Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 21-2024/ International Environmental Bulletin No. 21-2024

  • Cập nhật: Thứ hai, 3/6/2024 | 9:12:18 AM

QLMT - Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 21-2024.

The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No 21/2024, featuring the following key topics: 

Về quản lý môi trường

- Biến đổi khí hậu Những chuyển dịch về phía cực do thị trường thúc đẩy trong sản xuất đất trồng trọt tạo cơ hội bảo tồn đa dạng sinh học nhiệt đới và phục hồi môi trường sống.

- Tác động của không gian xanh và môi trường xây dựng đối với hội chứng chuyển hóa: Đánh giá có hệ thống với phân tích tổng hợp.

- Hiểu vai trò của đa dạng sinh học đối với mối liên hệ giữa khí hậu, thực phẩm, nước, năng lượng, giao thông và sức khỏe ở Châu Âu.

- Thuế môi trường đối với túi nhựa và sản phẩm thay thế: Cân bằng ô nhiễm biển và biến đổi khí hậu.

- Con đường khử cacbon với chi phí thấp nhất để sản xuất điện ở Phần Lan: Phương pháp hồi quy lượng tử lồi.

- Mối liên hệ giữa tài nguyên thiên nhiên-công nghệ môi trường-dấu chân sinh thái: Việc đa dạng hóa đặc lợi tài nguyên thiên nhiên có tạo nên sự khác biệt không?

- Quy hoạch mua bán quyền về nước và ứng dụng của nó trong quản lý tài nguyên nước: Quan điểm về mối liên hệ giữa nước-sinh thái-thực phẩm.

- Làm sáng tỏ sự thay đổi về ô nhiễm vật chất hạt và các ảnh hưởng sức khỏe liên quan ở vùng nông thôn Ấn Độ trong giai đoạn 2000–2019.
- Đánh giá tổng hợp các mô hình phân tán khí dung sinh học và nguy cơ lây nhiễm trong môi trường đô thị điển hình: ý nghĩa đối với quản lý an toàn sinh học đô thị.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Ý nghĩa của thành phần hóa học PM2.5 trong việc điều chỉnh động lực của quần thể vi sinh vật trong mùa xuân ở Seoul.

- Phân tích toàn diện lượng khí thải carbon trong xử lý nước thải: Một nghiên cứu điển hình về công nghệ bùn hoạt tính tuần hoàn cải tiến để xử lý nước thải đô thị nguồn carbon thấp.

- Các thành phần thủy văn của không gian xanh đô thị ảnh hưởng đến môi trường nhiệt như thế nào?

- Khung đánh giá sống động để thiết kế chính sách và quản lý chất thải nguy hại tốt hơn ở Úc.

- Đặc điểm địa hóa thủy văn của ô nhiễm nước ngầm ở thành phố Guwahati, Assam, Ấn Độ: Truy tìm các sợi nguyên tố.

- Sử dụng các mô hình phân tán ở quy mô vi mô để đánh giá ô nhiễm không khí lâu dài tại các điểm nóng đô thị: Bài tập so sánh chung FAIRMODE cho một nghiên cứu điển hình ở Antwerp.

- Liên kết căng thẳng về nước và các biện pháp quản lý khủng hoảng - Đánh giá có hệ thống về quản lý nước uống khẩn cấp ở Đức.

- Đánh giá địa hóa, đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái và sức khỏe con người của các yếu tố độc hại tiềm ẩn trong đất đô thị, miền Nam Ấn Độ.

- Đặc điểm địa hóa thủy văn của ô nhiễm nước ngầm ở thành phố Guwahati, Assam, Ấn Độ: Truy tìm các sợi nguyên tố.

- Tác động ngắn hạn của ô nhiễm không khí, tiếng ồn và nhiệt độ đến số ca nhập viện cấp cứu ở Madrid (Tây Ban Nha) do bệnh gan và túi mật.

- Ô nhiễm vi nhựa trong môi trường nước đô thị: Đặc điểm xuất hiện ở dòng suối đô thị và nước mưa chảy tràn từ bề mặt đô thị.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Phân bổ nguồn kim loại nặng (loid) trong đất nông nghiệp gần các khu công nghiệp: Ứng dụng tích hợp hệ số ma trận dương (PMF) và phân đoạn đồng vị cadmium.

- Định hướng theo yếu tố hay định hướng đổi mới? Vai trò của công nghệ kỹ thuật số trong việc làm sạch cơ cấu công nghiệp.

- Phân tích so sánh cân bằng, động học và đặc tính cơ chế hấp phụ nhanh màu đỏ Congo trên vật liệu hấp phụ sinh học nano trên cơ sở chất thải nông nghiệp trong nước thải công nghiệp.

- Chẩn đoán thăm dò và chỉ số đề xuất về thay đổi công nghệ và phát triển công nghiệp bền vững ở các nước thành viên OECD được chọn.

- N-nitrosamine trong nhà máy xử lý nước thải công nghiệp mạ điện và in/nhuộm: Hiệu quả loại bỏ, phát thải môi trường và ảnh hưởng đến nước uống.

- Khi việc sử dụng chất thải có nguồn gốc và xử lý nước thải là một phần của hoạt động sản xuất công nghiệp có trách nhiệm: xem xét lại.

- Phân tích không gian địa lý về ô nhiễm kim loại độc hại trong nước ngầm và các rủi ro sức khỏe liên quan ở khu vực công nghiệp hạ lưu Himalaya.

- Dự báo mô hình thích ứng về tốc độ tắc nghẽn thay đổi theo thời gian trong siêu lọc động để thu hồi nước sản xuất.

- Nghiên cứu bố trí tối ưu hệ thống thông gió trên mái và hệ thống quang điện mái nhà xưởng công nghiệp.

Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 21/2024, featuring the following key topics:

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT / QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG 

1. Climate change market-driven poleward shifts in cropland production create opportunities for tropical biodiversity conservation and habitat restoration
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 923, 1 May 2024, 171198

Abstract

Although the impacts of climate change on the yields of crops have been studied, how these changes will result in the eventual realized crop production through market feedbacks has received little attention. Using a combination of attainable yield predictions for wheat, rice, maize, soybean and sugarcane, computable general equilibrium and land rent models, we project market impacts and crop-specific land-use change up to 2100 and the resulting implications for carbon and biodiversity. The results show a general increase in crop prices in tropical regions and a decrease in sub-tropical and temperate regions. Land-use change driven by market feedbacks generally amplify the effects of climate change on yields. Wheat, maize and sugarcane are projected to experience the most expansion especially in Canada and Russia, which also present the highest potential for habitat conversion-driven carbon emissions. Conversely, Latin America presents the highest extinction potential for birds, mammals and amphibians due to cropland expansion. Climate change is likely to redistribute agricultural production, generating market-driven land-use feedback effects which could, counterintuitively, protect global biodiversity by shifting global food production towards less-biodiverse temperate regions while creating substantial restoration opportunities in the tropics.

2. Influence of Canadian provincial stewardship model attributes on the cost effectiveness of e-waste management
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 358, May 2024, 120945

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of e-waste collection and management trends across six Canadian provinces, focusing on e-waste collection rates, provincial stewardship model attributes, program strategies and budget allocations from 2013 to 2020. Temporal and regression analyses were conducted using data from Electronic Product Recycling Association reports. A group characterization based on geographical proximity is proposed, aiming to explore the potential outcomes of fostering collaboration among neighboring provinces. The analysis emphasizes the significant impact of stewardship model attributes on e-waste collection rates, with Quebec emerging as a standout case, showcasing a remarkable 61.5% surge in collection rates. Findings from group analysis reveal a positive correlation between per capita e-waste collection rate and the growth of businesses and collection sites in Western Canada (Group A - British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba). This highlights the potential benefits of a coordinated waste management approach, emphasizing the importance of shared resources and collaborative policies. Saskatchewan and Manitoba allocated only 6.6% and 7.0% of their respective budgets to e-waste transfer and storage. British Columbia's observed steady decrease of e-waste collection rate. In Group A, stewards handled 2.18–13.95 tonnes of e-waste during the study period. The cost per tonne of e-waste tended to be lower when more e-waste is managed per steward, suggesting the potential benefits of an integrated e-waste collection and management system.

3. Impact of green space and built environment on metabolic syndrome: A systematic review with meta-analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 923, 1 May 2024, 170977

Abstract

Metabolic Syndrome presents a significant public health challenge associated with an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular conditions. Evidence shows that green spaces and the built environment may influence metabolic syndrome. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published through August 30, 2023, examining the association of green space and built environment with metabolic syndrome. A quality assessment of the included studies was conducted using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) tool. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) assessment was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence. Our search retrieved 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included in our review. Most were from China (n = 5) and the USA (n = 5), and most used a cross-sectional study design (n = 8). Nine studies (50 %) reported only green space exposures, seven (39 %) reported only built environment exposures, and two (11 %) reported both built environment and green space exposures. Studies reported diverse definitions of green space and the built environment, such as availability, accessibility, and quality, particularly around participants' homes. The outcomes focused on metabolic syndrome; however, studies applied different definitions of metabolic syndrome. Meta-analysis results showed that an increase in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 500-m buffer was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.87–0.93, I2 = 22.3 %, n = 4). A substantial number of studies detected bias for exposure classification and residual confounding. Overall, the extant literature shows a ‘limited’ strength of evidence for green space protecting against metabolic syndrome and an ‘inadequate’ strength of evidence for the built environment associated with metabolic syndrome. Studies with more robust study designs, better controlled confounding factors, and stronger exposure measures are needed to understand better what types of green spaces and built environment features influence metabolic syndrome.

