromophores in full-scale MBR effluent for non-potable reuse of leachate co-treated municipal wastewater
Chemosphere, Volume 351, March 2024, 141228

Abstract

Wastewater non-potable reuse involves further processing of secondary effluent to a quality level acceptable for reuse and is a promising solution to combating water scarcity. Recalcitrant chromophores in landfill leachate challenge the water quality for non-potable reuse when leachate is co-treated with municipal wastewater. In this study, we first use multivariate statistical analysis to reveal that leachate is an important source (with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.82) of recalcitrant chromophores in the full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent. We then evaluate the removal efficacies of chromophores by chlorination, breakpoint chlorination, and the chlorination-UV/chlorine advanced oxidation treatment. Conventional chlorination and breakpoint chlorination only partially remove chromophores, leaving a colour level exceeding the standards for non-potable reuse (>20 Hazen units). We demonstrate that pre-chlorination (with an initial chlorine dosing of 20 mg/L as Cl2) followed by UV radiation (with a UV fluence of 500 mJ/cm2) effectively degraded recalcitrant chromophores (>90%). By quantifying the electron donating capacity (EDC) and radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of the reclaimed water, we demonstrate that pre-chlorination reduces EDC and RSC by up to 64%, increases UV transmittance by 32%, and increases radical yields from UV photolysis of chlorine by 1.7–2.2 times. The findings advance fundamental understanding of the alteration of dissolved coloured substances by (photo)chlorination treatment and provide implications for applying advanced oxidation processes in treating wastewater effluents towards sustainable non-potable reuse.

10. Unveiling the driving factors of urban land subsidence in Beijing, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170134

Abstract

Land subsidence, an insidious and gradual geological phenomenon, presents a latent threat to future urban development and socio-economic progress. Beijing City, renowned for its high population density, has encountered significant challenges associated with land subsidence. In this study, we leverage time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (time-series InSAR) method to analyze the spatio-temporal patterns of land subsidence in Beijing. Furthermore, we quantify the contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors to land subsidence. Our findings reveal that land subsidence primarily occurs in the plain area of Beijing, exhibiting an average rate of −5.6 mm/year (Positive values indicate uplift, while negative values indicate subsidence.). Notably, several large-scale subsidence centers are identified, with the maximum subsidence rate reaching an alarming −232.7 mm/year. The assessments indicate that geological factors, specifically fault activity, account for 33 % of the observed land subsidence, while human activities contribute to the remaining 67 %, with groundwater overexploitation playing a prominent role. The insights gained from this study provide a foundation for understanding the causative factors behind urban land subsidence and can aid in the formulation of effective intervention policies targeting this critical issue.

11. Identification of microplastics in raw and treated municipal solid waste landfill leachates in Hong Kong, China
Chemosphere, Volume 351, March 2024, 141208

Abstract

Plastics are indispensable in modern society but also pose a persistent threat to the environment. In particular, microplastics (MPs) have a substantial environmental impact on ecosystems. Municipal solid waste landfill leachates are a source of MPs, but leakage of MPs from leachates has only been reported in a few studies. As a modern city, Hong Kong has a remarkably high population density and a massive plastic waste generation. However, it depends on conventional landfilling for plastic waste management and traditional thermal ammonia stripping for leachate treatment. Yet, the MP leakage from landfill leachates in Hong Kong has not been disclosed. This is the first study that aimed to identify, quantify, and characterise MPs in raw and treated leachates, respectively, from major landfill sites in Hong Kong. The concentrations of MPs varied from 49.0 ± 24.3 to 507.6 ± 37.3 items/L among the raw leachate samples, and a potential correlation was found between the concentration of MPs in the raw leachate sample from a given landfill site and the annual leachate generation of the site. Most MPs were 100–500 μm fragments or filaments and were transparent or yellow. Regarding the polymeric materials among the identified MPs, poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyethylene were the most abundant types, comprising 45.30% and 21.37% of MPs, respectively. Interestingly, leachates treated by ammonia stripping contained higher concentrations of MPs than raw leachate samples, which demonstrated that the traditional treatment process may not be sufficient regarding the removal of emerging pollutants, such as MPs. Overall, our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the pollution of MPs in landfill leachates in Hong Kong and highlight the urgent need for adopting the consideration of MPs into the conventional mindset of waste management systems in Hong Kong.

