Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 10-2024/ International Environmental Bulletin No. 10-2024

  • Cập nhật: Thứ hai, 11/3/2024 | 8:53:52 AM

QLMT - Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 10-2024.

The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 10-2024, featuring the following key topics:

Về quản lý môi trường

- Xác định các điểm kết nối then chốt trong bối cảnh biến đổi khí hậu: Ý nghĩa đối với việc bảo tồn và quản lý các hệ thống ven sông.

- Độc tính tiềm tàng của hạt vi nhựa đối với sức khỏe con người.

- Khuôn khổ mới cho quản lý phân vùng không gian lãnh thổ đa cấp độ: Tích hợp cân bằng cung cầu dịch vụ hệ sinh thái và cơ cấu sử dụng đất.

- Màng bắt gốc tự do đầu dò huỳnh quang dựa trên Furan: Phân tích thành phần gốc RO2 và cơ chế biến đổi trong khí quyển đô thị.

- Ứng dụng học máy vào quản lý tài nguyên nước: Đánh giá hiện trạng và cơ hội trong tương lai.

- Những tác động toàn diện của khí hậu, các biện pháp quản lý/sử dụng đất và quản lý đối với dòng chảy và sự biến đổi dinh dưỡng ở lưu vực sông đang đô thị hóa nhanh chóng.

- Quy định về môi trường: Tăng cường hay tạo gánh nặng cho phúc lợi xã hội và sức khỏe cộng đồng?
- Đô thị hóa làm tăng nguy cơ mất phốt pho trong đất cát của hệ sinh thái nhiệt đới.

- Sử dụng chất thải đô thị để thay thế cho tổng hợp tự nhiên trong bối cảnh nền kinh tế tuần hoàn.

- Những tiến bộ gần đây trong chiến lược khắc phục nhằm giảm thiểu tác động của các chất ô nhiễm mới xuất hiện trong nước và đảm bảo tính bền vững của môi trường.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Hiệu quả làm mát cục bộ lớn hơn của cây xanh trên các không gian xanh đô thị phân bổ trên toàn cầu. 

- Phân tích kinh tế kỹ thuật xử lý chất thải rắn đô thị cho hệ thống nhiều thế hệ.

- Mô hình ô tô di động kết hợp với mô hình CNN-LSTM và PLUS phân vùng để mô phỏng biến đổi đất đô thị.

- Tiết lộ tình trạng ô nhiễm vi nhựa lơ lửng trong khí quyển trong cảnh quan đô thị ven biển.

- Rủi ro khí hậu bị bỏ qua: Hiệu ứng giá cả của ngập úng đô thị.

- Mở rộng trí tưởng tượng về khí hậu đô thị: Đánh giá các hành động giảm nhẹ ở 800 chính quyền địa phương.

- Định lượng tác động trực tiếp và gián tiếp của ngập úng đô thị bằng phân tích đầu vào-đầu ra.

- Cân bằng cung cầu không gian về sức khỏe và hậu quả sự cố đối với đường ống thoát nước đô thị.

- Quá trình cacbonat hóa và khử clo hiệu quả cao bằng cách sử dụng bong bóng micro-nano khí thải để xử lý trước tro bay đốt chất thải rắn đô thị và khả năng ứng dụng của nó đối với vật liệu xi măng sulfoaluminate.

- Nhiên liệu nấu ăn gây ô nhiễm hộ gia đình và năng lực nội tại của nhóm dân số lớn tuổi: Một phân tích hài hòa trên toàn quốc ở Ấn Độ và Trung Quốc.

- Sự biến đổi không gian và thời gian và sự vận chuyển liên tục của thủy ngân đặc biệt trong khí quyển giữa Cảng Cao Hùng và các khu đô thị lân cận.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Sản xuất điện bền vững từ nước thải công nghiệp hóa dầu sử dụng pin nhiên liệu vi sinh vật hai buồng.

- Xem xét lại việc sử dụng đất công nghiệp ở các thành phố rỉ sét của Mỹ theo hướng bền vững dựa trên mô hình cấp khối.

- Xác định crom hóa trị sáu trong vật liệu dệt sử dụng hàng ngày bằng sắc ký ion và đánh giá rủi ro qua da.

- Ứng dụng công nghệ xử lý nước thải axit bẩn trong công nghiệp luyện kim loại màu: Nhìn lại và triển vọng.

- Huy động phế thải dệt may để thu hồi các sản phẩm và năng lượng có giá trị gia tăng cao cho quá trình chuyển đổi sang nền kinh tế tuần hoàn.

- Tác động của sự phát triển kinh tế của các ngành công nghiệp sơ cấp và thứ cấp đến lượng khí thải CO2 quốc gia: Trường hợp các khu vực của Nga.

- Tác động của luyện kim hydro đối với ngành công nghiệp sắt thép hiện nay: Phân tích toàn diện về dòng phát thải vật liệu-dị ứng-phát thải.

- Kiến trúc Pyto của các hạt nano lưỡng kim Ag, Au và Ag–Au sử dụng chiết xuất vỏ cam thải để cho phép phân hủy thuốc nhuộm đỏ Congo gây ung thư.

- Tích hợp than sinh học và cộng đồng vi sinh vật để khử độc nước thải công nghiệp có chứa thuốc giảm đau.

- Chế tạo than sinh học trung tính từ thùng carton thải: Cải thiện khả năng hấp phụ đa vị trí của nước thải thuốc nhuộm và cơ chế nghiên cứu.

- Tích hợp than sinh học vào hệ thống nhiên liệu của ngành sắt thép: tiềm năng giảm phát thải carbon và phân tích kinh tế.


Xác định các điểm kết nối then chốt trong bối cảnh biến đổi khí hậu có ý nghĩa lớn đối với việc bảo tồn và quản lý các hệ thống ven sông. 

Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 10-2024, featuring the following key topics:
 
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT / QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG 

1. Effectiveness and driving mechanism of ecological restoration efforts in China from 2009 to 2019
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 910, 1 February 2024, 168676

Abstract

Over the past decades, China's rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to serious ecological concerns. To combat ecological degradation and promote ecosystem sustainability, China has made substantial investments in ecological restoration in recent decades. Nevertheless, a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness and driving mechanisms of these efforts are still lacking. Therefore, this study aims to bridge this gap by employing national land-use survey data to evaluate the effectiveness and driving mechanisms of China's ecological restoration efforts during 2009-2019, with a specific focus on ecological land preservation, land use structure, and their contribution to ecosystem services. Additionally, the Geodetector model was used to detect potential influencing factors and driving mechanisms of these efforts. The results of this study revealed that: (1) Between 2009 and 2019, a total of 585,492.61 km2 of non-ecological land was successfully transformed into ecological land through various ecological restoration efforts. Most of these areas were previously unused or cultivated land. (2) Forest and grass plantations were the major ecological restoration efforts in China, accounting for 47.35% and 41.91% of the total restored ecological land, respectively. Grassland restoration clustered northwest of the Hu Line, while forest restoration concentrated mainly to the southeast. Water and wetlands restoration were mainly distributed around China's major rivers, such as the Yangtze River and Yellow River. (3) China's ecological restoration efforts contributed to a 2.53 trillion CNY yuan increase in ecosystem service value during 2009-2019, with over 65% of the increase attributed to ecosystem regulating services. (4) China's ecological restoration efforts were mainly influenced by anthropogenic factors, such as population, land use, and urbanization, while the non-linearly enhanced interaction between natural and other factors also deserves attention. China should balance urban expansion, agricultural development, and ecological preservation, aligning restoration with socioeconomic trends while establishing effective inter-regional ecological compensation mechanisms.

2. Study on regional carbon quota allocation at provincial level in China from the perspective of carbon peak
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119720

Abstract

This paper constructs a carbon quota allocation index that takes into account equity, efficiency and ecological construction, and calculates carbon emissions and energy consumption data in important periods based on the expected carbon emission targets and economic and social development indicators of the Chinese government. Based on the calculated carbon emissions, the zero-sum game data Envelopment model (ZSG-DEA) is used to discuss the initial allocation of regional quotas and the optimal carbon quota scheme. The results show that:(1) there is a large gap between the optimal carbon quota and the initial carbon quota allocation in Shandong, Guangdong, Jiangsu and other provinces in 2025, and the implementation of emission reduction measures should be accelerated. (2) By 2030, the final allocation of Beijing, Tianjin, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Shanghai, Ningxia, Liaoning and Xinjiang will be positive. The provinces with negative final allocation should carry out the work of carbon peak as soon as possible to avoid increasing the pressure of emission reduction in the future. (3) The central region faces greater pressure of emission reduction, while the western region can accept the transfer of carbon emissions from other regions over time. The research conclusions have important policy implications for establishing a fair and effective carbon quota allocation mechanism, achieving the national total carbon emission control target, stimulating the vitality of the unified carbon market, and promoting regional coordinated emission reduction.