4. Site selection for nature-based solutions for stormwater management in urban areas: An approach combining GIS and multi-criteria analysis
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120999

Abstract

In recent years, particularly following the definition of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) have gained considerable attention, capturing the interest of both the scientific community and policymakers committed to addressing urban environmental issues. However, the need for studies to guide decision-makers in identifying suitable locations for NBS implementation within urban stormwater management is evident. To address this gap, the present study employs a methodological approach grounded in multi-criteria analysis integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to identify areas with potential for NBS implementation. In this process, ten NBS were proposed and tested in the drainage area of a shallow tropical urban lake in Londrina, southern Brazil. Additionally, the study investigates areas hosting lower-income populations, a relevant aspect for public managers given the diverse economic subsidies required to implement NBS. Furthermore, the study incorporates a preliminary analysis that evaluates the potential ecosystem benefits to determine the most suitable NBS for a specific site. The result shows that all the ten analyzed NBS were deemed suitable for the study area. Rain barrels had the highest percentage coverage in the study area (37.1%), followed by tree pits (27.9%), and rain gardens (25.4%). Despite having the highest distribution in the basin area, rain barrels exhibited only moderate ecosystem benefits, prompting the prioritization of other NBS with more significant ecological advantages in the final integrated map. In summary, the methodology proposed showed to be a robust approach to selecting optimal solutions in densely populated urban areas.

5. Impact of single and combined local air pollution mitigation measures in an urban environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 924, 10 May 2024, 171441

Abstract

Urban air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems for human health and several strategies have been developed for its mitigation. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of single and combined mitigation measures on concentrations of air pollutants emitted by traffic at pedestrian level in the same urban environment. The effectiveness of different scenarios of green infrastructure (GI), the implementation of photocatalytic materials and traffic low emission zones (LEZ) are investigated, as well as several combinations of LEZ and GI. A wide set of scenarios is simulated through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling for two different wind directions (perpendicular (0°) and 45° wind directions). Wind flow for the BASE scenario without any measure implemented was previously evaluated using wind-tunnel measurements. Air pollutant concentrations for this scenario are compared with the results obtained from the different mitigation scenarios. Reduction of traffic emissions through LEZ is found to be the most effective single measure to improve local air quality. However, GI enhances the effects of LEZ, which makes the combination of LEZ + GI a very effective measure. The effectiveness of this combination depends on the GI layout, the intensity of emission reduction in the LEZ and the traffic diversion in streets surrounding the LEZ. These findings, in line with previous literature, suggest that the implementation of GI may increase air pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level for some cases. However, this study highlights that this negative effect on air quality can turn into positive when used in combination with reductions of local traffic emissions.

6. The environmental consequences of national Audit governance: An analysis based on county-level data in China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120976

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed growing public concern over air pollution in China, posing a challenge to the government's environmental management efforts. Empirical evidence indicates that the digital economy contributes to mitigating environmental pollution. Given that national audits are a crucial part of the national oversight system and considering the significant role of digital technology in audit governance, it is relevant to explore how the digital economy can support national audits in enhancing China's environmental quality. This study investigates the environmental impact of national audit governance, utilizing a dataset from 1540 counties in China spanning from 2005 to 2018. The findings reveal that effective national audits contribute to reducing haze pollution (HP) levels, with the digital economy playing a moderating role. The results also demonstrate heterogeneity; national audits are particularly effective in regions characterized by high urbanization rates, severe HP, and stringent environmental regulations. The mechanism analysis suggests that industrial transformation and enhanced government governance are the key mechanisms through which national audits reduce regional HP. Additionally, reforming the audit management system can amplify the effects of national audits on reducing HP.

7. Understanding the role of biodiversity in the climate, food, water, energy, transport and health nexus in Europe
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 925, 15 May 2024, 171692

Abstract

Biodiversity underpins the functioning of ecosystems and the diverse benefits that nature provides to people, yet is being lost at an unprecedented rate. To halt or reverse biodiversity loss, it is critical to understand the complex interdependencies between biodiversity and key drivers and sectors to inform the development of holistic policies and actions. We conducted a literature review on the interlinkages between biodiversity and climate change, food, water, energy, transport and health ("the biodiversity nexus”). Evidence extracted from 194 peer-reviewed articles was analysed to assess how biodiversity is being influenced by and is influencing the other nexus elements. Out of the 354 interlinkages between biodiversity and the other nexus elements, 53 % were negative, 29 % were positive and 18 % contained both positive and negative influences. The majority of studies provide evidence of the negative influence of other nexus elements on biodiversity, highlighting the substantial damage being inflicted on nature from human activities. The main types of negative impacts were land or water use/change, land or water degradation, climate change, and direct species fatalities through collisions with infrastructure. Alternatively, evidence of biodiversity having a negative influence on the other nexus elements was limited to the effects of invasive alien species and vector-borne diseases. Furthermore, a range of studies provided evidence of how biodiversity and the other nexus elements can have positive influences on each other through practices that promote co-benefits. These included biodiversity-friendly management in relevant sectors, protection and restoration of ecosystems and species that provide essential ecosystem services, green and blue infrastructure including nature-based solutions, and sustainable and healthy diets that mitigate climate change. The review highlighted the complexity and context-dependency of interlinkages within the biodiversity nexus, but clearly demonstrates the importance of biodiversity in underpinning resilient ecosystems and human well-being in ensuring a sustainable future for people and the planet.

8. Environmental taxation of plastic bags and substitutes: Balancing marine pollution and climate change
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120868

Abstract

Several countries have imposed either a ban or a tax on single-use plastic packaging, motivated by their contribution to marine plastic pollution. This may lead consumers to opt for similar unregulated substitutes, potentially undermining or even counteracting the intended effect of the policy instrument. The purpose of this study is to theoretically and empirically compare the environmental and welfare effects of the first-best Pigouvian taxes on both plastic bags and a substitute (paper bags), with two alternative second-best policy instruments: a tax on plastic products alone, and a common uniform tax on all packaging materials. The empirical analysis accounts for two different types of environmental externalities from the use of both bag types: marine pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It also compares results for two countries, Denmark and the USA, which differ in the demand for plastic and paper bags. The theoretical analysis shows that a unilateral tax on plastic bags should equal the marginal environmental damage of plastic bags minus a fraction of the marginal environmental cost of paper bags, hence being lower than the Pigouvian tax. The optimal common tax should equal a weighted average of the marginal environmental damage of the two bag types and would be lower than the Pigouvian tax on plastics if the marginal external cost of plastic bags exceeds that for paper bags. The empirical analysis shows that for default parameters, the variation in tax level across the studied scenarios is small. It also shows that if Pigouvian taxes cannot be implemented, a common uniform tax on both bag types would result in a higher welfare gain than a tax on plastic bags alone. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the level of the second-best taxes and their associated environmental and welfare impacts are sensitive to assumptions regarding the littering rate and decay rate of plastic bags in the marine environment.

9. Household size and transport carbon emissions in China: Direct, heterogeneity and mediating effects
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 925, 15 May 2024, 171650

Abstract

Shrinking household sizes presents a significant sustainable challenge by reducing the sharing of means of transportation and increasing individual resource consumption and carbon emissions. Research from the historical literature reveals that larger households generally exhibit lower per capita energy consumption and carbon emissions. However, it remains uncertain how widely these trends extend and their implications for carbon emissions within the expanding transportation industry. This paper employs inter-provincial data from China spanning 2003–2021 to investigate the effects, regional heterogeneity, and mechanisms by which household size influences carbon emissions from the transport sector. The findings show that the expansion of household size in China significantly reduces carbon emissions from transport by 0.2805 %. Households with 2 to 4 members are more effective in achieving transport carbon emission reductions, with an average reduction level of 0.1853 %. Moreover, in terms of geographic factors, reducing transport carbon emissions is more effective in low-density areas than in high-density areas. At the income and carbon emissions level, household size significantly reduces transport carbon emissions in high-income and low-emission regions, and to a lesser extent in low-income and high-emission regions. Additionally, the study revealed that transport consumption expenditure and energy consumption indirectly strengthen the effect of household size on reducing transport carbon emissions. Future sustainable development strategies should focus on regulating household size and promoting moderate household size to decrease personal resource consumption and transportation carbon emissions, and to achieve the objective of sustainable development.

10. Least-cost decarbonization pathways for electricity generation in Finland: A convex quantile regression approach
Journal of Environmental Management,Volume 359, May 2024, 120848

Abstract

This study investigates the least-cost decarbonization pathways in the Finnish electricity generation industry in order to achieve the national carbon neutrality goal by 2035. Various abatement measures, such as downscaling production, capital investment, and increasing labor and intermediate inputs, are considered. The marginal abatement costs (MACs) of greenhouse gas emissions are estimated using the convex quantile regression method and applied to unique register-based firm-level greenhouse gas emission data merged with financial statement data. We adjust the MAC estimates for the sample selection bias caused by zero-emission firms by applying the two-stage Heckman correction. Our empirical findings reveal that the median MAC ranges from 0.1 to 3.5 euros per tonne of CO2 equivalent. The projected economic cost of a 90% reduction in emissions is 62 million euros, while the estimated cost of achieving zero emissions is 83 million euros.