12. Light absorption enhancement of black carbon and its impact factors during winter in a megacity of the Sichuan Basin, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 918, 25 March 2024, 170374

Abstract

Carbonaceous aerosols play a vital role in global climate patterns due to their potent light absorption capabilities. However, the light absorption enhancement effect (Eabs) of black carbon (BC) is still subject to great uncertainties due to factors such as the mixing state, coating material, and particle size distribution. In this study, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in Chengdu, a megacity in the Sichuan Basin, during the winter of 2020 and 2021. The chemical components of PM2.5 and the light absorption properties of BC were investigated. The results revealed that secondary inorganic aerosols and carbonaceous aerosols were the dominant components in PM2.5. Additionally, the aerosol filter filtration-dissolution (AFD) treatment could improve the accuracy of measuring elemental carbon (EC) through thermal/optical analysis. During winter in Chengdu, the absorption enhancement values of BC ranged between 1.56 and 2.27, depending on the absorption wavelength and the mixing state of BC and non-BC materials. The presence of internally mixed BC and non-BC materials significantly contributed to Eabs, accounting for an average of 68 % at 405 nm and 100 % at 635 nm. The thickness of the BC coating influenced Eabs, displaying an increasing-then-decreasing trend. This trend was primarily attributed to the hygroscopic growth and dehydration shrinkage of particulate matter. Nitrate, as the major component of BC coating, played a crucial role in the lensing effect and exhibited fast growth during variation in Eabs. By combining the results from PMF, we identified the secondary formation and vehicle emission as the primary contributors to Eabs. Consequently, this study can provide valuable insights into the optical parameters, which are essential for assessing the environmental quality, improving regional atmospheric conditions, and formulating effective air pollution control strategies.

13. Characteristics of fungi formation in urban sewer at different flow conditions: Distribution, metabolism, and pathogenicity
Chemosphere, Volume 351, March 2024, 141159

Abstract

Fungi are the significant components of the sewer ecology system which can consume substances and exhibit pathogenicity. However, the characteristics of fungi formation and metabolism in the complex sewer environment have not been revealed in depth. In this study, gradient flow conditions were conducted in a pilot sewer and the formation characteristics of fungi were synthetically investigated. The results showed that the low flow rate at 0.1–0.4 m/s led to the loose morphology of biofilms, while the overly loose environment did not allow fungi communities to thrive in sewer. The dense biofilms were found at the middle flow condition (0.4–0.6 m/s), and the fungal communities with degradation functions were exuberant at this condition (such as Tremellales with relative abundance of 6.18% and Talaromyces with relative abundance of 6.51%). In particular, eleven kinds of fungi with known pathogenicity of the sewer biofilm were found in this study, and it is worth noting that the abundance of pathogenic fungi at medium flow rates is significantly higher than that at other flow conditions (higher than 10 %). While, excessive flow shear force (0.8–1.2 m/s) led to biofilm shedding which caused hindering the proper generation of fungi. In summary, the pollutant transformation and pathogenic exposure conducted by fungi communities could affect the sewer management process significantly, and this study could provide research foundation for wastewater quality prediction and management of pathogenic risk in sewer systems.

14. Enhancement of catalytic detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration via magnetic hydroxyapatite-assisted hydrothermal treatment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 918, 25 March 2024, 170467

Abstract

The emission of carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) of fly ash (FA) has attracted significant attention. Hydrothermal treatment (HT) has emerged as a practical approach for degrading PAHs during MSWI of FA by utilizing magnetite (Fe3O4) as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidizing agent. In this study, as an alternative to traditional hydroxyapatite (HAP), eggshell-derived magnetic hydroxyapatite (MHAP) was synthesized and applied in the hydrothermal catalytic degradation of PAHs in MSWI FA in an H2O2 system for the first time. The degradation efficiency of the PAHs is influenced not only by H2O2 but also by the choice of hydroxyapatite. Adding HAP or MHAP during hydrothermal treatment with H2O2 substantially reduced the overall PAH concentration and toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ), superior to that without H2O2. MHAP demonstrated superior catalytic activity compared to HAP in the presence of H2O2 in the hydrothermal system. The hydrothermal detoxification of the PAHs increased with increasing MHAP dosage. By employing 0.5 mol/L H2O2 as the oxidant and 15 wt% MHAP as the catalyst, a total PAH degradation rate of 88.9 % was achieved, with a remarkable TEQ degradation rate of 98.3 %. Notably, the level of 4–6-ring PAHs, particularly benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DahA), with a TEQ of 1.0, was significantly reduced (by 69.4 % and 46.0 %, respectively). MHAP remained stable during the hydrothermal catalytic process, whereas H2O2 was effectively activated by MHAP and decomposed to produce strongly oxidizing hydroxyl (•OH) under hydrothermal conditions. •OH produced from the decomposition of H2O2 and metals on the surface of MHAP act as catalytically active centers, efficiently converting high-ring PAHs to low-ring PAHs. These findings provide valuable insights and a technological foundation for PAH detoxification in MSWI FA via hydrothermal catalytic oxidation.