3. Occurrence, influencing factors and sources of atmospheric microplastics in peri-urban farmland ecosystems of Beijing, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 168834

Abstract

Atmosphere is an important component of the microplastics (MPs) cycle. However, studies on atmospheric MPs in peri-urban farmland ecosystems are limited. Herein, the occurrence, influencing factors and geographic sources of atmospheric MPs in peri-urban farmland ecosystems have been analyzed. The average deposition flux of atmospheric MPs was found to be 167.09 ± 92.03 item·m−2·d−1. Around 68 % MPs had particle size <1000 μm, while the main colors of MPs were black (40.71 %) and blue (20.64 %). Approximately 91 % MPs were fibers, while polyethylene terephthalate (49 %) and rayon (36.93 %) were observed as the major microplastic types. The main factors influencing the atmospheric deposition of MPs were gross domestic product (GDP), population density, air pressure, and wind direction. Deposition fluxes exhibited positive correlations with GDP, population density and air pressure, and negative correlations with wind direction. Combined with the backward trajectory model, MPs were mainly found to be originated from the southeast in September and from the northwest in October–February. The study of atmospheric MPs in farmland ecosystems in peri-urban areas is important for the protection of ecological environment, prevention of human diseases and control of MPs pollution.

4. Identifying keystone connectivity spots under climate change: Implications to conservation and management of riparian systems
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119782

Abstract

Climate change has intensified the effects of habitat fragmentation in many ecosystems, particularly exacerbated in riparian habitats. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify keystone connectivity spots to ensure long-term conservation and sustainable management of riparian systems as they play a crucial role for landscape connectivity. This paper aims to identify critical areas for connectivity under two contrasting climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 models) for the years 2030, 2050 and 2100 and to group these critical areas by similar connectivity in keystone spots for sustainable management. A set of analyses comprising climate analysis, drainage network analysis, configuration of potential riparian habitats, riparian habitat connectivity, data clustering, and statistical analysis within a Spanish river basin (NW Spain) were applied. The node and link connectivity would be reduced under the two climate change scenarios (≈2.5 % and 4.4 % reduction, respectively), intensifying riparian habitat fragmentation. Furthermore, 51 different clusters (critical areas) were obtained and classified in five classes (keystone spots) with similar connectivity across the different scenarios of climate change. Each keystone spot obtained by hierarchical classification was associated with one or more climate scenarios. One of these keystone spots was especially susceptible to the worst climate change scenario. Key riparian connectivity spots will be crucial for the management and restoration of highly threatened riparian systems and to ensure long-term biodiversity conservation.

5. The potential toxicity of microplastics on human health
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 168946

Abstract

Microplastics are plastic particles, films, and fibers with a diameter of < 5 mm. Given their long-standing existence in the environment and terrible increase in annual emissions, concerns were raised about the potential health risk of microplastics on human beings. In particular, the increased consumption of masks during the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically increased human contact with microplastics. To date, the emergence of microplastics in the human body, such as feces, blood, placenta, lower airway, and lungs, has been reported. Related toxicological investigations of microplastics were gradually increased. To comprehensively illuminate the interplay of microplastic exposure and human health, we systematically reviewed the updated toxicological data of microplastics and summarized their mode of action, adverse effects, and toxic mechanisms. The emerging critical issues in the current toxicological investigations were proposed and discussed. Our work would facilitate a better understanding of MPs-induced health hazards for toxicological evaluation and provide helpful information for regulatory decisions.

6. A new framework for multi-level territorial spatial zoning management: Integrating ecosystem services supply-demand balance and land use structure
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 441, 15 February 2024, 141053

Abstract

The supply-demand balance of ecosystem services (ESs balance) is a research hotspot. Previous studies have explored spatio-temporal patterns of ESs supply, demand, and balance, but have neglected the inherent relationship between ESs balance and land use structure, which impedes the development of direct and effective land use regulatory strategies. This study assessed the balance of six ESs (i.e., timber production (TP), food production (FP), water retention (WR), carbon sequestration (CS), soil retention (SR), and habitat quality (HQ)) by the index of ecological relative surplus ratio (ERSR) at 30 m × 30 m pixel scale, and identified ESs balance bundles (ESBBs) in Lancang County, a typical mountainous region in China. It also defined the land use proportion thresholds for achieving different objectives of ESs balance, and proposed land use regulatory strategies accordingly. The results showed that: (1) From 2010 to 2020, the supply of six ESs exceeded the demand in Lancang County, and the surplus of different ESs changed over time. ESs balance also exhibited spatial heterogeneity, and ESs imbalance aggravated in some areas. Three ESBBs were divided as FP-WR-SR integrated bundle, TP–CS–HQ integrated bundle, and Integrated promotion bundle at the township scale. (2) Cropland, built-up land, and forest were the key land use types that affected the balance of the six ESs. Moreover, the land use proportion thresholds under the objectives of "ERSR ≥0″ and "ERSR ≥1″ were determined, and they differed by ES type and objective. (3) For each ESBB, ESs comprehensive management zones were delineated at the multi-scales of the township and 1 km × 1 km grid. Regulatory strategies oriented by "reducing/increasing/maintaining the proportion of certain land use types” were suggested under different objectives. This study developed a framework for "multi-level zoning management of ‘county – ESs balance bundle – township – grid’ for promoting ESs balance by land use structure regulation” that aligned with China's territorial spatial planning hierarchy at the county and township levels. It could inform the design of a scientific and orderly territorial spatial pattern with a high-level ESs balance at various scales (e.g., counties, agglomerations, provinces, and cities) and regions. However, this framework could not be directly applied to land use spatial optimization at pixel scale. Further research is needed to integrate land use simulation models, such as the mixed-cell cellular automata (MCCA) model, to achieve ESs balance objectives at finer scales.

7. Furan-based fluorescent probe free radical capture membrane: Analysis of RO2 radical composition and transformation mechanism in urban atmosphere
Chemosphere, Volume 349, February 2024, 140916

Abstract

Peroxyl radicals (RO2) are important components of atmospheric radical cycling and generation, but their formation, distribution and evolution mechanisms in the atmospheric environment have not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel atmospheric RO2 radical trapping membrane that can trap low carbon number (Rc ≤ 5) RO2 radicals and identify their R-group structures by fluorescence spectroscopy and chromatography. We also analyzed the composition and evolution mechanism of RO2 species under different meteorological conditions in the atmospheric environment of Lanzhou, China, to provide scientific support for the treatment and research of atmospheric chemical pollution.

8. Applications of machine learning to water resources management: A review of present status and future opportunities
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 441, 15 February 2024, 140715

Abstract

Water is the most valuable natural resource on earth that plays a critical role in the socio-economic development of humans worldwide. Water is used for various purposes, including, but not limited to, drinking, recreation, irrigation, and hydropower production. The expected population growth at a global scale, coupled with the predicted climate change-induced impacts, warrants the need for proactive and effective management of water resources. Over the recent decades, machine learning tools have been widely applied to various water resources management-related fields and have often shown promising results. Despite the publication of several review articles on machine learning applications in water-related fields, this review paper presents for the first time a comprehensive review of machine learning techniques applied to water resources management, focusing on the most recent achievements. The study examines the potential for advanced machine learning techniques to improve decision support systems in the various sectors within the realm of water resources management, which includes groundwater management, streamflow forecasting, water distribution systems, water quality and wastewater treatment, water demand and consumption, hydropower and marine energy, water drainage systems, and flood management and defence. This study provides an overview of the state-of-the-art machine learning approaches to the water industry and how they can be used to ensure water supply sustainability, quality, and flood and drought mitigation. This review covers the most recent related studies to provide the most recent snapshot of machine learning applications in the water industry. Overall, LSTM networks have been proven to exhibit reliable performance, often outperforming ANN models, traditional machine learning models, and established physics-based models. Hybrid ML techniques have exhibited great forecasting accuracy across all water-related fields, often showing superior computational power over traditional ANNs architectures. In addition to purely data-driven models, physical-based hybrid models have also been developed to improve prediction performance. These efforts further demonstrate that Machine learning can be a powerful practical tool for water resources management. It provides insights, predictions, and optimisation capabilities to help enhance sustainable water use and management and improve socio-economic development, healthy ecosystems and human existence.

9. Comprehensive effects of climate, land use/cover and management practices on runoff and nutrient variations in a rapidly urbanizing watershed
Chemosphere, Volume 349, February 2024, 140934

Abstract

As non-point source pollution has emerged as a significant global and regional concern, climate change (CC), land use/cover transformation (LUCT), and management practices (MP) play vital roles in addressing nutrient pollution. However, current studies lack comprehensive quantification and consistent conclusions on the response to these factors, especially for management practices. To quantify and elucidate the impact of representative environmental factors on rapidly urbanizing regions, this study focused on the Shenzhen River, which serves as the most typical urbanizing watershed. Using a process-based distributed hydrological model with a factor-controlled simulation method, we identified significant differences in nutrient concentrations and the impacts of climate variability, land use/cover changes, and anthropogenic interventions from 2003 to 2020. Moreover, effective measures greatly improved water quality in the Shenzhen River during study period, as evident from trend and cluster analysis. However, ecological water supplements implemented since 2016 have led to a slight reduction in simulated runoff performance, and CC may amplify the synergistic effects of precipitation and temperature on the river system. While the implemented practices have been effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads, strong TN pollution control is still needed in rapidly urbanizing areas due to the results of land use/cover type changes. Our findings emphasize the intricate interplay among CC, LUCT, and MP in shaping water quality and hydrological processes in rapidly urbanizing watersheds, and clarify the independent effects of these factors on nutrients. This study contributes to a better understanding of the complex interactions between multiple factors in watersheds and provides guidance for sustainable watershed management.