11. China's "coal-to-gas” policy had large impact on PM1.0 distribution during 2016–2019
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 121071

Abstract

Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 1 μm (PM1.0) can be extremely hazardous to human health, so it is imperative to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of PM1.0 and analyze the impact of related policies on it. In this study, a stacking generalization model was trained based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from satellite observations, combined with related data affecting aerosol concentration such as meteorological data and geographic data. Using this model, the PM1.0 concentration distribution in China during 2016–2019 was estimated, and verified by comparison with ground-based stations. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the model is 0.94, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 8.49 μg/m3, mean absolute error (MAE) is 4.10 μg/m3, proving that the model has a very high performance. Based on the model, this study analyzed the PM1.0 concentration changes during the heating period (November and December) in the regions where the "coal-to-gas” policy was implemented in China, and found that the proposed "coal-to-gas” policy did reduce the PM1.0 concentration in the implemented regions. However, the lack of natural gas due to the unreasonable deployment of the policy in the early stage caused the increase of PM1.0 concentration. This study can provide a reference for the next step of urban air pollution policy development.

12. A novel approach to deriving the fine-scale daily NO2 dataset during 2005–2020 in China: Improving spatial resolution and temporal coverage to advance exposure assessment
Environmental Research, Volume 249, 15 May 2024, 118381

Abstract

Surface NO2 pollution can result in serious health consequences such as cardiovascular disease, asthma, and premature mortality. Due to the extensive spatial variation in surface NO2, the spatial resolution of a NO2 dataset has a significant impact on the exposure and health impact assessment. There is currently no long-term, high-resolution, and publicly available NO2 dataset for China. To fill this gap, this study generated a NO2 dataset named RBE-DS-NO2 for China during 2005–2020 at 1 km and daily resolution. We employed the robust back-extrapolation via a data augmentation approach (RBE-DA) to ensure the predictive accuracy in back-extrapolation before 2013, and utilized an improved spatial downscaling technique (DS) to refine the spatial resolution from 10 km to 1 km. Back-extrapolation validation based on 2005–2012 observations from sites in Taiwan province yielded an R2 of 0.72 and RMSE of 10.7 μg/m3, while cross-validation across China during 2013–2020 showed an R2 of 0.73 and RMSE of 9.6 μg/m3. RBE-DS-NO2 better captured spatiotemporal variation of surface NO2 in China compared to the existing publicly available datasets. Exposure assessment using RBE-DS-NO2 show that the population living in non-attainment areas (NO2 ≥ 30 μg/m3) grew from 376 million in 2005 to 612 million in 2012, then declined to 404 million by 2020. Unlike this national trend, exposure levels in several major cities (e.g., Shanghai and Chengdu) continued to increase during 2012–2020, driven by population growth and urban migration. Furthermore, this study revealed that low-resolution dataset (i.e., the 10 km intermediate dataset before the downscaling) overestimated NO2 levels, due to the limited specificity of the low-resolution model in simulating the relationship between NO2 and the predictor variables. Such limited specificity likely biased previous long-term NO2 exposure and health impact studies employing low-resolution datasets. The RBE-DS-NO2 dataset enables robust long-term assessments of NO2 exposure and health impacts in China.

13. Natural resources-environmental technology-ecological footprint nexus: Does natural resources rents diversification make a difference?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 121036

Abstract

Researchers have shown a growing interest in investigating the environmental consequences of energy exploitation and green technologies, particularly in light of the escalating severity of climate change issues in recent times. However, these researches remain incomplete in terms of the various elements and mechanisms of impact. By assessing the novel facet of resource diversification, this study has assessed the direct and indirect effects of this feature on environmental quality. This study used the Moment quantile Regression technique to examine data from 31 OECD nations spanning the time frame of 2009–2019. The findings indicate that resource diversification has an adverse effect on environmental quality, however this effect is not homogeneously observed across all countries. Countries with favorable environmental conditions will encounter a more pronounced influence from the diversification of natural resources extraction. This study further demonstrates that expanding the variety of natural resource exploitation will amplify the negative effects of resource exploitation on environmental quality. Furthermore, the degree of environmental technology exerts a beneficial impact on environmental quality across various degrees of environmental quality. Our findings offer several insightful policies for natural resources management in the context of the ongoing industrial revolution.

14. Water rights trading planning and its application in water resources management: A water-ecology-food nexus perspective
Environmental Research, Volume 249, 15 May 2024, 118377

Abstract

Nexus approach provides an effective perspective for implementing synergetic management of water resources. In this study, an interval two-stage chance-constrained water rights trading planning model under water-ecology-food nexus perspective (ITCWR-WEF) is proposed to analyze the interaction between water trading and water-ecology-food (WEF) nexus, which fills in the water resources management gaps from a novel nexus perspective. ITCWR-WEF incorporates hydrological simulation with soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), water rights configuration with interval two-stage chance-constrained programming (ITCP), and multi-criterion analysis with Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The developed ITCWR-WEF is applied to a real case of Daguhe watershed, which has characteristics of water scarcity, food producing areas and fragile ecosystem. Initial water rights allocation is addressed before the trading. Mechanisms analysis is designed to reveal mutual effect of water rights trading and WEF nexus. Optimal water management scenario is identified through multi-criterion analysis. Results reveal that the mechanism of water rights trading with WEF nexus under low constraint-violation risk level of water availability and environment capacity is recommended to promote the rational water resources allocation to balance the economic goals, water environment and water supply security, as well as ecological and food water demand guarantees.

15. Elucidating the changing particulate matter pollution and associated health effects in rural India during 2000–2019
Environmental Pollution, Volume 348, 1 May 2024, 123830

Abstract

Atmospheric pollution is a serious problem in many countries, including India, and it is generally considered as an urban issue. To fill the knowledge gap about particulate pollution and its adverse health effects in rural India for well-informed region-specific policy interventions, we present new insights on the rural pollution of India in terms of PM2.5. Here, we analyse PM2.5 pollution and its associated health burden in rural India using satellite and reanalyses data for the period 2000–2019. We observe a gradual and consistent rise of atmospheric pollution in rural areas of India. The highest PM2.5 levels are observed in Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) during winter and post-monsoon seasons (107.0 ± 17.0 and 91.0 ± 21.7 μg/m3, respectively). A dipole reversal in seasonal trends between winter and post-monsoon seasons is found for black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in the rural IGP. The rural North West India (NWI) experiences elevated PM2.5 concentrations due to dust storms, while the rural hilly region (HR) in the Himalaya remains the least polluted region in India. The highest PM2.5 associated cardiopulmonary mortality in 2019 is observed in the rural IGP districts (1000–5100), whereas the highest mortality due to lung cancer at district level accounts for 10–60 deaths. The highest mortality attributed to PM2.5 is observed in districts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. The priority-wise segregation of states as per World Health Organisation (WHO) Interim targets (ITs), as assessed in this study, might be helpful in implementation and development of policies in phases. We, therefore, present the first detailed study on the PM2.5 pollution in rural India, and provide valuable insights on its distribution, variability, sources and associated mortality, and emphasize the need for addressing this issue to protect public health.

16. Integrated assessment of bioaerosol dispersion patterns and infection risk in a typical urban environment: implications for urban biosecurity management
Sustainable Cities and Society, Available online 21 May 2024, 105528

Abstract

Exposure to bioaerosols in high-density urban environments will pose a severe threat to human life and health and present significant challenges to the sustainability and resilience of cities. In this study, the aerodynamic dispersion patterns of bioaerosols at two release locations (open and dense areas) under both thermal conditions in Zhongguancun, Beijing, are investigated. By coupling a dose-response model and an improved cellular automaton, the infection risk within exposed populations was assessed, and emergency evacuation strategies for distinct populations in high-risk areas were devised. This study reveals that bioaerosol distribution is notably influenced by factors such as thermal conditions, release locations and pedestrian height. Bioaerosol concentration above the release source decreases with increasing pedestrian height at two release locations. Under the same exposure time, the infection probability of different groups in this area declines with pedestrian height increases, with adult males having the highest and elderly females having the lowest probability. Thermal conditions and building layout near the release source were second only to exposure time in influencing infection probability and evacuation path. Proximity to the release source indicates a high infection probability but a short evacuation distance to safe areas, while downstream areas exhibit lower infection probability but require longer evacuation distances. The layout of buildings near the release source has the most significant effect on evacuation time. Evacuation for high-risk populations should be prioritized upstream or mainstream sides. This study aims to mitigate potential biological threats, address challenges in enhancing urban biosecurity management, and enable sustainable urban development.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ 

1. Implications of PM2.5 chemical composition in modulating microbial community dynamics during spring in Seoul
Environmental Pollution, Volume 348, 1 May 2024, 123834

Abstract

Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) harbors a diverse microbial community. To assess the ecological dynamics and potential health risks associated with airborne microorganisms, it is crucial to understand the factors influencing microbial communities within PM2.5. This study investigated the influence of abiotic parameters, including air pollutants, PM2.5 chemical composition (water-soluble ions and organics), and meteorological variables, on microbial communities in PM2.5 samples collected in Seoul during the spring season. Results revealed a significant correlation between air pollutants and water-soluble ions of PM2.5 with microbial α-diversity indices. Additionally, air pollutants exerted a dominant effect on the microbial community structure, with stronger correlations observed for fungi than bacteria, whereas meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, wind speed, and humidity exerted a limited influence on fungal α-diversity. Furthermore, the results revealed specific water-soluble ions, such as SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, as important factors influencing fungal α-diversity, whereas K+ negatively correlated with both microbial α-diversity. Moreover, PM2.5 microbial diversity was affected by organic compounds within PM2.5, with fatty acids exhibited a positive correlation with fungal diversity, while dicarboxylic acids exhibited a negative correlation with it. Furthermore, network analysis revealed direct links between air pollutants and dominant bacterial and fungal genera. The air pollutants exhibited a strong correlation with bacterial genera, such as Arthrospira and Clostridium, and fungal genera, including Aureobasidium and Cladosporium. These results will contribute to our understanding of the ecological dynamics of airborne microorganisms and provide insights into the potential risks associated with PM2.5 exposure.