15. Producing methane from dry municipal solid wastes: A complete roadmap and the influence of char catalyst
Energy, Volume 290, 1 March 2024, 130180

Abstract

The lack of standardized products is a key hindrance to the widespread commercialization of municipal solid wastes (MSW) pyrolysis technology. In this paper, a cost-effective roadmap employing pyro-gasification and methanation processes is developed, with CH4-rich gas as the target product. In this roadmap, a two-stage catalytic conversion of "MSW → syngas → CH4-rich gas” was realized using MSW char, a by-product of the pyrolysis process as the catalyst/catalyst carrier. The results showed that, in the pyro-gasification stage, a syngas yield of 1.3 L/gMSW could be obtained at 800 °C and a steam-to-MSW mass ratio of 0.4, with a H2 fraction reaching 56.6 vol%. The effective conversion of MSW to syngas was attributed to the superior catalytic activity of the MSW char. By comparing the catalytic activity and structural characteristics of the chars produced from various waste components, it could be determined that the high catalytic activity of the char required both active minerals derived from contaminated plastics and residue, and an appropriate proportion of carbon matrix from the biomass components in MSW. The gasified MSW char (G-MSWC), co-produced with the syngas, served as a carrier for the subsequent methanation catalyst. Due to the activation effect of steam during the syngas production stage, the pore structure of G-MSWC was improved and its defect density also increased. Consequently, G-MSWC demonstrated enhanced Ni–C interaction, facilitating the methanation activity. The final product from the methanation stage achieved a CH4 concentration of 52.9 vol%, and a CH4 yield of 11.25 mol/kgMSW. The above findings demonstrate the feasibility of the complete roadmap from MSW to CH4 and provide valuable guidance for decentralized MSW management based on pyrolysis technology.

16. Urban-use pesticides in stormwater ponds and their accumulation in biofilms
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 918, 25 March 2024, 170534

Abstract

Stormwater ponds frequently receive urban runoff, increasing the likelihood of pesticide contamination. Biofilms growing in surface waters of these ponds are known to accumulate a range of aquatic contaminants, paradoxically providing both water purification services and potentially posing a threat to urban wildlife. Thus, sampling biofilms in stormwater ponds may be a critical and biologically relevant tool for characterizing pesticide contamination and toxicity in urban environments. Here, we aimed to investigate pesticide occurrences at 21 stormwater ponds in Brampton, ON, one of Canada's fastest growing municipalities, and quantify their accumulation in biofilm. Over nine weeks, we collected time-integrated composite water and biofilm samples for analysis of ∼500 current-use and legacy pesticides. Thirty-two pesticide compounds were detected across both matrices, with 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, azoxystrobin, bentazon, triclopyr, and diuron having near-ubiquitous occurrences. Several compounds not typically monitored in pesticide suites (e.g., melamine and nicotine) were also detected, but only in biofilms. Overall, 56 % of analytes detected in biofilms were not found in water samples, indicating traditional pesticide monitoring practices fail to capture all exposure routes, as even when pesticides are below detection levels in water, organisms may still be exposed via dietary pathways. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 4.2 to 1275 and were not predicted by standard pesticide physicochemical properties. Monitoring biofilms provides a sensitive and comprehensive supplement to water sampling for pesticide quantification in urban areas, and identifying pesticide occurrences in stormwater could improve source-tracking efforts in the future. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving pesticide accumulation, to investigate toxicity risks associated with pesticide-contaminated biofilm, and to evaluate whether pesticide accumulation in stormwater pond biofilms represents a route through which contaminants are mobilized into the surrounding terrestrial and downstream aquatic environments.