10. Environmental regulation: An enhancing or burden for social welfare and public health?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 441, 15 February 2024, 140985

Abstract

Public health has been associated with environmental pollution and regulations. With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, the real effects of environmental regulations and mechanisms on public health remain uncertain. We develop a theoretical model of individual utility and investigate how environmental regulations affect public health from a social welfare perspective. By using the panel data from the China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) in 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019, we find that environmental regulations positively influence public health. This positive effect is attributable to a boost in employment and an improvement in individual happiness. Furthermore, the heterogeneity analysis reveals that environmental regulations are more likely to affect groups with low education, middle-aged, living in eastern China and rural areas. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of the heterogeneous effects of environmental regulation on health and offer a new perspective for policy-makers to balance social welfare with environmentally sustainable development.

11. Urbanization increases the risk of phosphorus loss in sandy soils of tropical ecosystems
Chemosphere, Volume 349, February 2024, 140937

Abstract

Phosphorus (P) is naturally present in soils. However, urbanization can promote additional inputs of P into the soil that lead to saturation of the binding sites exceeding the maximum sorption capacity. Soils saturated with P act as important diffuse sources of pollution of water resources. The flow of P from the soil to aquatic ecosystems is an aggravating factor for water scarcity, especially in the semiarid region. Knowing phosphorus dynamics in the soil is essential to protect water quality and ensure its multiple uses. In this paper, a total of fifty soil samples, twenty-five from natural soils and twenty-five from urban soils, were evaluated for the effect of urbanization on P sorption characteristics and their relationship with the physical and chemical attributes of the soil. The soil samples were characterized physically and chemically, and the P sorption characteristics were obtained from the adjustment of Langmuir and Freundlich equations by nonlinear regression. Urbanization results in increased soil P saturation and reduced P sorption capacity. Our results show that the sandy texture of the soils studied had a standardizing effect on the soil's physical properties, maintaining, even after urbanization, the physical quality similar to natural soil. In contrast, pH (in water and KCl), base saturation, sodium saturation, potential acidity, exchangeable Al3+, exchangeable Mg2+, available P, and P-rem are valuable indicators in the segregation between natural and urban soils. The reduction of P sorption capacity in urban soils increases the risks related to P loads in aquatic ecosystems that experience urban expansion worldwide. These data serve as a basis for decision-making regarding the appropriate soil monitoring and management of urban expansion areas in watersheds to control P flow to aquatic systems.

12. Tracking household carbon inequality in China: Composition effect or coefficient effect?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119743

Abstract

Reasonable allocation of carbon emission reduction tasks requires addressing household carbon inequality. This study aims to track characteristics of household carbon inequality in China using the recentered influence function (RIF) based on the Household Tracking Survey data in 2018 and the multi-regional input–output table. The Oaxaca–Binder decomposition based on RIF further decomposes household carbon inequality based on spatial heterogeneity into composition and coefficient effects. The results indicate that (1) household carbon inequality is widespread in China, generally close to the 60/30 distribution, favouring high-income families. Furthermore, (2) increases in income, wealth and economic burden and declining marriage rate promote household carbon inequality, which is suppressed by the development of education and the Internet and the increase in car ownership. Additionally, (3) the carbon inequality of urban households is smaller than that of rural households, which is contributed by the composition effects of family size, education, car ownership, Internet development and the coefficient effect of income and housing. Finally, (4) under the composition effect of family size and the coefficient effect of income, the household carbon inequality in the eastern region is smaller than in the central and western regions.

13. Municipal waste utilization as a substitute for natural aggregate in the light of the circular economy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 440, 10 February 2024, 140907

Abstract

The presented study investigated the possible utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) < 10 mm as a recycled aggregate for the production of new lightweight ceramic products. The percentage of municipal waste <10 mm was in the order of 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 % to produce M-15, M-20, M-25, and M-30 compositions, respectively. Clay, tailings, and glass were also added to the waste part in different proportions. Qualitative tests of the waste samples were performed using XRF (WDX) spectroscopy, which showed the possible uses and binding in the proposed process. The obtained lightweight aggregate was subjected to tests such as bulk density in the loose, water absorption, and compressive strength. Furthermore, we evaluated the environmental impacts of the various compositions of individual materials based on the life cycle assessment. The results showed that the average water absorption of the materials was in the range of 12.34 %–14.07 %, while the average compressive strength ranged from 9.69 MPa to 17.16 MPa. XRD analysis showed that the samples mainly consist of two different polymorph of SiO2 cristobalite, SiO2 quartz and rhomboidal hematite Fe2O3 iron oxide. The lightweight ceramics specimen of M-25 with 50 % clay, 15 % tailings, and 10 % glass as aggregates displayed the best properties. Electron microscopy images show that the number of "macropores" increases as the amount of street cleaning waste in the material increases. Based on the life cycle assessment results for environmental impact categories, emissions, and material and energy use, M-25 exhibited the most optimal composition with the least environmental impact as new material.

14. Recent advances in remediation strategies for mitigating the impacts of emerging pollutants in water and ensuring environmental sustainability
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119674

Abstract

The proliferation of emerging pollutants (EPs), encompassing a range of substances such as phthalates, phenolics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, surfactants, and disinfection agents, has become a significant global concern due to their potential risks to the environment and human well-being. Over the past two decades, numerous research studies have investigated the presence of EPs in wastewater and aquatic ecosystems, with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) categorizing these newly introduced chemical compounds as emerging contaminants due to their poorly understood impact. EPs have been linked to adverse health effects in humans, including genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, as well as conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive abnormalities, often associated with their estrogenic action. Microalgae have shown promise in the detoxification of both inorganic and organic contaminants, and several large-scale microalgal systems for wastewater treatment have been developed. However, the progress of algal bioremediation can be influenced by accidental contaminations and operational challenges encountered in pilot-scale research. Microalgae employ various processes, such as bioadsorption, biouptake, and biodegradation, to effectively remediate EPs. During microalgal biodegradation, complex chemical compounds are transformed into simpler substances through catalytic metabolic degradation. Integrating algal bioremediation with existing treatment methodologies offers a viable approach for efficiently eliminating EPs from wastewater. This review focuses on the use of algal-based biological remediation processes for wastewater treatment, the environmental impacts of EPs, and the challenges associated with implementing algal bioremediation systems to effectively remove emerging pollutants.

15. Catalyzing net-zero carbon strategies: Enhancing CO2 flux Prediction from underground coal fires using optimized machine learning models
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 441, 15 February 2024, 141043

Abstract

Underground coal fires release substantial carbon dioxide (CO2), posing significant environmental and health threats. Accurate prediction of surface CO2 emissions in these areas is crucial for understanding combustion zones and contributes to the global net zero carbon strategy. Traditional data analysis methods have been inadequate for CO2 flux prediction, highlighting the necessity for advanced machine learning (ML) techniques. This study introduces four optimized ML models—General Regression Neural Networks (GRNNs) and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNNs) coupled with Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA)—to rapidly predict CO2 flux in areas affected by underground coal fires. Utilizing 223 field test samples, these models consider six key variables: soil temperature at 30 cm depth (ST-30), ambient pressure/temperature/humidity (AP/AT/AH), soil water content (SWC), and wind speed (A-WS). The results underscore the superior predictive accuracy of the GRNN model, with an RMSE of 0.074 and an R2 of 0.9995. Sensitivity analysis reveals A-WS and ST-30 as the most influential factors. Compared to traditional methods, these ML models demonstrate enhanced accuracy and efficiency, marking a significant advancement in the field. The study's findings have broader applications beyond underground coal fires, suggesting potential for these ML models in other environmental monitoring contexts, such as emissions tracking in urban areas or integration with satellite data for global environmental assessment. This methodology represents a pivotal step in environmental management and monitoring, offering scalable and adaptable solutions for various ecological challenges. By rapidly and accurately estimating CO2 flux from underground coal fires, this study contributes significantly to achieving the global net zero carbon target and sets a new benchmark in environmental ML applications.

16. Increasing mine waste will induce land cover change that results in ecological degradation and human displacement
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119691

1. Introduction

Every unit of mined commodity results in a large volume of waste material. Exponential increases in mine waste create conditions for population displacement – a known driver of human rights impacts that result in poverty, isolation, and food insecurity. The World Bank estimates a 500% increase in mining activity over the next two decades to produce more than three billion tons of minerals required for wind, solar, geothermal power, as well as energy storage products. Most scholars agree that vast mineral resource inventories must be exploited at an unprecedented rate to achieve climate change targets (Mudd and Jowitt, 2022). Our results indicate that mined waste is a major driver of population displacement, often in remote and vulnerable areas. This research can assist policy makers to develop comprehensive and more ethically-informed responses for mitigating climate change.

By volume, the main output of most mining activity is hazardous waste (Lottermoser, 2010). At this late stage of industrialisation, resource extraction involves exploiting mineral deposits with historically low grades, and geological resources located at greater depth, producing exponentially more mine waste and mobilising deleterious elements such as arsenic and cadmium into riparian and terrestrial systems (Northey et al., 2014). Recent studies of four prominent energy transition minerals estimate that the total amount of tailings ever produced by copper, manganese, lithium, and nickel is in the order of 200 billion tonnes. This is estimated to increase to 1000 billion tonnes between 2020 and 2050 (Valenta et al., 2023). The exponential increase in mine waste over the coming decades will be one of the most significant ecological and social development challenges we face in enabling the global energy transition and for feeding future urbanisation and industrialisation (Lèbre et al., 2020).