2. Climate risk assessment and adaption ability in China's coastal urban agglomerations - A case study of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao greater bay area
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 452, 1 May 2024, 142036

Abstract

As climate change intensifies, extreme weather events, especially the coastal flooding is becoming increasingly severe. Carbon emissions exacerbate climate change, leading to increased frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation, which may result in flooding. This study focuses on the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), a coastal city cluster in China, and adopts the scenario analysis approach to evaluate flood risks in the different carbon mitigation scenario from the perspectives of dangerousness, and adaption ability. The result shows that the Huizhou in the east of the GBA and the Zhaoqing in the northwest have the highest level of flood disaster risk. However, the central region of the GBA (Guangzhou, Dongguan, Zhongshan, and Foshan) is very vulnerable to disaster-inducing environments and hazard-affected bodies, which means that the flooding risk and the impact of such risk in the GBA display regional differentiation characteristics and the spatial patterns of them are different. According to the carbon neutrality scenario, the flood risk in the GBA peaks in 2030, and decreases during 2030–2090. In contrast, under the uneven development and high carbon pathways, the risk peaks in 2060, and the overall risk by 2090 is roughly the same as that in 2060. In addition, the regions with the highest flood disaster risk are Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan and Zhongshan along the Pearl River estuary. Overall, it shows that areas with higher levels of urbanization and more developed economies will face higher flooding risks. The "dangerousness-adaption ability” structure can reflect the spatial distribution pattern of flood disaster risks, identify the priority areas for flood prevention and control, and is conducive to risk management. At the same time, the research results show that ecological protection have a positive effect on reducing flood risk. In addition, corresponding policy recommendations for pre-disaster, mid-disaster and post-disaster have been proposed, providing references for flood risk management in the GBA.

3. Comprehensive carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment: A case study of modified cyclic activated sludge technology for low carbon source urban wastewater treatment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 923, 1 May 2024, 171550

Abstract

To reduce pollution and carbon emissions, a quantitative evaluation of the carbon footprint of the wastewater treatment processes is crucial. However, micro carbon element flow analysis is rarely focused considering treatment efficiency of different technology. In this research, a comprehensive carbon footprint analysis is established under the micro carbon element flow analysis and macro carbon footprint analysis based on life cycle assessment (LCA). Three wastewater treatment processes (i.e., anaerobic anoxic oxic, A2O; cyclic activated sludge technology, CAST; modified cyclic activated sludge technology, M-CAST) for low carbon source urban wastewater are selected. The micro key element flow analysis illustrated that carbon source mainly flows to the assimilation function to promote microorganism growth. The carbon footprint analysis illustrated that M-CAST as the optimal wastewater treatment process had the lowest global warming potential (GWP). The key to reduce carbon emissions is to limit electricity consumption in wastewater treatment processes. Under the comprehensive carbon footprint analysis, M-CAST has the lowest environmental impact with low carbon emissions. The sensitivity analysis results revealed that biotreatment section variables considerably reduced the environmental impact on the LCA and the GWP, followed by the sludge disposal section. With this research, the optimization scheme can guide wastewater treatment plants to optimize relevant treatment sections and reduce pollution and carbon emissions.

4. How hydrological components of urban blue space influence the thermal milieu?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120959

Abstract

Present study examines the possible improvement of thermal discomfort mitigation. Unlike prior researches, which focused primarily on cooling effects of urban blue space, this study, instead of physical presence of blue space considers its hydrological components. The aim of the study is to better understand the role hydrological components like water consistency depth etc. In temperature regulation. The work uses field surveys and modeling to demonstrate how these hydrological factors influence the cooling effect of blue space, providing insights on urban thermal management. To fulfill the purpose, spatial association of hydrological components blue space with its thermal environment and cooling effects was assessed. The control of hydrological components on the surrounding air temperature was examined by conducting case studies.
Results
reveals greater hydro-duration, deeper water, and higher Water Presence Frequency (WPF) produce greater cooling effects. The study demonstrates a favorable correlation between hydrological richness and temperature reduction. The study also analyzes how land use and wetland size affect temperature, emphasizing the significance of hydrological conservation and restoration for successful temperature mitigation. Due to their hydrology, larger wetlands are able to moderate temperature to some extent, whereas smaller, fragmented wetlands being hydrologically poor are not so influential in this regard.
With these results, the present study reaches beyond to the general understanding regarding the cooling effects of the urban blue spaces. While the previous studies primarily focused on estimating the cooling effect of urban blue space, the current one shows its synchronization with the hydrological characteristics. Novelty also entrusts here, through the modeling and field survey current study demonstrates deeper and consistent water coverage in the urban blue space for maximum period of a year pronounces the cooling effect. In addition, in this cooling effect, the role of land use which is a strong determinant of many aspects of the urban environment is also highlighted. Since all these findings define specific hydrological feature, the study has several practical implications. Mare restoration of urban blue space is not enough to mitigate the thermal discomfort. In order to optimize the cooling effect, the conservation of the hydrological richness is essential. The hydrological richness of the smaller wetlands and the edge of the larger wetlands is to be improved. The connection of these wetlands with the adjacent mighty may strengthen the hydrology. The vegetation was found to promote the cooling effect whereas shorter building helped in spreading the cooling effect. Such finding drives to incorporate the blue space with the green infrastructure along with restricting the building height atleast at the edge of the blue space.

5. Living review framework for better policy design and management of hazardous waste in Australia
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 924, 10 May 2024, 171556

Abstract

The significant increase in hazardous waste generation in Australia has led to the discussion over the incorporation of artificial intelligence into the hazardous waste management system. Recent studies explored the potential applications of artificial intelligence in various processes of managing waste. However, no study has examined the use of text mining in the hazardous waste management sector for the purpose of informing policymakers. This study developed a living review framework which applied supervised text classification and text mining techniques to extract knowledge using the domain literature data between 2022 and 2023. The framework employed statistical classification models trained using iterative training and the best model XGBoost achieved an F1 score of 0.87. Using a small set of 126 manually labelled global articles, XGBoost automatically predicted the labels of 678 Australian articles with high confidence. Then, keyword extraction and unsupervised topic modelling with Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) were performed. Results indicated that there were 2 main research themes in Australian literature: (1) the key waste streams and (2) the resource recovery and recycling of waste. The implication of this framework would benefit the policymakers, researchers, and hazardous waste management organisations by serving as a real time guideline of the current key waste streams and research themes in the literature which allow robust knowledge to be applied to waste management and highlight where the gap in research remains.

6. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater contamination in Guwahati city, Assam, India: Tracing the elemental Threads
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120933

Abstract

Groundwater serves as an important resource for drinking and agriculture in many countries, including India. Assessing the quality of groundwater is essential for understanding its chemical characteristics and suitability for consumption. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the hydrogeochemical changes in groundwater within Guwahati City, Assam, India. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements, as well as anion concentrations. Concentrations of As, Al, Ba, Cu, F−, Fe, Mn, and Pb exceeded the permissible limits set by both World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), indicating serious health concerns for the local inhabitants. The distribution pattern of trace elements exceeding the guideline values is intricate, suggesting widespread contamination of groundwater throughout the study area. The Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) and Water Quality Index (WQI) revealed that, except for the central zone, groundwater across the entire study area requires intervention. Piper plot illustrated that the groundwater is predominantly of Ca–HCO3 type, indicating the dominance of alkaline earth and weak acids. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry is mainly controlled by rock-water interaction and evolves through silicate weathering, carbonate weathering, and cation exchange processes. Multivariate statistical analysis identified distinct groups of groundwater based on chemical characteristics, emphasizing the role of both natural processes and anthropogenic activities in influencing groundwater quality. Regular monitoring, management, and intervention of groundwater sources throughout the study area are crucial for long-term use. The findings of this study will assist stakeholders, regulators, and policymakers in formulating strategies for the sustainable use of groundwater.

7. Using dispersion models at microscale to assess long-term air pollution in urban hot spots: A FAIRMODE joint intercomparison exercise for a case study in Antwerp
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 925, 15 May 2024, 171761

Abstract

In the framework of the Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe (FAIRMODE), a modelling intercomparison exercise for computing NO2 long-term average concentrations in urban districts with a very high spatial resolution was carried out. This exercise was undertaken for a district of Antwerp (Belgium). Air quality data includes data recorded in air quality monitoring stations and 73 passive samplers deployed during one-month period in 2016. The modelling domain was 800 × 800 m2. Nine modelling teams participated in this exercise providing results from fifteen different modelling applications based on different kinds of model approaches (CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics-, Lagrangian, Gaussian, and Artificial Intelligence). Some approaches consisted of models running the complete one-month period on an hourly basis, but most others used a scenario approach, which relies on simulations of scenarios representative of wind conditions combined with post-processing to retrieve a one-month average of NO2 concentrations.