INDUSTRIAL AREA ENVIRONMENT / MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP 

1. Characterization and treatment of oily sludge: A systematic review
Environmental Pollution, Volume 344, 1 March 2024, 123245

Abstract

Oily sludge is a prevalent hazardous waste generated in the petroleum industry, and effectively treating it remains a key challenge for the petroleum and petrochemical sectors. This paper provides an introduction to the origin, properties, and hazards of oil sludge while summarizing various treatment methods focused on reduction, recycling, and harmlessness. These methods include combustion, stabilization/solidification, oxidation and biodegradation techniques, solvent extraction, centrifugation, surfactant-enhanced oil recovery processes as well as freezing-thawing procedures. Additionally discussed are pyrolysis, microwave radiation applications along with electrokinetic method utilization for oily sludge treatment. Furthermore explored are ultrasonic radiation techniques and froth flotation approaches. These technologies have been thoroughly examined through discussions that analyze their process principles while considering influencing factors as well as advantages and disadvantages associated with each method. Based on the characteristics of oily sludge properties and treatment requirements, a selection methodology for choosing appropriate oily sludge treatment technology is proposed in this study. The development direction of processing technology has also been explored to provide guidance aimed at improving efficiency by optimizing existing processing technologies. The paper presents a comprehensive treatment method for oily sludge, ensuring that all the parameters meet the standard requirements.

2. Revolutionizing soil heavy metal remediation: Cutting-edge innovations in plant disposal technology
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 918, 25 March 2024, 170577

Abstract

Soil contamination with heavy metals has emerged as a global environmental threat, compromising agricultural productivity, ecosystem integrity, and human health. Conventional remediation techniques often fall short due to high costs, operational complexities, and environmental drawbacks. Plant-based disposal technologies, including biochar, phytometallurgy, and phrolysis, have emerged as promising solutions in this regard. Grounded in a novel experimental framework, biochar is studied for its dual role as soil amendment and metal adsorbent, while phytometallurgy is explored for its potential in resource recovery and economic benefits derived from harvested metal-rich plant biomass. Pyrolysis, in turn, is assessed for transforming contaminated biomass into value-added products, thereby minimizing waste. These plant disposal technologies create a circular model of remediation and resource utilization that holds the potential for application in large-scale soil recovery projects, development of environmentally friendly agro-industries, and advancement in sustainable waste management practices. This review mainly discussed cutting-edge plant disposal technologies—biochar application, phytometallurgy, and pyrolysis—as revolutionary approaches to soil heavy metal remediation. The efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and environmental impact of these innovative technologies are especially evaluated in comparison with traditional methods. The success of these applications could signal a paradigm shift in how we approach both environmental remediation and resource recovery, with profound implications for sustainable development and circular economy strategies.

3. Neurotoxic effects of heavy metal pollutants in the environment: Focusing on epigenetic mechanisms
Environmental Pollution, Volume 345, 15 March 2024, 123563

Abstract

The pollution of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment is a significant global environmental issue, characterized by its extensive distribution, severe contamination, and profound ecological impacts. Excessive exposure to heavy metal pollutants can damage the nervous system. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of most heavy metals are not completely understood. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable change in gene function that can influence gene and subsequent protein expression levels without altering the DNA sequence. Growing evidence indicates that heavy metals can induce neurotoxic effects by triggering epigenetic changes and disrupting the epigenome. Compared with genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are more easily reversible. Epigenetic reprogramming techniques, drugs, and certain nutrients targeting specific epigenetic mechanisms involved in gene expression regulation are emerging as potential preventive or therapeutic tools for diseases. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive overview of epigenetic modifications encompassing DNA/RNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in the nervous system, elucidating their association with various heavy metal exposures. These primarily include manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), sliver (Ag), toxic metalloids arsenic (As), and etc. The potential epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology, precision prevention, and target therapy of various neurodevelopmental disorders or different neurodegenerative diseases are emphasized. In addition, the current gaps in research and future areas of study are discussed. From a perspective on epigenetics, this review offers novel insights for prevention and treatment of neurotoxicity induced by heavy metal pollutants.