Against this backdrop, we demonstrate that mine waste is the predominant cause of human displacement, and that this displacement is more likely to occur at later stages in the mine life cycle. A detailed analysis of the "boundary relationship” between landcover types reveals clear intersections between the spatial extent of mine waste and areas used for human settlement. Despite the scale and significance of this problem, the connection between the waste profile of large-scale mining projects and patterns of human displacement has been overlooked in research and policy making. Our contribution is to visualise and quantify the mining-induced displacement and resettlement (MIDR) problem.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ 

1. Temporal and spatial variation of microplastics in the urban rivers of Harbin
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 910, 1 February 2024, 168373

Abstract

This study was to investigate temporal and spatial variation of microplastics in surface water and sediment in the urban rivers of Harbin during dry and wet season. Water samples (n = 25) in Xinyi River (n = 13) and Ashe River (n = 12) were collected from the selected sampling points. Microplastics in urban rivers in Harbin included polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The results show that urban rivers in Harbin had relatively mild microplastic abundance with most fragments in shape and colorless in color. PP and PE were the major polymers in surface water samples, while PVC and PET were the major polymers in sediment, which were dominated by large-size and granulate shape microplastics. Source apportionment demonstrate that the main sources of microplastics in Xinyi River and Ashe River during dry season were domestic wastewater and effluent from rainfall, while the main sources of microplastics in Xinyi River and Ashe River during wet season were wastewater, atmospheric sedimentation, and agricultural source. The morphology of microplastics in surface water and sediment in urban rivers of Harbin was negatively correlated with water velocity and positively correlated with the concentration of suspended matter, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity. Riparian vegetation on the sides of Xinyi and Ashe River decreased migration process of microplastics by vegetal purification and then resulted in low abundance of microplastics. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence characteristics, source apportionment and environmental influencing factors of microplastics in urban rivers of Harbin, which may develop new insights into the reduction of abundance of microplastics in the urban rivers.

2. Proposal of policies based on temporal-spatial dynamic characteristics and co-benefits of CO2 and air pollutants from vehicles in Shanghai, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119736

Abstract

In megacities, vehicle emissions face urgent challenges related to air pollution and CO2 control. To achieve the refinement of vehicle control policies for the co-control of air pollutants and CO2, this study established a vehicle emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution based on the hourly traffic flow in Shanghai and analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the real-time vehicle emissions. Meanwhile, a policy evaluation framework was constructed by combining pollutant emission predictions with quantitative co-control effect assessments. The results indicated that spatio-temporal variations in different air pollutants and CO2 could mainly be attributed to primary contributing vehicle types. The pollutants (CO2, CO and VOCs) primarily contributed by private cars exhibited a bimodal pattern in 24-h time series and their spatial distribution was concentrated in the urban city center. The spatial distribution of NOx and PM primarily contributed by heavy trucks was still obvious on non-urban center areas. Furthermore, the results of synergistic effect analysis revealed that the alternative energy replacement scenario demonstrated the most significant potential for the co-control. Based on temporal-spatial and co-benefit analysis, the precise control policy of vehicle emissions can be established through time-, region-, and model-control. This study provides references and research methods for the formulation of the vehicle refinement control policies in worldwide megacities.

3. Greater local cooling effects of trees across globally distributed urban green spaces
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 911, 10 February 2024, 168494

Abstract

Urban green spaces (UGS) are an effective mitigation strategy for urban heat islands (UHIs) through their evapotranspiration and shading effects. Yet, the extent to which local UGS cooling effects vary across different background climates, plant characteristics and urban settings across global cities is not well understood. This study analysed 265 local air temperature (TA) measurements from 58 published studies across globally distributed sites to infer the potential influence of background climate, plant and urban variables among different UGS types (trees, grass, green roofs and walls). We show that trees were more effective at reducing local TA, with reductions 2–3 times greater than grass and green roofs and walls. We use a hierarchical linear mixed effects model to reveal that background climate (mean annual temperature) and plant characteristics (specific leaf area vegetation index) had the greatest influence on cooling effects across UGS types, while urban characteristics did not significantly influence the cooling effects of UGS. Notably, trees dominated the overall local cooling effects across global cities, indicating that greater tree growth in mild climates with lower mean annual temperatures has the greatest mitigation potential against UHIs. Our findings provide insights for urban heat mitigation using UGS interventions, particularly trees across cities worldwide with diverse climatic and environmental conditions and highlight the essential role of trees in creating healthy urban living environments for citizens under extreme weather conditions.

4. Management of the designed risk level of urban drainage system in the future: Evidence from haining city, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119846

Abstract

The design of urban drainage infrastructure is mainly based on historical conditions. Under global warming, more intense precipitation extremes will pose severe risk to current infrastructure. The evaluation of where and by how much design standards need to change, is urgently needed to help maintain well-functioning drainage systems. In this study, we used climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Modeling (ICM) to simulate urban flooding. According to the latest design standard of urban drainage infrastructure, we assess the risk of future urban flooding, and evaluate the effect and benefit of drainage infrastructure adaptation measures. The results showed that, under the shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) 5–8.5 scenario, a 35% increase in extreme rainfall would be expected. Under a 1-in-30-year precipitation event, the maximum depth would increase by 5.59%, and the withdrawal time would rise by 2.94% in the future period, relative to the baseline level. After the enlargement of drainage infrastructure in local areas, 10% pipe enlargement has a better effect to reduce risk and higher benefits than 5% pipe enlargement. These findings provide valuable insights for policymakers in enhancing the drainage system and adapting to climate change.

5. Techno-economic analysis of municipal solid waste treatment for poly-generation system
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 168869

Abstract

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is characterized by complex composition, low calorific value and high moisture content. Using a single treatment technology is costly and difficult to achieve optimal results. A poly-generation system that integrates classified waste pyrolysis and incineration is proposed, producing fuel, electricity, and steam. The system has been designed and optimized to find the optimal feed ratio and process model. However, the economic performance of the poly-generation system is still unclear. In this work, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was conducted to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed MSW treatment poly-generation system. The annual electricity generated by the poly-generation system is 104.13 GWh. The annual steam generated is 4.91 kt, and the average annual diesel produced is 1.60 kt. The TEA results showed that the total capital investment of the system was 602.07 M¥, and the annual operating cost was 40.63 M¥. The net present value was 93.01 M¥, which is a positive value. The internal rate of return was 10.28 %, which is higher than the benchmark rate of return, indicating that the system is economically feasible. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the internal rate of return was extremely sensitive to fixed capital investment, price of electricity, product yield, and government subsidy. The TEA analysis of poly-generation system provides a fundamental theoretical basis for the feasibility of classified MSW treatment and offers valuable insights for policy makers and investors in the waste management field. Considering the complexity of the waste, future research can be carried out from the environmental aspect, combining both economic and environmental objectives for multi-objective optimization and conducting comprehensive evaluation of the industrial practicability of the poly-generation system.

6. Management of the designed risk level of urban drainage system in the future: Evidence from haining city, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119846

Abstract

The design of urban drainage infrastructure is mainly based on historical conditions. Under global warming, more intense precipitation extremes will pose severe risk to current infrastructure. The evaluation of where and by how much design standards need to change, is urgently needed to help maintain well-functioning drainage systems. In this study, we used climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Modeling (ICM) to simulate urban flooding. According to the latest design standard of urban drainage infrastructure, we assess the risk of future urban flooding, and evaluate the effect and benefit of drainage infrastructure adaptation measures. The results showed that, under the shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) 5–8.5 scenario, a 35% increase in extreme rainfall would be expected. Under a 1-in-30-year precipitation event, the maximum depth would increase by 5.59%, and the withdrawal time would rise by 2.94% in the future period, relative to the baseline level. After the enlargement of drainage infrastructure in local areas, 10% pipe enlargement has a better effect to reduce risk and higher benefits than 5% pipe enlargement. These findings provide valuable insights for policymakers in enhancing the drainage system and adapting to climate change.