The objective of this study is to evaluate what type of modelling system is better suited to get a good estimate of long-term averages in complex urban districts. This is very important for air quality assessment under the European ambient air quality directives. The time evolution of NO2 hourly concentrations during a day of relative high pollution was rather well estimated by all models. Relative to high resolution spatial distribution of one-month NO2 averaged concentrations, Gaussian models were not able to give detailed information, unless they include building data and street-canyon parameterizations. The models that account for complex urban geometries (i.e. CFD, Lagrangian, and AI models) appear to provide better estimates of the spatial distribution of one-month NO2 averages concentrations in the urban canopy. Approaches based on steady CFD-RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) model simulations of meteorological scenarios seem to provide good results with similar quality to those obtained with an unsteady one-month period CFD-RANS simulations.

8. Linking water stress and measures of crisis management - A systematic review of emergency drinking water management in Germany
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120901

Abstract

Hydrogeological effects of climate change will continue to affect water reservoirs worldwide. Some regions are experiencing and will experience severe decline in their water resources due to prolonged periods of drought. Since emergency practices such as the provision of emergency drinking water and forest firefighting depend on regional surface and groundwater resources, the safety of the hydro geosphere's of a region is of fundamental importance, especially in times of crisis. The study uniquely addresses the integration of emergency water management within broader sustainable practices, particularly in the German context where such an analysis has not been previously consolidated. Using the example of emergency drinking water management, the paper elaborates the extent to which measures of emergency response are currently recognised as part of sustainable water management. In an analysis, 79 documents addressing emergency drinking water management of both water supply companies and crisis management authorities in Germany were analysed. The findings revealed a general lack of documents addressing the long-term dependencies between water resources and emergency measures currently applied. Furthermore, the documents do not elaborate on how to implement these measures in a sustainable way recognising the distinctive characteristics of a region. Since response measures can potentially intensify water stress in a region, emergency water management must be consequently included in a holistic water management process to protect landscapes and communities for the future. This paper provides a first comprehensive compilation of essential documents dealing with emergency drinking water management in Germany. It furthermore introduces a new approach to emergency water management and identifies necessary research that could serve as a baseline for future crisis decision making to strengthen national and international initiatives on water resource protection.

9. Geochemical evaluation, ecological and human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in urban soil, Southern India
Environmental Research, Volume 248, 1 May 2024, 118413

Abstract

Roadside soil contamination is mostly caused by human-caused pollutant deposition. PTEs are among the many substances that are harmful for both humans and the environment. PTE concentrations in roadside soil in Chennai, southern India, have been determined in this study. To evaluate the seriousness of the threats, more environmental and geochemical indices have been applied. 83 soil samples have been obtained from the study regions and focusing on important roads. Elemental analysis has been analyzed with ED-XRF and sieve-filtered samples focused on PTEs such as arsenic, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, nickel, lead, thorium, titanium, zinc, and uranium. Significant metallic variations have been found in soil samples around roads by the investigation. The elements this study examined section ascending in the following sequence: Fe > Ti > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Th > As > U > K. In the research area, the CD classification denotes high contamination, whereas the CF indices show mild to significant pollution. PLI indicates moderate to high pollution, whereas EF suggests excessive enrichment. Igeo demonstrates a range from uncontaminated to highly contaminated. PERI showed high levels in the northern study region, whereas GUFI shows several hot spots indicating moderate to severe pollution. The Hazard Index (HI) values for all metals were less than one, demonstrating the absence of non-carcinogenic risks for both adults and children. Multivariate data show natural and anthropogenic PTEs in roadside soil. In addition, a soil quality monitoring system is needed to mitigate continual contamination risks.

10. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater contamination in Guwahati city, Assam, India: Tracing the elemental Threads
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 120933

Abstract

Groundwater serves as an important resource for drinking and agriculture in many countries, including India. Assessing the quality of groundwater is essential for understanding its chemical characteristics and suitability for consumption. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the hydrogeochemical changes in groundwater within Guwahati City, Assam, India. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements, as well as anion concentrations. Concentrations of As, Al, Ba, Cu, F−, Fe, Mn, and Pb exceeded the permissible limits set by both World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), indicating serious health concerns for the local inhabitants. The distribution pattern of trace elements exceeding the guideline values is intricate, suggesting widespread contamination of groundwater throughout the study area. The Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) and Water Quality Index (WQI) revealed that, except for the central zone, groundwater across the entire study area requires intervention. Piper plot illustrated that the groundwater is predominantly of Ca–HCO3 type, indicating the dominance of alkaline earth and weak acids. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry is mainly controlled by rock-water interaction and evolves through silicate weathering, carbonate weathering, and cation exchange processes. Multivariate statistical analysis identified distinct groups of groundwater based on chemical characteristics, emphasizing the role of both natural processes and anthropogenic activities in influencing groundwater quality. Regular monitoring, management, and intervention of groundwater sources throughout the study area are crucial for long-term use. The findings of this study will assist stakeholders, regulators, and policymakers in formulating strategies for the sustainable use of groundwater.

11. Short-term impact of air pollution, noise and temperature on emergency hospital admissions in Madrid (Spain) due to liver and gallbladder diseases
Environmental Research, Volume 249, 15 May 2024, 118439

Abstract

Background

Very few epidemiological studies have explored the environmental and meteorological risk factors that influence liver diseases and gallbladder disorders, and no studies have addressed the specific case of Spain.

Methods

This is a retrospective ecological study conducted during 2013–2018. We analysed emergency admissions in the central area of the Region of Madrid for the following causes: Liver and gallbladder diseases (L&GB) (ICD-10: K70–K81); disorders of gallbladder (DGB) (ICD 10: K80–K81); liver disease (LD) (ICD 10: K70–K77); alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (ICD-10: K70); viral hepatitis (VH) (ICD10:B15–B19); and hepatic failure, not elsewhere classified (HFNS) (ICD-10: K72). Independent variables used: meteorological (maximum daily temperature (Tmax in ⁰C), minimum daily temperature (Tmin in ⁰C), and relative humidity (RH in %)); chemical air pollution (8-hO3, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 in μg/m3); and noise pollution (equivalent level of daily noise (Ld in dB(A)). Transformed variables: extreme heat in degrees (Theat); wet cold (WC); and high ozone. We fitted Poisson models, negative binomials and zero-inflated Poisson controlled for seasonality, day of the week, holidays, trend, and autoregressive trend. Based on these models, the percentage of cases attributable to statistically significant risk factors was then estimated.

Results

In L&GB emergency admissions daily noise is related to 4.4% (CI95%: 0.8 7.9) of admissions; NO2 to 2.9% (CI95%: 0.1 5.7) and wet cold to 0.2% (CI95%: 0.8 7.9). Heat wave temperature was only related to ALD. In addition, the wet cold association with L&GB is also related to HFNS attributing 1.0% (CI95%: 0.3 1.8) of admissions for this cause.

Conclusions

Daily noise and NO2 are associated with more than 7% of urgent L&GB admissions. Both pollutants, are mainly emitted by road traffic. A reduction of traffic in cities would result in a reduction of emergency admissions due to this cause.

12. Microplastic contamination in urban aquatic environments: Occurrence characteristics in urban streams and stormwater runoff from urban surfaces
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 121050

Abstract

This study investigates microplastics in urban environments, focusing on their abundance, types, and relationships with hydrological parameters. Microplastic analyses encompassed two steps: (1) examining urban streams including discharges from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) during non-rainy seasons, and (2) analyzing stormwater runoff from urban surfaces for microplastic content during rainy seasons. In urban streams, WWTP discharge exhibited higher microplastic concentrations compared to other streams, indicating WWTP discharge is a dominant source of microplastic pollution. The most prevalent microplastics detected were polypropylene, polyethylene, and their copolymer, although a variety of other types were also found. Concentrations of microplastics were notably influenced by specific urban land uses, as evidenced by a strong correlation (0.95) between microplastic concentrations and areas characterized by industrial and transportation activities. During rainy seasons, microplastics followed the pattern of stormwater runoff, but the highest concentrations, significantly exceeding those in urban streams, were observed before the peak runoff. These maximum concentrations and their timing of occurrence were linked to antecedent dry days, rain intensity, and runoff rate, showing significant statistical correlations. Regardless of their sizes, a diverse range of microplastic types was identified in these conditions, with no consistent pattern across different rain events. This highlights the complex nature of urban microplastic pollution. This study reveals that aquatic ecosystems are significantly affected by two primary factors: (1) the consistent contribution of microplastics from WWTP discharges, and (2) the short-term, but severe, impacts of microplastic pollution associated with stormwater runoff. Furthermore, it suggests the development of alternative strategies to mitigate microplastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems, informed by the findings on the characteristics of microplastics in urban environments. This research underscores the urgent need for integrated urban environmental management strategies, paving the way for future studies to further explore and address the multifaceted challenges posed by microplastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems.