4. Photochemical loss with consequential underestimation in active VOCs and corresponding secondary pollutions in a petrochemical refinery, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 918, 25 March 2024, 170613

Abstract

The photochemical loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) significantly alters the capturing source profiles in high-reactivity VOC species and results in an underestimation of secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Utilising speciated VOC data from large petrochemical refineries, the research assesses the photochemical loss of various VOC species. Air samples from multiple sites revealed over 99 VOCs, with initial concentrations estimated via a photochemical age-based parameterisation method. The comparative analysis of initial and measured VOC values provided insights into the VOCs' photochemical degradation during transport. Findings highlight that the average photochemical loss of total VOCs (TVOCs) across different refinery process areas varied between 4.9 and 506.8 ppb, averaging 187.5 ± 128.7 ppb. Alkenes dominated the consumed VOCs at 83.1 %, followed by aromatic hydrocarbons (9.3 %), alkanes (6.1 %), and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) at 1.6 %. The average consumption-based ozone formation potential (OFP) and SOA formation potential (SOAP) were calculated at 1767.3 ± 1251.1 ppb and 2959.6 ± 2386.3 ppb, respectively. Alkenes, primarily isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and acetylene, were the most significant contributors to OFP, ranging from 19.9 % to 95.5 %. Aromatic hydrocarbons, predominantly monocyclic aromatics like toluene, xylene, styrene, and n-dodecane, were the primary contributors to SOAP, accounting for 5.0 % to 81.3 %. This research underscores the significance of considering photochemical losses in VOCs for accurate secondary pollution assessment, particularly in high-reactivity VOC species. It also provides new detection methods and accurate data for the characterization, source analysis and chemical conversion of volatile organic compounds in the petroleum refining industry.

5. Modeling and assessing the integration of Co2 capture in waste-to-energy plants delivering district heating
Energy, Volume 290, 1 March 2024, 130087

Abstract 

The waste-to-energy (WtE) sector is assuming an increasingly important role in net-zero pathways owing to its hard-to-abate emissions and its inherent potential for generating negative emissions. Thus, exploring effective strategies for capture and storage (CCS) integration with WtE plants that address the challenge posed by their coupling to district heating (DH) networks and the need to deliver both heat and electricity to customers is essential. This study presents a mass and energy balance model of a WtE plant with post-combustion capture process to assess the integrated system’s energetic feasibility. Results show that despite the extensive DH demand in heat-based WtE plants, enough excess heat is available to capture around 60% of the generated. As such, negative emissions can be achieved without external heat requirement at an efficiency reduction of 16%. By incorporating heat pumps and utilizing CCS waste heat for district heating, capture can be maximized at a total efficiency reduction as low as 36%. This is comparable to CCS in power-based WtE plants with no district heating. These findings highlight potential efficiency gains through the synergistic integration of capture and district heating, providing additional opportunities for WtE plants to contribute to the net-zero transition.

6. Is residential exposure to oil refineries a novel contextual risk factor for coronary heart disease?
Environmental Research, Volume 244, 1 March 2024, 117965

Abstract

Despite a multi-decade decrease in cardiovascular disease, geographic disparities have widened, with excess mortality concentrated within the United States (U.S.) South. Petroleum production and refining, a major contributor to climate change, is concentrated within the U.S. South and emits multiple classes of atherogenic pollutants. We investigated whether residential exposure to oil refineries could explain variation in self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence among adults in southern states for the year 2018, where the majority of oil refinery activity occurs (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma). We examined census tract-level association between oil refineries and CHD prevalence. We used a double matching method to adjust for measured and unmeasured spatial confounders: one-to-n distance matching and one-to-one generalized propensity score matching. Exposure metrics were constructed based on proximity to refineries, activities of refineries, and wind speed/direction. For all census tracts within 10 km of refineries, self-reported CHD prevalence ranged from 1.2% to 17.6%. Compared to census tracts located at ≥5 km and <10 km, one standard deviation increase in the exposure within 5 km of refineries was associated with a 0.33 (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.63) percentage point increase in the prevalence. A total of 1119.0 (123.5, 2114.2) prevalent cases or 1.6% (0.2, 3.1) of CHD prevalence in areas within 5 km from refineries were potentially explained by exposure to oil refineries. At the census tract-level, the prevalence of CHD explained by exposure to oil refineries ranged from 0.02% (0.00, 0.05) to 47.4% (5.2, 89.5). Thus, although we cannot rule out potential confounding by other personal risk factors, CHD prevalence was found to be higher in populations living nearer to oil refineries, which may suggest that exposure to oil refineries can increase CHD risk, warranting further investigation.

7. Estrogenic activity in wastewater treatment plants through in vitro effect-based assays: Insights into extraction phase
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 354, March 2024, 120412

Abstract

Effluents of wastewater treatment plants can abundantly spread endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. To improve water quality monitoring, the use of effect-based tools that measure estrogenic activity has been suggested, however their results could be influenced by different factors.