7. Diel variability of carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions in a largest urban lake, Central China: Insights from continuous measurements
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 168987

Abstract

Accurately quantifying the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from lakes, especially in urban areas, remains challenging due to constrained temporal resolution in field monitoring. Current lake CO2 flux estimates primarily rely on daylight measurements, yet nighttime emissions is normally overlooked. In this study, a non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensor was applied to measure dissolved CO2 concentrations over a 24-h period in a largest urban lake (Tangxun Lake) in Wuhan City, Central China, yielding extensive data on diel variability of CO2 concentrations and emissions. We showed the practicality and efficiency of the sensor for real-time continuous measurements in lakes. Our findings revealed distinct diurnal variations in CO2 concentrations (Day: 38.58 ± 23.8 μmol L−1; Night: 42.01 ± 20.2 μmol L−1) and fluxes (Day: 7.68 ± 10.34 mmol m−2 d−1; Night: 9.68 ± 9.19 mmol m−2 d−1) in the Tangxun Lake. The balance of photosynthesis and respiration is of utmost importance in modulating diurnal CO2 dynamics and can be influenced by nutrient loadings and temperature. A diel variability correction factor of 1.14 was proposed, suggesting that daytime-only measurements could underestimate CO2 emissions in urban lakes. Our data suggested that samplings between 11:00 and 12:00 could better represent the average diel CO2 fluxes. This study offered valuable insights on the diel variability of CO2 fluxes, emphasizing the importance of in situ continuous measurements to accurately quantify CO2 emissions, facilitating selections of sampling strategies and formulation of management strategies for urban lakes

8. A cellular automata model coupled with partitioning CNN-LSTM and PLUS models for urban land change simulation
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119828

Abstract

Urbanisation is a key aspect of land use change (LUC), and accurately modelling of urban LUC is crucial for sustainable development. Cellular automata (CA) are widely used in LUC research. However, previous studies have overlooked the significant temporal dependence and spatial heterogeneity associated with LUC. To address these gaps, this study proposes a novel model called KCLP-CA, which integrates k-means, a convolutional neural network (CNN), a long and short-term memory neural network (LSTM), and the popular patch-generation land use model (PLUS). Initially, k-means and CNN are utilised to address spatial heterogeneity, while LSTM tackles temporal dependence. The LSTM and land expansion analysis strategy (LEAS) models of PLUS are employed to obtain land use conversion probability maps. Finally, a simulation of land use dynamic change was conducted using a linear weighted fusion conversion probability map that accounts for random factors. To validate the KCLP-CA model, land use data collected from Hangzhou between 1995 and 2000 were employed. The results showed that the KCLP-CA model outperformed traditional methods, including artificial neural networks and random forest model, with the figure of merit (FoM) index increasing from 2.12% to 4.19%. Random forest analysis of drivers impacting LUC revealed that distance to water and road network density exerted the greatest influence on urban land development in Hangzhou. Incorporation of various policy planning factors affecting urban development yielded simulation results aligning more closely with reality, resulting in a FoM index increase of 1.64–1.76%. In summary, the model developed in this study combines the strengths of two sub models to deliver an accurate and effective simulation of future land use.

9. Unveiling the suspended atmospheric microplastic pollution in a coastal urban landscape
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 442, 25 February 2024, 141145

Abstract

This study investigated the presence and insights of suspended atmospheric microplastics (SAMPs) in a coastal urban setting of Xiamen, China, focusing on the downtown tourist and urban-rural fringe areas. The abundance of SAMPs in Xiamen ranged from 0 to 0.062 items m−3, with an average of 0.011 ± 0.012 items m−3. Notably, the urban-rural fringe area exhibited a higher abundance of SAMPs compared to the tourist area, attributing to surrounding pollution sources and the effectiveness of environmental policies. Fibers emerged as the dominant form of SAMPs, with microbeads and films also observed. Polyethylene terephthalate emerged as the dominant type, and transparent and blue SAMPs constituted the largest proportion. Over 50% of the SAMPs were smaller than 1 mm, with the smallest particle measuring 29 μm. Correlation and principal component analyses revealed that atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction significantly influenced the distribution of SAMPs. Backward trajectory modeling indicated that marine air masses diluted the SAMP pollution, whereas continental air masses exacerbated it. This study represents the first assessment of SAMP pollution in Xiamen, shedding light on the interplay between local pollution sources, environmental factors, air masses, industrial layout, and environmental policies. It emphasizes the need for increased attention to atmospheric microplastic pollution in coastal urban landscapes and underscores the importance of effective mitigation strategies.

10. A neglected climate risk: The price effect of urban waterlogging
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 352, 14 February 2024, 119851

Abstract

With global warming, cities are vulnerable to extreme weather, increasing the climate risk to cities worldwide. Although existing literature has examined the ex-post impacts of extreme weather, it is less clear how climate risk affects cites before extreme weather occur. To lower the risk of urban waterlogging, which is caused by extreme weather, and improve the ability of cities to adapt to extreme weather, China launched the Sponge City Project (SCP) in 2013 to manage the urban stormwater and waterlogging. Adopting the SCP pilot in China as a quasi-natural experiment, we examine the impact of the climate risk caused by urban stormwater and waterlogging on the house price with the difference-in-differences (DID) method. We find that after implementing the SCP pilot program, the house price in pilot cities increased significantly because of the improvement in cities’ resilience to climate risk. Additionally, this effect was only demonstrated in cities with a high waterlogging risk. For SCP pilot cities with lower waterlogging risk, the house price is not significantly affected by SCP implementation. This indicates that the house price in China is sensitive to the climate risk caused by the urban stormwater and waterlogging. Our findings also contribute to the understanding of the significance of the climate risk management, and provided theoretical evidence for urban governance.

11. Expanding the urban climate imagination: A review of mitigation actions across 800 local governments
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 442, 25 February 2024, 141055

Abstract

This paper broadens the scope of hierarchical knowledge in urban climate governance, moving beyond the traditional focus on large, global cities in specific regions. By scrutinising cities’ mitigation actions in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) for the year 2019, the study encompasses data from over 800 local governments and over 3700 reported mitigation actions. Spanning a diverse range of cities with varying populations, global city status, and regional locations, the analysis aims to uncover cities’ sectoral focus and financial and implementation arrangements. It further explores whether there are significant differences between diverse cities and their reported actions. The analysis highlights the dominance of building and infrastructure among different cities’ reported mitigation actions and most cities having successful implementation and finance by largely relying on local sources. Notably, most cities demonstrate successful implementation and finance predominantly sourced locally. Surprisingly, no discernible variations were found in cities’ sectoral focus and financial and implementation arrangements based on their population and GDP per capita. However, cities with distinct global economic statuses exhibit notable differences in sectoral focus, even though no disparities exist in finance and implementation approaches. Global cities, in particular, show a higher percentage of actions related to building, energy, and transportation compared to non-global cities. Significant differences also emerge across regions, particularly in infrastructural sectors such as building, waste, and energy supply, as well as in the implementation and funding of actions. For instance, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Oceania showcase the lowest percentage of actions in the building sector but the highest in waste, distinguishing them from other regions. These findings underscore the potential of smaller cities, with lower economic status and those lacking global city status in successfully funding and implementing their mitigation actions despite regional variations. The study challenges prevailing hierarchical assumptions about cities based on size and economic status, emphasising the importance of tailoring solutions to address unique needs and priorities of different regions.

12. Quantifying the direct and indirect impacts of urban waterlogging using input‒output analysis
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 352, 14 February 2024, 120068

Abstract

Increasingly frequent urban waterlogging disasters are having profound social and economic consequences. An appropriate and integrated evaluation of the total economic impacts of such disasters is crucial for achieving effective urban disaster risk management and sustainable development. However, existing metrics are inadequate for measuring the economic impacts of rainfall events of different intensities and their ripple effects across regions. Moreover, their ecological impacts have received insufficient attention. To address these gaps, we developed an integrated assessment framework for analyzing urban waterlogging losses and evaluating their various impacts. Taking Beijing as a case study, we used the InfoWorks ICM model to simulate urban waterlogging disaster risks, quantified direct economic losses, and assessed their environmental impacts. Additionally, we estimated indirect economic losses using input-output analysis and explored spillover effects. The results revealed increasing trends of direct economic losses and environmental losses corresponding to a longer return period. We observed synergies between these losses and their spatial heterogeneity. However, indirect impacts far outweighed direct impacts, with the former being 2.43 times larger than the latter. The cascading effect resulting from damage to infrastructure was also particularly pronounced. The industrial and spatial heterogeneity of interregional impacts was striking, with eastern provinces evidencing the most significant effects. By mapping the transmission paths of disaster losses along industrial chains and across regions, this study provides inputs that could assist policymakers in developing more effective measures for preventing and mitigating urban waterlogging disasters.

13. Spatial supply-demand balance of health and failure consequences for urban sewer pipes
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 442, 25 February 2024, 141057

Abstract

Sewer pipes health and failure consequences evaluation are vital to ensure the safety of urban sewer networks. Sewer pipes with low health and severe failure consequences should be the primary focus of daily maintenance and management for drainage authorities. Conversely, sewer pipes with high health and low failure consequences are temporarily not a primary concern, in order to reduce resource wastage within the constraints of limited economic and time resources. Thus, the scientific analysis of their relationships is deemed essential. This paper applies supply-demand balance theory to analyze the relationship. On the supply side, a health Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation model (HFCE) is proposed with weighted hierarchies established. On the demand side, a failure consequences FCE model (FFCE) is established. Each sewer pipe's supply-demand balance score is analyzed using matrix multiplication, highlighting two types of imbalanced pipes and sub-districts. Taking the Liangshui River Basin in Beijing as an example, the results show that the health evaluation can identify the spatial distribution of the health of sewer pipes, with low health levels V and IV accounting for 10.23 % and 4.43 %, respectively. The failure consequences evaluation can evaluate the spatial distribution of the severity of sewer pipe failure consequences, with high failure consequences levels V and IV respectively accounting for 10.97 % and 16.77 %. The supply-demand balance analysis identifies the proportion of the first and second types of imbalanced pipes, respectively 14.24 % and 6.80 %. This method, by analyzing the relationship of health and failure consequences, provides a decision-making basis for drainage authorities to prioritize sewer pipe operation management, repair, and maintenance.