13. Sub-pilot scale sequential microalgal consortium-based cultivation for treatment of municipal wastewater and biomass production
Environmental Pollution, Volume 348, 1 May 2024, 123796

Abstract

Municipal wastewater (MWW) was treated by a sequential pilot microalgal cultivation process. The cultivation was performed inside a specifically designed low-cost photobioreactor (PBR) system. A microalgal consortium 2:1 was developed using Tetraselmis indica (TS) and Picochlorum sp. (PC) in the first stage and PC:TS (2:1) in the second stage and the nutrient removal efficiency and biomass production and biomolecules production was evaluated and also compared with monoculture in a two-stage sequential cultivation system. This study also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on microalgae growth and MWW treatment. The results showed that mixed microalgal consortium (TS:PC) had higher nutrient removal efficiency, with chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphate (TP), and total nitrate (TN) removal efficiencies of 78.50, 84.49, and 84.20%, respectively, and produced a biomass of 2.50 g/L with lipid content of 37.36% in the first stage of cultivation under indoor conditions. In the second stage of indoor cultivation, the PC:TS consortium demonstrated maximum COD, TP, and TN removal efficiencies of 92.49, 94.24, and 94.16%, respectively. It also produced a biomass of 2.65 g/L with a lipid content of 40.67%. Among all the seasonal variations, mass flow analysis indicated that the combination of mixed consortium-based two-stage sequential process during the winter season favored maximum nutrient removal efficiency of TN i.e. 88.54% (84.12 mg/L) and TP i.e., 90.18% (43.29 mg/L), respectively. It also enhanced total biomass production of 49.10 g in 20-L medium, which includes lipid yield ∼15.68 g compared to monoculture i.e., 82.06% (78.70 mg/L) and 82.87% (40.26 mg/L) removal of TN and TP, respectively, and produced biomass 43.60 g with 11.90 g of lipids.

14. Urbanization promotes carbon storage or not? The evidence during the rapid process of China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 359, May 2024, 121061

Abstract

China's commitment to attaining carbon neutrality by 2060 has galvanized research into carbon sequestration, a critical approach for mitigating climate change. Despite the rapid urbanization observed since the turn of the millennium, a comprehensive analysis of how urbanization influences urban carbon storage throughout China remains elusive. Our investigation delves into the nuanced effects of urbanization on carbon storage, dissecting both the direct and indirect influences by considering urban-suburban gradients and varying degrees of urban intensity. We particularly scrutinize the roles of climatic and anthropogenic factors in mediating the indirect effects of urbanization on carbon storage. Our findings reveal that urbanization in China has precipitated a direct reduction in carbon storage by approximately 13.89 Tg of carbon (Tg C). Remarkably, urban sprawl has led to a diminution of vegetation carbon storage by 8.65 Tg C and a decrease in soil carbon storage by 5.24 Tg C, the latter resulting from the sequestration of impervious surfaces and the elimination of organic matter inputs following vegetation removal. Meanwhile, carbon storage in urban greenspaces has exhibited an increase of 6.90 Tg C and offsetting 49.70% of the carbon loss induced by direct urbanization effects. However, the indirect effects of urbanization predominantly diminish carbon storage in urban greenspaces by an average of 5.40%. The degree of urban vegetation management emerges as a pivotal factor influencing the indirect effects of urbanization on carbon storage. To bolster urban carbon storage, curbing urban sprawl and augmenting urban green spaces are imperative strategies. Insights from this study are instrumental in steering sustainable urban planning and advancing towards the goal of carbon neutrality.

15. Prevalence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and their associations in municipal wastewater treatment plants along the Yangtze River basin, China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 348, 1 May 2024, 123800

Abstract

The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have resulted in the pollution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), posing threats to ecological security and human health. Thus, a comprehensive investigation was conducted to assess the occurrence, removal efficiency, and ecological risk of antibiotics, along with the diversity, abundance, and co-occurrence of ARGs, and their correlations in 13 WWTPs along the Yangtze River Basin. Among 35 target antibiotics, 23 antibiotics within 6 categories were detected in all the samples. Amoxicillin (AMO), ofloxacin (OFL), and pefloxacin (PEF) were predominant in influents, while AMO exhibited dominance with the highest concentration of 1409 ng/L in effluents. Although antibiotic removal performance varied among different WWTPs, a significant decrease in each antibiotic category and overall antibiotics was observed in effluents compared with that in influents (p < 0.05). Remarkably, ecological risk assessment revealed high risks associated with AMO and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and medium risks linked to several antibiotics, notably including OFL, roxithromycin (ROX), clarithromycin (CLA), and tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, 96 ARG subtypes within 12 resistance types were detected in this study, and the total absolute abundance and diversity of ARGs were significantly decreased from influents to effluents (p < 0.05). Enrichment of 38 ARGs (e.g., blaNDM, ermA, vatA, mexA, and dfrA25) in effluents indicated potential health risks. Various mobile genetic elements (MGEs), exhibited significant correlations with a majority of ARGs in both influents and effluents, such as intⅠ1, tnpA1, tnpA5, and tp614, underscoring the important role of MGEs in contributing to the ARG dissemination. Many antibiotics displayed lower correlations with corresponding ARGs, but exhibited higher correlations with other ARGs, suggesting complex selective pressures influencing ARG propagation. Overall, the incomplete elimination of antibiotics and ARGs in WWTPs is likely to pose adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems in the Yangtze River Basin.

16. Urbanization-driven forest soil greenhouse gas emissions: Insights from the role of soil bacteria in carbon and nitrogen cycling using a metagenomic approach
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 923, 1 May 2024, 171364

Abstract

Increasing population densities and urban sprawl have induced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the soil, and the soil microbiota of urban forests play a critical role in the production and consumption of GHGs, supporting green development. However, the function and potential mechanism of soil bacteria in GHG emissions from forests during urbanization processes need to be better understood. Here, we measured the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in Cinnamomum camphora forest soils along an urbanization gradient. 16S amplicon and metagenomic sequencing approaches were employed to examine the structure and potential functions of the soil bacterial community involved in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. In this study, the CH4 and CO2 emissions from urban forest soils (sites U and G) were significantly greater than those from suburban soils (sites S and M). The N2O emissions in the urban center (site U) were 24.0 % (G), 13.8 % (S), and 13.5 % (M) greater than those at the other three sites. These results were related to the increasing bacterial alpha diversity, interactions, and C and N cycling gene abundances (especially those involved in denitrification) in urban forest soils. Additionally, the soil pH and metal contents (K, Ca, Mg) affected key bacterial populations (such as Methylomirabilota, Acidobacteriota, and Proteobacteria) and indicators (napA, nosZ, nrfA, nifH) involved in reducing N2O emissions. The soil heavy metal contents (Fe, Cr, Pb) were the main contributors to CH4 emissions, possibly by affecting methanogens (Desulfobacterota) and methanotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, and Patescibacteria). Our study provides new insights into the benefits of conservation-minded urban planning and close-to-nature urban forest management and construction, which are conducive to mitigating GHG emissions and supporting urban sustainable development by mediating the core bacterial population.

INDUSTRIAL AREA ENVIRONMENT / MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP 

1. Sources apportionments of heavy metal(loid)s in the farmland soils close to industrial parks: Integrated application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) and cadmium isotopic fractionation
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 924, 10 May 2024, 171598

Abstract

Understanding the source identification and distribution of heavy metal(loid)s in soil is essential for risk management. The sources of heavy metal(loid)s in farmland soil, especially in areas with rapid economic development, were complicated and need to be explored urgently. This study combined geographic information system (GIS) mapping, positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and cadmium (Cd) isotope fingerprinting methods to identify heavy metal(loid) sources in a typical town in the economically developed Yangtze River Delta region of China. Cd, As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Co in different samples were detected. The results showed that Cd was the most severely contaminated element, with an exceedance rate of 78.0 %. GIS mapping results indicated that the hotspot area was located in the northeastern area with prolonged operational histories of electroplating and non-ferrous metal smelting industries. The PMF model analysis also identified emissions from smelting and electroplating enterprises as the main sources of Cd in the soil, counted for 49.28 %, followed by traffic (25.66 %) and agricultural (25.06 %) sources. Through further isotopic analysis, it was found that in soil samples near the industrial park, the contribution of electroplating and non-ferrous metal smelting enterprises to cadmium pollution was significantly higher than other regions. The integrated use of various methodologies allows for precise analysis of sources and input pathways, offering valuable insights for future pollution control and soil remediation endeavors.

2. Green lubrication: Mustard oil-based bio-lubricant enhanced with waste eggshell-derived CaO nanoparticles for sustainable and eco-friendly industrial solutions
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 453, 10 May 2024, 142184

Abstract

The adoption of bio-lubricants derived from vegetable oils is pivotal in advancing environmental sustainability and mitigating the ecological impact of industrial machinery. This study introduces a groundbreaking bio-lubricant formulated with mustard oil as the base, augmented by CaO nanoparticles synthesized from waste eggshells. The CaO nanoparticles were synthesized through a sol-gel method and meticulously characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This investigation delves into the tribological, rheological, and thermal properties of the developed bio-lubricant, highlighting its potential as a sustainable alternative. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to evaluate thermal stability and cold flow properties, revealing promising results. A comparative study with commercially available engine oil (SAE20W40) underscores the superior performance of the bio-lubricant. The key innovation lies in the incorporation of CaO nanoparticles, facilitated by a surfactant, which substantially enhances wear and friction reduction, lubrication qualities, shear stability, viscosity-temperature behavior, and thermal stability. These advancements position our bio-lubricant as a high-performance, environmentally friendly substitute for conventional lubricants. The study's findings underscore its potential for widespread industrial adoption, promising a transformative shift towards sustainable and eco-conscious lubrication practices.