This study compared the estrogenic activity of wastewater samples extracted with two stationary phases and tested with two in vitro effect-based assays to investigate whether and how stationary phases and assays could influence biomonitoring data.

During four seasonal periods, the effluents of six WWTPs located in northern Italy were sampled. After the extraction using two different stationary phases (HLB, C18), the samples (n = 72) were tested using two effect-based assays: a gene reporter luciferase assay on mammalian cells (MELN) and yeast estrogen screen assay (YES).

The results showed that estrogenic activity of HLB extracts was significantly different from the activity of C18 extracts, suggesting that extraction phase can influence biomonitoring data. Moreover, the estrogenic activity was overall higher using gene reporter MELN assay than using YES assay, suggesting that, due to difference in cell membrane permeability and metabolic activation, the applied cell model can affect the biomonitoring results. Finally, from the comparison between the activity of the final effluent and the environmentally safe estrogenic levels in surface waters, MELN data suggested that the activity of this effluent may pose an environmental risk, while YES data showed that it should not be considered a threat to the receiving surface waters.

This study pointed out that a standardized approach is needed to assess the estrogenic activity of waters; it reported important data to select the most suitable stationary phase for samples extraction (samples extracted with C18 sorbent showed higher estradiol equivalent concentration values) and the most appropriate bioassay (gene reporter luciferase MELN assay was more sensitive than YES assay) to assess the environmental risk, thus protecting human health.

8. Treatment of food processing industries wastewaters using a new clay-based inorganic membrane: Performance evaluation and fouling analysis
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, Available online 13 March 2024, 105439

Abstract

Background

Ceramic membranes are intensely extending their applicability in wastewater treatment due to their excellent resistance to corrosive environment, anti-fouling nature, and longer lifetime. To further widen the usage of ceramic membranes despite of their high cost, development of inexpensive ceramic membranes is highly anticipated.

Method

A novel inexpensive Fuller's earth clay ceramic membrane's performance was evaluated in treating the wastewater obtained from two food processing industries, namely the dairy industry and palm oil industry, by varying the applied pressure from 0.35 – 2 bar. Furthermore, the fouling mechanism concerning the microfiltration of wastewater was identified with the help of Hermia's pore blocking models.

Significant Findings

The prepared novel Fuller's earth clay ceramic membrane significantly reduced COD content below the permissible discharge limit (< 200 mg/L) for dairy and palm oil industry wastewaters at a pressure of 0.35 bar. Notably, 98 – 99 % removal of turbidity and suspended solids was achieved. Also, the total phosphorus content was brought down below the permissible discharge limit of 5 mg/L. From fouling analysis, it was inferred that the cake filtration model appropriately fits the obtained experimental results, confirming the anti-fouling nature of the fabricated clay membrane in treating food process industries' wastewater.

9. Analysis of the remediation competence of Aspergillus flavus biomass in wastewater of the dyeing industry: An in-vitro study
Environmental Research, Available online 27 March 2024, 118705

Abstract

The dyeing industry effluent causes severe environmental pollution and threatens the native flora and fauna. The current study aimed to analyze the physicochemical parameters of dyeing industry wastewater collected in different sites (K1, E2, S3, T4, and V5), as well as the metal tolerance and decolourisation ability of Aspergillus flavus. Furthermore, the optimal biomass quantity and temperatures required for efficient bioremediation were investigated. Approximately five dyeing industry wastewater samples (K1, E2, S3, T4, and V5) were collected from various sampling stations, and the majority of the physical and chemical characteristics were discovered to be above the permissible limits. A. flavus demonstrated outstanding metal resistance to As, Cu, Cr, Zn, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Cd on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates at concentrations of up to 500 g mL−1. At 4 g L−1 concentrations, A.flavus biomass decolorized up to 11.2–46.5%. Furthermore, 35ᵒC was found to be the optimal temperature for efficient decolourisation of A.flavus biomass. The toxicity of 35ᵒC-treated wastewater on V.mungo and prawn larvae was significantly reduced. These findings indicate that the biomass of A. flavus can be used to decolorize dyeing industry wastewater.