14. Highly efficient carbonation and dechlorination using flue gas micro-nano bubble for municipal solid waste incineration fly ash pretreatment and its applicability to sulfoaluminate cementitious materials
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 353, 27 February 2024, 120163

Abstract

Cement production is a primary source of global carbon emissions. As a hazardous waste, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI-FA) can be pretreated as a cementitious and effective carbon capture material. This study proposes an efficient carbonation dechlorination pretreatment and resource recovery strategy using flue gas micro-nano bubble (MNB) to wash MSWI-FA. The results showed that the flue gas MNB water washing reaction solution inhibited CaCO3 boundary layer blocking and adsorption on NaCl and KCl leaching. Under low water-to-solid ratio and CO2 concentration conditions, two-step washing reduced the MSWI-FA chlorine content to <1%, improving the dechlorination effect by 19.72% compared to conventional carbonation. The flue gas MNB water accelerated the precipitation of Ca2+ and Ca(ClO)2 in the form of calcite. The higher the CO2 concentration in the flue gas MNB, the better the fragmentation and purification of the MSWI-FA shell, leading to improved dechlorination and CO2 fixation. Under optimized conditions, the mean particle size of MSWI-FA decreased by 47.82%, and the CO2 fixation rate reached 73.80%, with a 58.35% increase in the washing carbonation rate. MSWI-FA pretreated by flue gas MNB washing was used as both the raw material and supplementary cementitious material for sulfoaluminate cementitious (SAC) material, exhibiting excellent compressive strength and heavy metal stabilization. The maximum compressive strength of the MSWI-FA-based SAC material cured for 28 d reached 130 MPa. Cr leaching was inhibited with increased hydration time, and the leaching concentration was far below the standard limit.

15. Household polluting cooking fuels and intrinsic capacity among older population: A harmonized nationwide analysis in India and China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 169031

Abstract

Backgrounds

Household polluting cooking fuels, as an important changeable behavior, are related to various detrimental health effects among the elderly. There is limited research on the association between polluting cooking fuel use and intrinsic capacity (IC) as an indicator of healthy aging. This study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned association in India and China, where polluting cooking fuel use is common.

Methods

We enrolled 33,803 participants aged ≥60 years from two nationally representative studies: the Longitudinal Aging Study in India and the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Polluting cooking fuel use was defined as a self-report of using wood, coal, kerosene, crop residue, or dung. IC was measured by five aspects, including locomotion, cognition, vitality, sensory, and psychological capacity. The random-effects mixed linear regression and logistic regression with population weighting were performed. Multivariable-adjusted model and propensity score were used to adjust for potential confounders.

Results

A total of 47.54 % and 59.32 % of elderly adults reported primary cooking using polluting fuels in India and China, respectively. Using polluting cooking fuels was consistently associated with IC decline; particularly, cognitive capacity was the most susceptible domain. In India, participants using polluting fuels had a 1.062 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.047–1.078) times risk for IC deficits, whereas more prominent results were observed in China (odds ratio [OR]: 2.040, 95 % CI: 1.642–2.533). Such harmful effects might be alleviated by transferring from polluting to clean fuels. Additionally, the duration of polluting fuel use was also positively associated with IC deficits.

Conclusion

This study provided substantial public implications on healthy aging for the elderly population at a global scale, strengthening the importance of health education and policy efforts to accelerate the transition from polluting to clean fuels.

16. Spatiotemporal variation and inter-transport of atmospheric speciated mercury between Kaohsiung Harbor and neighboring urban areas
Environmental Pollution, Volume 342, 1 February 2024, 123039

Abstract

This study investigated the spatiotemporal variation, gas-particle partition, and source resolution of atmospheric speciation mercury (ASM) in Kaohsiung Harbor and neighboring Metro Kaohsiung. Four sampling sites were selected to determine the pollution characteristics and inter-transport of ASM between the port and urban areas. The yearly average GEM, GOM, and PBM concentrations were 7.13 ± 2.2 ng/m3, 331 ± 190 pg/m3, and 532 ± 301 pg/m3, respectively. Notably, GEM emerged as the predominant ASM species (85–94%), primarily originating from anthropogenic emissions from the harbor area and nearby industrial complex. The study revealed a distinct seasonal variation in ASM concentrations in the Kaohsiung Area in the following order: winter > fall > spring > summer. Concerning spatial distribution, ASM concentrations in the port areas were generally higher than those in the urban areas. This disparity was chiefly attributed to the influence of the prevailing winds, local sources, and atmospheric dispersion. Backward trajectory simulation revealed that polluted air masses blown from the northeast in winter and spring, moving along the western in-land part of Taiwan Island, were likely influenced by local sources and long-range transport (LRT). In summer, air pollutants originating from the south were likely transported from the coastal industrial sources. During fall, air masses blown from the western offshore waters transported air pollutants from Kaohsiung Harbor to neighboring Metro Kaohsiung. The results obtained from principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that primary sources in the port areas included ship emissions, vehicular exhausts, and nearby industrial complex, which align with the primary source factors identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), which were mobile sources and coal-fired industrial boilers. Meanwhile, mobile sources and sulfur-containing fuel/waste combustion were identified as the primary sources in the urban areas.

INDUSTRIAL AREA ENVIRONMENT / MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP 

1. Climate and industrial pollution determine the seasonal and spatial mercury variations in the China's Weihe River
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 168555

Abstract

Natural processes and human activities impact mercury (Hg) pollution in rivers. Investigating the individual contributions and interactions of factors affecting variations in Hg concentrations, particularly under climate change, is crucial for safeguarding watershed ecosystems and human health. We collected 381 water samples from China's Weihe River Basin (WRB) during dry and wet seasons to assess the total Hg (THg) concentration. Results revealed high Hg concentrations in the WRB (0.1–2200.9 ng/L, mean 126.2 ± 335.5 ng/L), with higher levels during the wet season (wet season: 249.1 ± 453.5 ng/L, dry season: 12.7 ± 14.0 ng/L), particularly in the mainstream and southern tributaries of the Weihe River. Industrial pollution (contributing 26.2 %) and precipitation (contributing 33.5 %) drove spatial heterogeneity in THg concentrations during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Notably, combined explanatory power increased to 47.9 % when interaction was considered, highlighting the amplifying effect of climate change, particularly precipitation, on the impact of industrial pollution. The middle and downstream of the Weihe River, especially the Guanzhong urban agglomeration, were identified as high-risk regions for Hg pollution. With ongoing climate change the risk of Hg exposure in the WRB is expected to escalate. This study lays a robust scientific foundation for the effective management of Hg pollution in analogous river systems worldwide.

2. Modelling the role of industrial structure adjustment on China's energy efficiency: Insights from technology innovation
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 441, 15 February 2024, 140861

Abstract

Due to uncoordinated economic progress, China's regional gap concerning energy efficiency (EE) is noticeable. However, industrial structure adjustments can be reorganized as a promising way to prioritize the green and low-carbon transition. Aiming to understand how regional EE can be achieved through industrial structure adjustment, this study empirically investigates the role of industrial structure adjustment in increasing interprovincial EE from a technology innovation perspective. Unlike previous studies, the primary analytical framework is anchored on a spatio-temporal domain. Specifically, we observe that industrial structure rationalization and industrial structure adjustment not only directly influence local EE but also indirectly exert a positive effect on EE improvements in adjacent provinces. The same implications are also valid when addressing the EE-ICT nexus. Further mechanism analysis shows that technology innovation positively moderates industrial structure adjustment to EE enhancements, with regional heterogeneity being all-important. We find that the non-linear effect of industrial structure adjustment on EE is conditioned by technology innovation. Increasing R&D input intensity could significantly change the impacts of industrial structure adjustments on EE efficiency.

3. The coupling coordination and spatiotemporal evolution of industrial water-energy-CO2 in the Yellow River Basin
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 912, 20 February 2024, 169012

Abstract

The Yellow River Basin (YRB) is an important energy, chemical, raw material, and basic industrial base in China. With economic growth, water and energy consumption in industrial industries increasing dramatically, huge pressure for CO2 emission reduction has generated. This paper constructed an industrial water-energy-CO2 (WEC) evaluation index system, analyzed the comprehensive evaluation level, coupling status and coupling coordination status, by using the comprehensive evaluation method, coupling degree model and coupling coordination degree model and used the spatial autocorrelation analysis to study the spatiotemporal evolution from 1999 to 2019 in the YRB. The results demonstrated that the integrated development level of the basin's industrial WEC system and subsystems had been improving. The basin was at a high coupling and the level of coupling had been increasing as a whole, and the industrial energy-CO2 coupling degree was bigger than the industrial water-energy and industrial water-CO2 coupling degrees in the YRB. The coupling coordination status had transitioned from forced coordination to good coordination. Spatially, the coupling coordination didn't appear a significant correlation and showed a random distribution. Accordingly, the suggestions were made to improve the level of industrial development in the basin, strengthen integrated resource management, and enhance intra-basin cooperation.