3. Assessing the wastewater reclaim system consisted of wastewater plant - hybrid constructed wetland - ultra filtration and reverse osmosis in a chemical industrial park, a multi-criteria decision-making analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 926, 20 May 2024, 171942

Abstract

Wastewater reclaim in industrial parks can effectively reduce the dependence on external water resources, few literatures evaluated the reclaim system from perspectives of economy, technology, and environmental impact. It is very popular across China that a constructed wetland is linked with a wastewater plant and then discharged the tailwater into surface waters, based on current situation, pilot experiment, and other available techniques, six scenarios for wastewater reclaim system were designed for Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park. Using life cycle assessment, it was found that in scenario of pilot experiment, most environmental impact was derived from wastewater plant and ultra filtration - reverse osmosis, in which ultra filtration - reverse osmosis accounted >20 % for POCP, AP, and EP, Wastewater plant accounted >86 % for ADP, ODP. It was showed that electricity and sludge were most important parameters affecting LCA, when electricity consumption was reduced by 20 %, total standardized environmental impact would be changed in the range of 1.40 %–1.65 %, the most significant change was HTP (6.12 %–6.32 %) when 20 % up and downward change in sludge amount, followed by MAETP (5.27 %–5.36 %). A multi-criteria decision-making analysis was conducted on all the scenarios based on environmental impact, life cycle cost, technical efficiency, it was showed that the scenario designed for pilot experiment was the best available technique, which was consisted of wastewater plant, hybrid constructed wetland, ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis, and reused as desalted water. A wastewater reclaim plant is suggested from the result of this paper. It was believed that this study could provide references for construction of wastewater reclaim system in industrial parks of the world.

4. Factor-driven or innovation-driven? The role of digital technology in the cleanliness of industrial structure
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 452, 1 May 2024, 142136

Abstract

The role of digital technology in structural change of three major industries has been widely recognized, but its influence on the internal cleanliness change of the industry has not been confirmed. Based on panel data of 36 industrial sub-sectors in China from 2002 to 2020, this paper discusses the mechanism of digital technology driving the cleanliness of industrial structure from a heterogeneity perspective. The theoretical model indicates that variations in output growth across different industries can be attributed to total factor productivity (TFP) and factor distortions, and the heterogeneous contribution of digital technology to TFP and factor distortions leads to the change of industrial structure. The empirical results show that digital technology can not only promote innovation-driven development by increasing total factor productivity, but also help factor-driven development by reducing factor distortion. Heterogeneity tests show that digital technology contributes to the cleanliness of industrial structure, and polluting industries are mainly driven by factors, while cleaning industries are mainly driven by innovation. Therefore, it is necessary to correct the application direction of digital technology in time to better empower innovative development and clean production.

5. Comparative analysis of the equilibrium, kinetics, and characterization of the mechanism of rapid adsorption of Congo red on nano-biosorbents based on agricultural waste in industrial effluents
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 358, May 2024, 120863

Abstract

This study aims to remove Congo red dye from industrial effluent using economical agriculturally-based nano-biosorbents like magnetic orange peel, peanut shells, and tea waste. The nano-biosorbents were characterized by various analytical techniques like SEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD. The highest adsorption capacity was obtained under the following ideal conditions: pH = 6 (orange peel and peanut shells), pH = 3 (tea waste), and dosages of nano-biosorbents with varying timeframes of 50 min for tea waste and peanut shells and 30 min for orange peel. The study found that tea waste had the highest removal rate of 94% due to its high porosity and responsible functional groups, followed by peanut shells at 83% and orange peel at 68%. The Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the most suitable, with R2 values of 0.99 for tea waste, 0.92 for orange peel, and 0.71 for peanut shells. On the other hand, a pseudo-second-order kinetic model was very feasible, showing an R2 value of 0.99 for tea waste, 0.98 for peanut shells and 0.97 for orange peel. The significance of the current study lies in its practical application, enabling efficient waste management and water purification, thereby preserving a clean and safe environment.

6. An exploratory diagnosis and proposed index of technological change and sustainable industrial development in selected OECD member countries
Environmental Research, Available online 10 May 2024, 119122

Abstract

Industrial development has resulted in economic progress and the well-being of the society. At the same time, the impact of the industrial complex has disrupted the environment and resulted in climate change related impacts. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory diagnosis and propose a technological change and sustainable industrial development index at the international level. Therefore, a network study was conducted to identify the main nodes and thematic clusters associated with cleaner production. A patent analysis was applied to technologies related three selected/relevant areas of cleaner production, i.e. carbon footprint, wastewater treatment, and renewable energy. Additionally, based on factor analysis, an index including different indicators related to scientific, technological, economic, environmental, and social issues was developed and proposed in this study.

7. N-nitrosamines in electroplating and printing/dyeing industrial wastewater treatment plants: Removal efficiency, environmental emission, and the influence on drinking water
Water Research, Volume 255, 15 May 2024, 121537

Abstract

The discharge of industrial wastewater containing high concentrations of N-nitrosamines to the aquatic environment can impair downstream source waters and pose potential risks to human health. However, the transport and fate of N-nitrosamines in typical industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWWTPs) and the influence of these effluents on source water and drinking water are still unclear. This study investigated nine N-nitrosamines in four full-scale electroplating (E-) and printing/dyeing (PD-) IWWTPs, two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the lower reaches of these IWWTPs, and the corresponding tap water in South China. The total concentrations of N-nitrosamines (∑NAs) were 382–10,600, 480–1920, 494–789, and 27.9–427 ng/L in influents, effluents, source water, and tap water, respectively. The compositions of N-nitrosamine species in different influents varied a lot, while N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) dominated in most of the effluents, source water, and tap water. More than 70 % N-nitrosamines were removed by wastewater treatment processes used in E-IWWTPs such as ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis (Fe/C-ME), while only about 50 % of N-nitrosamines were removed in PD-IWWTPs due to the use of chlorine reagent or other inefficient conventional processes such as flocculation by cationic amine-based polymers or bio-contact oxidation. Therefore, the mass fluxes of N-nitrosamines discharged from these industrial wastewaters to the environment in the selected two industrial towns were up to 14,700 mg/day. The results based on correlation and principal component analysis significantly demonstrated correlations between E-and PD-effluents and source water and tap water, suggesting that these effluents can serve as sources of N-nitrosamines to local drinking water systems. This study suggests that N-nitrosamines are prevalent in typical IWWTPs, which may infect drinking water systems. The findings of this study provide a basis data for the scientific evaluation of environmental processes of N-nitrosamines.

8. When the use of derived wastes and effluents treatment is part of a responsible industrial production: a review
Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification, Available online 15 May 2024, 109826

Abstract

Effluents derived from industrial production can contain pollutants as oils, dyes, plaguicides, emerging organic pollutants, detergents, disinfectants, and toxic metals. The presence of high concentrations of pollutants in effluents makes them an important source of environmental pollution. To solve this problem, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of industrial effluents. Currently, sustainable industrial production and the wastes reuse is of great importance for the economic development and environmental countries protection. This review initially proposes an introduction to sustainable industrial production, its foundations and aspects related to the circular economy and the process intensification. Current trends in waste reuse in Latin America are presented. In addition, the latest advances on the technologies used for effluents treatment are commented and discussed, considering the different sustainability indicators. The contributions reported in this manuscript demonstrated the efficiency of eliminating pollutants present in industrial effluents, reaching removal percentages of pollutants from 20 to 100%. Finally, it is important to mention that the applied technologies are useful not only for the decontamination of an industrial effluent and the environmental care but also for the possibility of give an additional use to these resources considering the water shortage present in many parts of Latin America.

9. Geospatial analysis of toxic metal contamination in groundwater and associated health risks in the lower Himalayan industrial region
Science of The Total Environment, Available online 20 May 2024, 173328

Abstract

Once known for its clean and natural environment, the lower Himalayan region is now no exception to human-induced disturbances. Rapid industrial growth in Baddi-Barotiwala (BB) industrial region has led to degradation of groundwater resources in the area. Groundwater samples were collected from 37 locations to study the groundwater chemistry, geospatial variation of 15 toxic metals in groundwater, source apportionment, metals of concern and associated health risks in the region. The results showed rock dominated hydrogeology with decreasing order of anion and cation abundance as HCO3− > Cl− > SO42− > NO3− > Br− > F− and Ca+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Li+ respectively. Concentrations of Iron (BDL-3.6 mg/l), Nickel (BDL-0.023 mg/l), Barium (0.22–0.89 mg/l), Lead (0.0001–0.085 mg/l) and Zinc (0.006–21.4 mg/l) were found above the permissible limits at few locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) and coefficient of variance (CV) showed both geogenic and anthropogenic origin of metals in groundwater of the BB industrial region. A consistent concentration of Uranium was detected at all the sampling locations with an average value of 0.0039 mg/l and poor spatial variation indicating its natural presence. Overall, non-carcinogenic (N-CR) risk in the study area via oral pathway was high for adults and children (Hazard Index > 1) with geogenic Uranium as the major contributor (Hazard Quotient > 1) followed by Zinc, Lead and Cobalt. Carcinogenic (CR) risk in the region was high for adults having mean value above the threshold (1E-04) with Nickel and Chromium as the metals of major concern. Spatial variation of health risks was overlayed on village boundaries of the region to identify the potential industrial sources of the metals of major concern. The results highlight the need for immediate remediation of groundwater resources in order to achieve a harmonious coexistence between industrialization and human well-being.