10. Emission factors and source profiles of volatile organic compounds in container manufacturing industry
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170138

Abstract

The container manufacturing industry is the key contributor of industrial volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Emission factors (EFs) and source profiles of container manufacturing industry were comprehensively investigated basing on multiple VOCs discharge links. 17 samples were collected from a typical container manufacturing enterprise based on field measurements. The material balance method and weighted average method were applied to estimate EFs and establish VOCs source profiles. It is found that diluent use (DU) was the largest contributor (39.96 %), followed by intermediate painting spaying (IMPS), primer painting (PP), chassis painting (CP), exterior paint spaying (EPS), and interior paint spaying (IPS). EF of the container manufacturing industry (2.90 kg VOCs/ Twenty-foot Equivalent Units, TEU) was firstly estimated. EFs of six processes were further estimated. The EFs of DU, IMPS, PP, CP, EPS, and IPS were 1.22, 0.74, 0.42, 0.33, 0.20, and 0.00045 kg VOCs/TEU, respectively. EFs of six materials were further estimated. The EF of the diluent was largest (382.74 kg VOCs/t material), followed by water-based epoxy intermediate paint (132.09 kg VOCs/t material), organic-based epoxy zinc-rich priming paint (91.31 kg VOCs/t material). EFs of other paints ranged from 0.0047 to 43.01 kg VOCs/t material. These results suggest that the replacement of lower- VOCs- contained diluent and effective control from diluent consumption are dramatically conducive to VOCs reduction. Source profiles were established at the industry and individual process levels. Aromatics (77.05–98.38 %) were dominant components in all processes, followed by alkane and OVOCs. m/p-Xylene, o-xylene, and ethylbenzene were the key active species that should be prioritized for control. Overall, EFs and source profiles of the container manufacturing industry were firstly proposed, conducing to the systematic formulation of VOCs control strategies.

11. Path to the sustainable development of China's secondary lead industry: An overview of the current status of waste lead-acid battery recycling
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 105, March 2024, 107389

Abstract

Lead-acid batteries (LABs) are widely used in electric bicycles, motor vehicles, communication stations, and energy storage systems because they utilize readily available raw materials while providing stable voltage, safety and reliability, and high resource utilization. China produces a large number of waste lead-acid batteries (WLABs). However, because of the poor state of the country's collection system, China's formal recycling rate is much lower than that of developed countries and regions, posing a serious threat to the environment and human health. This study follows the entire lifecycle of WLABs within the industrial chain and social consumption system to better understand the processes of waste generation, recycling, and resource utilization. During the production stage, the consumption pattern of WLABs is similar to that of electronic waste; therefore, quantitative models are used to measure the number of WLABs that are produced based on the market supply model and Stanford model. This study elucidates the current status of WLAB recycling in China and the main challenges in this sector after reviewing recycling processes in developed countries. Moreover, based on on-the-spot investigations of recycling enterprises, this study reviews the development of lead recycling technology and clarifies the current shortcomings of China's secondary lead industry. Further, it identifies the causes for China's low formal recycling rate at each stage of the process of WLAB recycling and presents relevant policy suggestions.

12. Pathways for decarbonizing the sponge iron industries: Effect of energy balance and impact assessment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 28 March 2024, 141962

Abstract

The major share of energy during steel manufacturing is spent on iron making. The unavailability of the required quantity of recyclable steel in India has made the industries depend on sponge iron (SI) for steel manufacturing. However, 78.5% of the SI manufactured in India uses coal as an energy source. Thus, increasing the carbon footprint of steel manufactured in India by 18% compared to the global level. Hence, in this study, the potential of palm kernel shell charcoal (PKSC) to decarbonize the rotary kiln-based SI production process was analysed by framing three scenarios and comparing them with the business-as-usual (BAU). Meanwhile, the life cycle assessment of the SI production through different scenarios was done to identify the sustainability of the process. A cradle-to-gate approach was adopted, and it was found that during BAU, the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 2525 CO2eq./t SI. However, usage of PKSC (scenario 3) in the SI production process aided in achieving negative net GHG emissions of −41 kg CO2eq./t SI. Meanwhile, the net GHG emission was 1092 kg CO2eq./t SI and 1197 kg CO2eq./t when the coal used in the feed and injection end was replaced with PKSC in scenario 1 and scenario 2, respectively. Thus, the usage of the PKSC instead of coal can abet in decarbonizing the sponge iron industry thereby aiding in reducing the GHG emitted during the production of 1 t of steel in India to 2.4 t by 2030–31.