4. Providing decision-support for sustainable development of the Brazilian automotive textile sector
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 441, 15 February 2024, 140909

Abstract

Despite efforts to evaluate sustainability within the Brazilian automotive textile sector, there is still a lack of specific measures quantifying the social, environmental, and economic aspects. Consequently, the shift from a traditional profit-centric post-industrial culture to a modern, sustainable-focused culture presents ongoing challenges. Addressing this, a question arises: how can a decision-support framework be developed to ensure a balanced approach to sustainability management, highlighting system limitations without compromising the sector's performance? Decision support models aim to equip decision-makers with tools for making informed choices aligned with organizational objectives and goals. The proposed procedure comprises four key stages: sustainability diagnosis, creation of an illustrative panel, simulation, and normal distribution. The initial phase, sustainability diagnosis, uses the 5 SEnSU model, integrating indicators selection alongside their objectives and targets. Utilizing Goal Programming at its core, the Synthetic Indicator System Sustainability outlines the sector's performance relative to its objectives. Results are then presented in a dashboard format, offering a comprehensive view of sustainability performance trends. Subsequently, a simulation phase implements more stringent targets to identify the sector's limitations without jeopardizing its performance. These results are modeled through normal distribution curves, drawing parallels between sustainability within the system and Statistical Process Control Assessment, ensuring adherence to legal and corporate standards. Illustrating the procedure with the Brazilian textile automotive sector revealed that while the sector maintains economic sustainability, its progress has negatively impacted the environment and society. This process helped pinpoint critical areas in sustainability management and proposed strategies for optimizing resources to meet organizational sustainable objectives. Moreover, this model elevates informed decision-making and advocates for a more conscientious and efficient approach to business management across this sector and others.

5. Cleaner production evaluation system for textile industry: An empirical study from LCA perspectiv
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 913, 25 February 2024, 169632

Abstract

The contradiction between the rapid textile expansion and intensive energy consumption, highly environmental pollution calls for the adoption of cleaner production (CP). However, current evaluation system mainly targeted on CP at production stage, guidance and support on the life cycle assessment is still in its infancy. Meanwhile few studies brought the combination of water conservation and carbon reduction into considerations. This study compared the existing CP evaluation systems including guidelines for the whole industry, standards for textile industry and indicators for the dyeing and finishing sector by quantifying the differences of indicator score compositions. Comparisons analysis from six aspects suggested that all the evaluation systems had relevant indicators regarding "pollutant emissions”. "Management”, "process equipment and techniques” and "resource and energy consumption” have also been well concerned while "product characteristic” seemed to be overlooked at current stage. From the perspective of whole life cycle, the key of textile processing is the "printing and dyeing” (44.23 %) followed by "fabric manufacturing”(28.85 %) and setting (15.38 %). With regards to the environmental impacts, resources depletion gained the highest attention since their indicator scores reached up to 25.71 %, 18.47 % and 20.62 % for EMAS, ERG 2018 and HJ-1852006. Cleaner production awareness and social impact also played significant roles in ISO 14031:2021 and WMG. Subsequently, a set of new comprehensive CP evaluation indicator system was established, including 3 scopes and 7 goals. The newly-built indicator system incorporated with life cycle perspectives gave a powerful tool to measure the CP level in textile industry and of CP will benefit from water reuse and energy utilization with high efficiency.

6. Sustainable power production from petrochemical industrial effluent using dual chambered microbial fuel cell
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119777

Abstract

Dual chambered microbial fuel cell (DMFC) is an advanced and effective treatment technology in wastewater treatment. The current work has made an effort to treat petrochemical industrial wastewater (PWW) as a DMFC substrate for power generation and organic substance removal. Investigating the impact of organic load (OL) on organic reduction and electricity generation is the main objective of this study. At the OL of 1.5 g COD/L, the highest total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 88%, soluble oxygen demand (SCOD) removal efficiency of 80% and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency of 71% were seen, respectively. In the same optimum condition of 1.5 g COD/L, the highest current and power density of about 270 mW/m2 and 376 mA/m2 were also observed. According to the results of this study, using high-strength organic wastewater in DMFC can assist in addressing the issue of the petrochemical industries and minimize the energy demand.

7. Rethinking industrial land-use in American rust cities towards sustainability based on a block-level model
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 352, 14 February 2024, 120067

Abstract

Urban land is a fundamental but scarce resource that carries intensive human socio-economic activities. The demographic decline and housing vacancy issues that emerged with de-industrialization have raised concerns regarding the sustainable utilization of urban land resources, particularly in the American Rust Belt region. In this context, a comprehensive analysis of industrial land use can offer valuable insights to support the sustainable planning of shrinking cities. However, existing urban land research exhibits insufficient resolution at the sectoral scale and impedes the evaluation of industrial land use efficiency within the urban context. To address this gap, we established an integrated land use estimation framework for economic sectors based on multi-source data, which enables the assessment of land use efficiency at a finer sectoral scale. The method was then applied to the city of Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh. The results demonstrate that the current industrial land mix in the three cities is dominated by service-providing industries, but the land usage by goods-producing sectors in these cities presents a relatively high level of efficiency. The Moran's I value indicates a clustered tendency for the main economic sectors. The land use area results reveal that Other Services occupies the most land area in Detroit (2.29 million m2) and Cleveland (2.04 million m2). While in Pittsburgh, Professional Scientific and Technical Services (1.44 million m2) is the largest. In terms of the economic output, Management of Companies and Enterprises is the most efficient sector in Detroit (20.28 thousand $/m2) and Cleveland (29.43 thousand $/m2), while Pittsburgh's Public Administration (11.73 thousand $/m2) is the most efficient. As many other cities in the world are about to enter the era of de-industrialization or low growth, the outcomes can also serve as a reference to guide their sustainable revitalization in line with the SDGs.

8. Determination of hexavalent chromium in textiles of daily use by ion chromatography and dermal risk assessment
Environmental Research, Volume 242, 1 February 2024, 117731

Abstract

The determination of hexavalent chromium in textiles and clothes is challenging since during extraction, the original oxidation state should not be altered. Since, as a matter of fact, current analytical methods are focused only on total chromium determination, the purpose of this research is to develop a reliable analytical method for the determination of Cr(VI) in textiles and tissues of daily use for a reliable application of risk analysis models, which are usually based on total Cr data.

After optimization, a 0.0025 M Na3PO4 extraction solution was selected for the extraction of Cr(VI) from textiles. This solution minimizes possible interconversion redox reactions and interference, and provides good extraction recoveries (88.4 ± 2.5% - 105.5 ± 0.6 %, according to Cr(VI) concentration) and quantitation limits (0.017 mg/kg), fully complying the current limits set for Cr(VI) in textiles in contact with skin, and for leachable Cr(VI).

The developed method was validated investigating intra-day repeatability (n = 10) and inter-day repeatability (n = 30) which were below 12%, and matrix effect which was below 6% confirming the precision of the method and the negligibility of a matrix interference during the whole analysis. The method, which was proved to be suited also for bioaccessibility studies in saliva and sweat, was applied to the analysis of tank top, coloured paper napkin, polyamide tights, panties, highlighting Cr(VI) content in the panties only at very low concentration (0.028 mg/kg). As verified by ECHA and US EPA approaches, this amount does not pose a non-carcinogenic risk for human health. As regards carcinogenic risk, considering both adult and child exposure, the dermal contact with the panties poses an acceptable risk (R ≤ 10−6).

9. Application of dirty-acid wastewater treatment technology in non-ferrous metal smelting industry: Retrospect and prospect
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 352, 14 February 2024, 120050

Abstract

Dirty-acid wastewater (DW) originating from the non-ferrous metal smelting industry is characterized by a high concentration of H2SO4 and As. During the chemical precipitation treatment, a significant volume of arsenic-containing slag is generated, leading to elevated treatment expenses. The imperative to address DW with methods that are cost-effective, highly efficient, and safe is underscored. This paper conducts a comprehensive analysis of three typical methods to DW treatment, encompassing technical principles, industrial application flow charts, research advancements, arsenic residual treatment, and economic considerations. Notably, the sulfide method emerges as a focal point due to its minimal production of arsenic residue and the associated lowest overall treatment costs. Moreover, in response to increasingly stringent environmental protection policies targeting new pollutants and carbon emissions reduction, the paper explores the evolving trends in DW treatment. These trends encompass rare metal and sulfuric acid recycling, cost-effective H2S production methods, and strategies for reducing, safely disposing of, and harnessing resources from arsenic residue.

10. Mobilisation of textile waste to recover high added value products and energy for the transition to circular economy
Environmental Research, Volume 242, 1 February 2024, 117716

Abstract

The textile industry is a major contributor to global waste, with millions of tons of textiles being discarded annually. Material and energy recovery within circular economy offer sustainable solutions to this problem by extending the life cycle of textiles through repurposing, recycling, and upcycling. These initiatives not only reduce waste but also contribute to the reduction of the demand for virgin materials (i.e. cotton, wool), ultimately benefiting the environment and society. The circular economy approach, which aims to recreate environmental, economic, and societal value, is based on three key principles: waste reduction, material circulation, and ecological restoration. Given these difficulties, circularity incorporates the material recovery approach, which is focused on the conversion of waste into secondary raw resources. The goal of this notion is to extract more value from resources by prolonging final disposal as long as feasible. When a textile has outlived its functional life, material recovery is critical for returning the included materials or energy into the manufacturing cycle. The aim of this paper is to examine the material and energy recovery options of main raw materials used in the fashion industry while highlighting the need of close observation of the relation between circularity and material recovery, including the investigation of barriers to the transition towards a truly circular fashion industry. The final results refer to the main barriers of circular economy transition within the industry and a framework is proposed. These insights are useful for academia, engineers, policy makers and other key stakeholders for the clear understanding of the industry from within and highlight beyond circular economy targets, SDGs interactions with energy and material recovery of textile waste (SDG 7, SDG 11, SDG 12 etc.).