10. Adaptive model forecasting of the time-variant fouling rate in dynamic ultrafiltration for produced water reclaim
Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification, Volume 199, May 2024, 109736

Abstract

The Gas and oil industry is water intensive and there is a need to develop strategies to mitigate its environmental impact. Dynamic ultrafiltration has shown remarkable performance for wastewater reclaim. However, the system complexity under uncertain input conditions limits aiming for an adaptive operation. Herein, a digital shadow tool is built for real-time adaptive model calibration and fouling rate forecasting to facilitate system operation. Previously obtained data from 18 pilot plant experiments in an oil recovery facility have been used. First, a signal preprocessing step allows the reconstruction of unrecorded backwash/backshock signals. Then, the multivariable Recursive Least Squared method with a forgetting factor using an autoregressive model (ARX) is investigated to decouple the effect of applied disturbances from the unknown input disturbances and process noise. Hyperparameters were determined through a sensitivity analysis. This approach allows accurate transmembrane pressure and membrane flux predictions (average and forecasting error <10 %), matching machine learning and hybrid model prediction capabilities. Model analysis showed a correlation between model gains and the critical flux, particularly the flux setpoint. Besides, the forecasted fouling rate brought novel information regarding the onset of irreversible fouling formation. This investigation illustrates how this approach facilitates understanding the complex operation of dynamic ultrafiltration.

11. Study on the optimal layout of roof vents and rooftop photovoltaic of the industrial workshop
Building and Environment, Available online 14 May 2024, 111624

Abstract

Roof vents are crucial for facilitating natural ventilation within industrial workshops. However, their substantial size and height can limit available roof space and create extensive shadow areas, thereby impeding the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on industrial roofs. This study quantitatively assesses the influence of roof vent positioning, morphology, and roof architecture on the natural ventilation efficiency of workshops with varying indoor heat sources. Subsequently, the study evaluates how different vent configurations affect the installable area for rooftop solar panels. Findings suggest that shifting from traditional roof ridge vents directly above a heat source to north-side vents inclined towards the roof can marginally decrease the ventilation flow rate by approximately 5%, translating to a minor temperature rise of around 0.46°C within the occupied zone. Nonetheless, the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) thermal comfort indices remain consistent across scenarios. Notably, adopting north-side vents, either flush with the roof or inclined, can enhance the annual energy yield of the rooftop PV system by 15.49% and 22.67%, respectively, under equivalent solar irradiation. Thus, strategic adjustments to vent positioning, form, and roof design can substantially boost the photovoltaic system's power output without compromising the workshop's natural ventilation performance.

12. Bacterial and microalgal co-fixation for remediation of industrial wastewater contaminated with arsenic, mercury, and other pollutants
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Available online 17 May 2024, 113099

Abstract

Microbial remediation is an efficient approach for improving heavy metal-contaminated water environments. Herein, this article developed a composite bacterial agent (CBA) with a high heavy metal tolerance. Within 12 h, the CBA demonstrated removal efficiencies of 65.18 ± 1.53% for As and 60.73 ± 0.94% for Hg in wastewater. This study prepared bacterial–algal fixed spheres (BAFS) to further enhance the removal efficiencies of As and Hg. Moreover, during desorption using 0.1 mol/L HNO3 for 60 min, the BAFS maintained high removal efficiencies for As and Hg after five adsorption–desorption cycles. Applying BAFS to industrial wastewater collected from factory outfall caused substantial reductions in chemical pollutants and other heavy metals. Scanning electron microscopy analysis further revealed that the internal cavities formed through the crosslinking of immobilized materials provided excellent survival carriers for bacteria and microalgae. Infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the involvement of three functional groups, namely -OH, -CH2-, and C-O-C, in pollutant adsorption. Additionally, microbial community diversity analysis indicated that immobilization effectively preserved the pollutant adsorption ability of the microorganisms, increasing the abundance of functional microbial populations. These characteristics improved the efficiency of industrial wastewater treatment while promoting recycling.

13. Untangling the forces behind carbon emissions in China's industrial sector - A pre and post 12th energy climate plan analysis
Urban Climate, Volume 55, May 2024, 101895

Abstract

The Chinese government announced the 12th Energy Climate Plan in March 2011, demonstrating a strong commitment to addressing energy and climate change and setting specific targets for reducing industrial carbon emissions. The study assesses China's industrial carbon emissions under the 12th Energy & Climate Plan framework. This study evaluated two scenarios to value its findings. In the first scenario, the study evaluated the whole sample period (2000−2020); subsequently, the time frame of the study was divided between two stints (pre- period (2000−2010)) and (post-period (2011−2020)). The study applied the logarithmic Mean Divisia Index to decompose the contributing factors to industrial carbon emissions and the Tapio decoupling model to analyze the decoupling states of the industrial sector of thirty provinces and three regions (eastern, western, and central). Based on the additive LMDI decomposition, the factors that contribute most to industrial carbon emission are carbon intensity, energy intensity, and economic activity-1. Twenty-one provinces experienced a change in the decoupling state between the pre-and post-period periods. Ten provinces experienced weak decoupling in the post-period. Fifteen provinces changed to strong decoupling. At the same time, the two provinces experienced recessive decoupling and expensive coupling. One province changed to weak negative decoupling in the post-period.

14. Does environmental decentralization improve industrial ecology? Evidence from China's Yangtze River Economic Belt
Economic Analysis and Policy, Available online 19 May 2024

Abstract 

The rational division of environmental management powers between governments is the institutional basis for promoting the transformation of industrial ecology (IE). Based on panel data of 105 prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) of China from 2006 to 2020, this study analyzes the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of IE and environmental decentralization (ED) in the YREB by constructing evaluation index systems. The spatial econometric model is used to explore the effects of ED on IE under economic growth pressure (EGP) and officials’ tenure (LT). The results indicate that regional differences in IE in the YREB exhibit a fluctuating downward trend and that the imbalance between regions is the leading cause of overall differences. Furthermore, IE presents a significant spatial positive correlation. ED has a restraining effect on IE and is regulated by EGP and LT. Moderate EGP can mitigate the negative effects of ED on IE, while LT intensifies the negative effects of ED on IE. Heterogeneity exists in the relationship between ED and IE in regional locations and pollution control pressure areas. These results are significant for developing a modern industrial system, formulating differentiated environmental protection strategies, and improving the government performance appraisal system.

15. Towards a zero-waste aquaponics-centered eco-industrial food park
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 454, 15 May 2024, 142109

Abstract

The scarcity of natural resources, rising energy prices and strict environmental policies are incentives for the food industry to reform current production strategies. As part of this shift, the eco-industrial park concept is gaining momentum. Industrial aquaponics, integrating aquaculture and hydroponics, emerges as a pioneering food production system. Its focus on reusing and conserving resources aligns with eco-industrial parks. The novel concept of an aquaponics-centered eco-industrial food park fits into a biobased circular economy and supports large-scale exploitation to overcome current economic constraints that prevent commercial adoption. However, balancing aquaponics-centered eco-industrial food parks to minimize external inputs as well as waste is challenging. The present study aims to investigate how a quasi-dynamic optimization method can be used in the design of aquaponics-centered eco-industrial food parks under different seasonal weather conditions. The food park encompasses an aquaculture-hydroponic and anaerobic digestion system that mineralizes internal waste streams. The study prioritizes enhancing nitrogen and phosphorus use-efficiency and self-sufficiency. The results unveil specific optimal hydroponic system sizes for a standardized 100 m3 aquaculture volume. Cooler regions thrive around 0.6–1.0 ha hydroponic system, while warmer areas excel at 0.2–0.3 ha with corresponding nitrogen and phosphorus use-efficiencies of 90% and 67% and self-sufficiencies of 88% and 95%, respectively. A supernatant nitrification step with light supplementation improved the design with maximum self-sufficiency and high water use-efficiency of 88% for a hydroponic-aquaculture area-volume ratio of 0.22:100. Complete nitrogen and phosphorus self-sufficient, near zero-waste, food park was achieved by introducing mineralization of chicken manure for a hydroponic-aquaculture ratio of 1.1:100. Moreover, the food park yielded a 6.7-fold lower carbon footprint compared to an optimized traditional on-demand coupled aquaponics system with a hydroponic-aquaculture ratio of 0.15:100.

16. PIV experimental study on natural convective flows at high Rayleigh numbers in industrial buildings
Building and Environment, Volume 256, 15 May 2024, 111460

Abstract

High heat loads in industrial buildings potentially form strong natural convective flows. These flows exhibit significant unsteadiness and anisotropy, which can profoundly impact indoor air distribution. To study the flow characteristics of thermal convective flows in large indoor spaces, we built a large-scale test bench with controllable thermal boundaries. Under three different heat source intensities represented by Rayleigh numbers (Ra = 3 × 1010, 6 × 1010, and 1 × 1011) that are typical in industrial buildings, we used 2-dimensional particle image velocimetry to capture the large-scale convective airflow by splicing nine subregions, each with 800 instantaneous flow fields sampled at a frequency of 3 Hz. The results show that the convective airflow exhibited large-scale circulation patterns. The velocity near the wall gradually increased with the increased Ra number, while the velocity at the center remained low. The turbulence intensity near the wall was less than 1, while that at the center was larger than 5 and fluctuated greatly. The dominant fluctuation frequency of the airflow under the high Ra was 0.1 Hz. Through proper orthogonal decomposition, it is found that even for horizontal flows, the main transient fluctuations still exhibit an up-and-down fluctuating flow structure. Additionally, the calculation of the velocity structure function revealed that the airflow near the wall is anisotropic, while the airflow at the center is isotropic. The Reynolds number of the flow generated by vertical temperature differences exhibits a power function relationship with the Rayleigh number. This study provides a basis for the optimization of air distribution design in industrial buildings.

CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam


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Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 26-2024.

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