13. Integration of microgrids in chemical industries with hydrogen as a byproduct: Styrene production Case Study
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 59, 15 March 2024, Pages 947-957

Abstract

The chemical industry serves as a global economic backbone and it is an intensive consumer of conventional energy. Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to analyze energy supply solutions based on renewable energy sources in this industrial sector. Unlike other sectors, such as residential or service industries, which have been thoroughly analyzed by the scientific community, the use of renewable energies in the chemical industry remains comparatively less examined by the scientific community. This article studies the use of an energy supply system based on photovoltaic technology or a PEM fuel cell for a styrene production industry, analyzing the integration of energy storage systems such as batteries, as well as different uses for the surplus hydrogen produced by the facility. The most interesting conclusions of the article are: (1) the renewable microgrid considered is viable both technically and economically with a discounted payback period between 5.4 and 6.5 years, using batteries as an energy storage system; and (2) the use of hydrogen as energy storage system for a styrene industry is not yet a viable option from an economic point of view.

14. Adoption of digital innovation for resource efficiency and sustainability in the metal industry
Resources Policy, Volume 90, March 2024, 104719

Abstract

Digital transformation (DT) enables small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the metal industry to enhance their resource efficiency and sustainability in a volatile and competitive market. However, SMEs have a low rate of adopting digital innovations (DIs). The adoption of DIs by SMEs is influenced by different determinants that should be discussed. The objective here is to assess the determinants of SMEs’ intention to adopt DIs (IADs) in the metal industry, through an extended version of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is applied to test the hypotheses on a sample of 205 SMEs. The results indicated that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, absorptive capacity, and digital capability have positive and significant effects on IADs, explaining 52.7 % of its variance. Further, digital strategy moderates the effect of digital capability on IADs. The findings here contribute to the literature on adoption of DIs by SMEs, while also providing practical implications for policymakers and practitioners.

15. How hydrogen can decarbonize the chemical industry in China: A review based on the EIC–TER industrial assessment framework
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 60, 22 March 2024, Pages 1345-1358

Abstract

The green hydrogen chemical industry is integral to achieving carbon neutrality in China's chemical industry. The lack of systematic and in-depth potential assessment is the primary challenge facing the development of the current green hydrogen chemical industry. This study focused on the three major chemical sectors (ammonia, methanol, and refining), assessed the development trends of the upstream and downstream industries from the perspective of the entire industry chain (EIC), and evaluated the development potential of green hydrogen from the dimensions of technology, economy, and roadmap. This study proposes that the rapid transformation of the hydrogen production structure and the increase in the market size of the downstream chemical industry have created a broad space for the application of green hydrogen in the chemical industry. Two application modes of green hydrogen—raw material substitution and process substitution—have high technical feasibility. With the carbon price reaching over $40/tCO2 and the green hydrogen price around $2500/tH2 in 2035, related technologies can gradually become economical from 2035 to 2040. Related green hydrogen consumption will reach approximately 40 Mt in 2050, and hydrogen-related emissions will fall to 10 % of 2020 levels. Furthermore, this study found significant homogeneity problems with the green hydrogen chemical industry in real-world deployments, emphasizing the need to strengthen top-level design in policymaking.

16. How does environmental legislation affect enterprise investment preferences? A quasi-natural experiment based on China's new environmental protection law
Economic Analysis and Policy, Volume 81, March 2024, Pages 834-855

Abstract

China's New Environmental Protection Law (NEPL) represents a significant shift from the traditional administration to environmental legalization. Polluting enterprises face more pronounced contradictions between short-term environmental compliance and long-term development. Therefore, based on the CNRDS and CSMAR databases, this paper uses the 2015 NEPL as a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the micro-effects and mechanisms of environmental legislation on firms' investment preferences and environmental performance. The main findings of this paper are as follows. (1) The implementation of the NEPL effectively promotes the key pollutant-discharge enterprises (PDEs) to increase similar financial and environmental investment, and furthermore, the endogenous financing attributes of short-term financial investments can also provide financing for long-term environmental investment. This is due to the "reservoir" motive and the improvement in the executives' environmental awareness and green attention. (2) The NEPL exhibits heterogeneous policy effects. The key PDEs with political connections are more concerned about environmental management and investment. However, the NEPL's positive impact on environmental investment is weakened in regions with high levels of environmental justice. (3) A shift in the key PDEs' investment structure triggers a series of economic and environmental effects, such as increasing their risk-taking capacity, reducing environmental uncertainty, and significantly improving green patents. This paper provides policy implications for the process of environmental legalization in China and other developing countries.

CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam

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Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 22-2024.

Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 21-2024.

Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 20-2024.

Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 19-2024.

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