11. The impact of economic development of primary and secondary industries on national CO2 emissions: The case of Russian regions
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 351, February 2024, 119881

Abstract

In today's world, where economic development and environmental sustainability are becoming increasingly important aspects of national strategy, attention to the impact of different economic sectors on climate change is becoming an integral part of scientific research. This article focuses on analyzing the impact of primary and secondary economic sectors development on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at the sub-national level in Russia from 2005 to 2019. The aim of the study is to provide an in-depth understanding of the relationships between the dynamics of these sectors and CO2 emission levels in different regions of the country. Weighted regression and panel data methods were applied to better identify the patterns of the impact. The results show that the size of population and electricity consumption have the highest impact on CO2 emissions. So that, the expansion of nuclear and gas generation capacity, as well as significant improvement of energy efficiency, are of crucial importance to reduce the emissions. Other sectors have a heterogeneous impact and requires more differential approaches, considering the specifics of regions. Taking into account the significant differences between the Russian constituent entities, this paper emphasizes the low informativeness of assessments at the national level and their inadequacy in terms of improving the efficiency of domestic management, including decarbonization policies.

12. Impact of hydrogen metallurgy on the current iron and steel industry: A comprehensive material-exergy-emission flow analysis
Applied Energy, Volume 356, 15 February 2024, 122452

Abstract

The development of hydrogen metallurgy holds enormous significance in facilitating the low-carbon and environmentally sustainable transition of iron and steel industries. However, there is a lack of research on the impact of implementing hydrogen metallurgy on the downstream process and even the whole process. To fill this research gap, a model that considers specific internal reactions of steelmaking process was developed utilizing the bottom-up approach. Subsequently, by integrating the hydrogen metallurgy process with the traditional long process and short process, the energy intensity, exergy intensity and carbon emission intensity were quantitatively analyzed from multiple viewpoints. The results of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF) exhibit a degree of similarity, with an increase in directly reduced iron (DRI) addition, resulting in an insufficient heat and an increase in process energy consumption, exergy loss, and carbon emissions. But there are also some subtle differences, such as oxygen consumption. Following the integration of hydrogen metallurgy, the energy intensity and exergy intensity of the BF-BOF process increase 11.984 kgce/t-CS and 3.083 × 102 MJ/t-CS, respectively. However, the carbon emission intensity decreased by 46.514 kg/t-CS. The integrated Chinese-style short process has the lowest carbon emission intensity of 879.664 kg/t-CS at 40% DRI and 60% scrap. Nevertheless, the energy intensity and exergy intensity have increased by 27.383 kgce/t-CS and 42.012 × 102 MJ/t-CS respectively compared to their initial values. It is noteworthy that the process of hydrogen production plays a significant role in mitigating the exergy intensity and carbon emission intensity.

13. Pyto-Architechture of Ag, Au and Ag–Au bi-metallic nanoparticles using waste orange peel extract for enable carcinogenic Congo red dye degradation
Environmental Research, Volume 242, 1 February 2024, 117625

Abstract

Ecologically inspired to develop silver, gold and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles from discarded orange peel extract. The plant-derived compounds included in discarded orange peel extract have been accountable for the development of Ag, Au and Ag–Au bimetallic nanoparticles, that might be used in the biosynthetic process. The qualitative assessment of developed silver, gold and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles has been performed by UV–visible, XRD pattern, FT IR analysis, TEM/HRTEM, EDX and BET isotherm analysis. In this investigation, the photocatalytic effect of developed silver, gold and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles on Congo red dye breakdown efficiency was achieved at 96%, 94%, and 99.2%, respectively. Due to prolonged electron-hole recombination process was investigated using UV irradiation and reused for up to 5 consecutive runs without significant loss of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, silver, gold, and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles manufactured in an environmentally benign manner could potentially contribute to the ecological cleanup.

14. Integrating biochar and microbial community for detoxification of wastewater industry containing analgesics
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 58, February 2024, 104767

Abstract

Although anaerobic digestion is a simple, inexpensive, and viable technology for treating wastewater, its performance can be inhibited by the toxic effects of analgesics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of biochar in driving the degradation of analgesics, shifting microbial communities, and biogas profitability in an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing analgesics. Biochar (BC) was synthesized from pomegranate peel and characterized in terms of its surface morphology, elemental composition, crystallization, and surface functional groups. ABR1, ABR2, ABR3, ABR4, and ABR5 were supplemented with mixed culture bacteria at biochar dosages of 0, 50, 75,100, and 150 mg BC/g VS. The removal efficiencies of ketoprofen, paracetamol, and salicylate were increased by values of 65.9 %, 20.4 %, and 53.6 %, respectively, in the ABR4 supplemented with 100 mg BC/gVS compared with the control reactor (ABR1). The bio-methane yield was significantly (p < 0.05) increased from 175.14 ± 13.67 mL/gCODremoved in the ABR1 to 225.58 ± 16.68 mL/g CODremoved in the ABR4. The relative abundances of Chlorobi, Bacteroidetes, Armatimonadetes, Synergistetes, Pseudomonas, Flavobacteriia, Euryarchaeota, Methanobacteria, and Methanomicrobia, resisting the analgesic toxicity and facilitating the organic bioconversion into CH4, were increased by 175.15 %, 112.45 %, 32.43 %, 29.21 %, 400 %, 200 %, 122.17 %, 70.3 %, and 230.5 %, respectively, after 100 mg BC/gVS application in the ABR4 compared with ABR1. Overall, 63 ± 3.9–71 ± 5.4 % and 23.2 ± 2–28.7 ± 2.1 % of the analgesics were primarily removed from wastewater via microbial biodegradation and biochar adsorption, respectively. Biochar application was associated with better biogas productivity, pollutant reduction, and carbon credits, which was equivalent to a profitable scenario with a payback period of 7.1 yr.

15. Constructing mesoporous biochar derived from waste carton: Improving multi-site adsorption of dye wastewater and investigating mechanism
Environmental Research, Volume 242, 1 February 2024, 117775

Abstract

The development of cost-efficient biochar adsorbent with a simple preparation method is essential to constructing efficient wastewater treatment system. Here, a low-cost waste carton biochar (WCB) prepared by a simple two-step carbonization was applied in efficiently removing Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous environment. The maximum ability of WCB for RhB adsorption was 222 mg/g, 6 and 10 times higher than both of rice straw biochar (RSB) and broadbean shell biochar (BSB), respectively. It was mainly ascribed to the mesopore structure (3.0–20.4 nm) of WCB possessing more spatial sites compared to RSB (2.2 nm) and BSB (2.4 nm) for RhB (1.4 nm✕1.1 nm✕0.6 nm) adsorption. Furthermore, external mass transfer (EMT) controlled mass transfer resistance (MTR) of the RhB sorption process by WCB which was fitted with the Langmuir model well. Meanwhile, the adsorption process was dominated by physisorption through van der Waals forces and π-π interactions. A mixture of three dyes in river water was well removed by using WCB. This work provides a straightforward method of preparing mesoporous biochar derived from waste carton with high-adsorption capacity for dye wastewater treatment.

16. Incorporating biochar into fuels system of iron and steel industry: carbon emission reduction potential and economic analysis
Applied Energy, Volume 356, 15 February 2024, 122377

Abstract

Biochar as a prospective renewable energy candidate could be incorporated into the iron and steel production system to replace part of fossil fuels and reduce high-intensity greenhouse gas emissions. However, great uncertainties still exist on biochar's emission reduction capacity and economic feasibility, depending on different biochar precursors, substitution scenarios, energy consumption of biochar production and financial cost. This study aimed to explore the optimized substitution strategies concerning the above issues. A systematic carbon accounting was performed by material flow analysis method (MFA). Two biochar incorporated iron and steel production routes, integrated production route (BF-BOF) and short production route (EAF), which took the proportion of 71.5% and 28.2% in worldwide production, were considered. CO2 Supply Curve (CSC) was conducted to carry out a quantitative economic viability analysis of biochar substitution under carbon emission trading schemes (ETS). Results showed that compared with straw-based biochar, wood-based biochar showed stronger carbon reduction capacity of 1.47 t CO2e (CO2-equivalent) /t crude steel, and the reduction potential reached 66.94% mostly. Among all the steel production processes, Blast furnace in BF-BOF route had the largest emission contribution proportion (72.06%), achieving the best GWP100 reduction potential of 73.66%. The incorporation of wood-based biochar in sintering (−0.037 yuan/t CO2e) was selected as the scenario with both reduction potential and economic viability. If the scenario was fully implemented in China, it could reduce 2.01 million tons of CO2e in 2021. This study would play a vital role in guiding iron and steel industry for biochar substituted fuels.

CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam

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