Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 08-2023

  • Cập nhật: Thứ hai, 27/2/2023 | 9:11:21 AM

QLMT - Chuyên trang Quản lý môi trường trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 08-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:


Về quản lý môi trường

- Cảm biến ô nhiễm và xử lý môi trường dựa trên nanozyme: Xu hướng, thách thức và triển vọng

- Tối ưu hóa ngẫu nhiên của nhiều bên liên quan đối với các dự án đô thị có tác động thấp để đảm bảo tính nhất quán của khí hậu trong điều kiện không chắc chắn

- Sử dụng các công cụ GIS và BIM trong việc xác định tác động vòng đời của các hệ thống đô thị. Nghiên cứu điển hình: Các tòa nhà dân cư áp dụng Ma trận hiệu quả sinh thái tại thành phố Quito, Ecuador

- Sử dụng tài nguyên chất thải rắn để hợp tác giảm ô nhiễm và phát thải carbon: Nghiên cứu điển hình về tro bay

- Không gian xanh đô thị và tỷ lệ tử vong do tự tử ở Bỉ (2001–2011): Một nghiên cứu dài hạn dựa trên điều tra dân số

- Cotinine trong nước tiểu và tiếp xúc với khói thuốc thụ động ở trẻ em và thanh thiếu niên ở Đức – Kết quả giám sát sinh học con người của Khảo sát Môi trường Đức 2014–2017 (GerES V)

- Đánh giá về vi nhựa tăng cường có nguồn gốc từ chất thải y sinh trong đại dịch COVID-19 với độc tính, rủi ro sức khỏe và dấu ấn sinh học của nó

- Xem xét lại thảm họa lũ lụt lớn ở Thái Lan năm 2011: Nó có thể được giảm nhẹ bằng các hoạt động đập khác nhau dựa trên dự báo thời tiết tốt hơn không?

- Những thách thức môi trường của đại dịch COVID-19: khả năng phục hồi và tính bền vững – Đánh giá

- Biến đổi khí hậu và sức khỏe con người ở Đông Địa Trung Hải và Trung Đông: Đánh giá tài liệu, ưu tiên nghiên cứu và đề xuất chính sách

Về môi trường đô thị

- Sự xuất hiện không gian-thời gian của các chất gây ô nhiễm đáng lo ngại mới nổi ở các con sông đô thị ở miền nam Brazil

- Hydrocarbon thơm đa vòng ở dạng hạt thô (PM10) ở khu vực đô thị ven biển ở Ba Lan: Phân bố, phân tích nguồn và tác động rủi ro đối với sức khỏe con người

- Phân bố không gian của tổng thủy ngân và metyl thủy ngân trong trầm tích của môi trường ven biển nhiệt đới chịu tác động nặng nề của đô thị

- Tỷ lệ phát thải mùi của bãi chôn lấp hợp vệ sinh chất thải rắn đô thị trong các giai đoạn vận hành khác nhau trước khi đóng cửa cuối cùng

- Phân tích vòng đời của quá trình khí hóa và chuyển đổi Fischer-Tropsch của chất thải rắn đô thị để sản xuất nhiên liệu vận chuyển

- Sự phân bố nguồn và sự khác biệt theo mùa của các gen kháng kháng sinh giữa nhiều môi trường trong một siêu đô thị lạnh giá

- Đánh giá tính bền vững so sánh của các cấu hình thay thế của giải pháp loại bỏ nitơ đô thị nhắm vào các con đường khác nhau

- Mối quan hệ đô thị hóa, nông nghiệp và hội tụ khí thải carbon: Phân tích động lực phân bổ toàn cầu

- Định lượng hạt carbon sắt để kiểm soát mùi trong cống rãnh: Thử nghiệm trong phòng thí nghiệm

- Nghiên cứu chế tạo cấu trúc điện tử của xúc tác catốt lưỡng kim FeCo hiệu suất cao ứng dụng pin nhiên liệu vi sinh vật trong xử lý nước thải

- Đại dịch phát triển đô thị đang khiến chúng ta xa rời thiên nhiên

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Đặc tính trong thế giới thực của các chất carbon từ phát thải nguồn xử lý và cố định công nghiệp

- Sự hình thành loài, khả năng tiếp cận sinh học trong ống nghiệm và rủi ro sức khỏe của antimon trong đất gần khu công nghiệp cũ

- Kỹ thuật tế bào vi sinh vật với các axit amin không tự nhiên được hydroxyl hóa bằng kim loại để loại bỏ các chất ô nhiễm tổng hợp khỏi nước

- Ảnh hưởng lạc quan của các loài Bacillus kháng đa kim loại đến khả năng xử lý bằng thực vật của Chrysopogon zizanioides trên đất bị ô nhiễm kim loại

- Đánh giá các tác động đa phương tiện phát sinh từ việc áp dụng các tiêu chuẩn phát thải thấp hơn đối với các chất ô nhiễm axit trong các nhà máy chuyển hóa chất thải thành năng lượng

- Phân tích các nghiên cứu điển hình về cộng sinh công nghiệp và tiềm năng của nó ở Ả Rập Saudi

- Quả cầu sợi polypropylene chức năng kết hợp với axit citric để xử lý hiệu quả đất bị ô nhiễm cadmium (Cd) nặng dựa trên sự hấp phụ và tái chế axit citric

- Thành phần nguyên tố PM2.5 trong môi trường dân cư trong nhà và tác động đồng phơi nhiễm đối với sức khỏe đường hô hấp trong khu công nghiệp

Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!

QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG

1. Tracking long-term population exposure risks to PM2.5 and ozone in urban agglomerations of China 2015–2021

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 854, 1 January 2023, 158599

Abstract

China has experienced severe air pollution in the past decade, especially PM2.5 and emerging ozone pollution recently. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed long-term population exposure risks to PM2.5 and ozone in urban agglomerations of China during 2015–2021 regarding two-stage clean-air actions based on the Ministry of Ecology and the Environment (MEE) air monitoring network. Overall, the ratio of the population living in the regions exceeding the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg/m3) decreases by 29.9 % for PM2.5 from 2015 to 2021, driven by high proportions in the Middle Plain (MP, 42.3 %) and Lan-Xi (35.0 %) regions. However, this ratio almost remains unchanged for ozone and even increases by 1.5 % in the MP region. As expected, the improved air quality leads to 234.7 × 103 avoided premature mortality (ΔMort), mainly ascribed to the reduction in PM2.5 concentration. COVID-19 pandemic may influence the annual variation of PM2.5-related ΔMort as it affects the shape of the population exposure curve to become much steeper. Although all eleven urban agglomerations share stroke (43.6 %) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD, 30.1 %) as the two largest contributors to total ΔMort, cause-specific ΔMort is highly regional heterogeneous, in which ozone-related ΔMort is significantly higher (21 %) in the Tibet region than other urban agglomeration. Despite ozone-related ΔMort being one order of magnitude lower than PM2.5-related ΔMort from 2015 to 2021, ozone-related ΔMort is predicted to increase in major urban agglomerations initially along with a continuous decline for PM2.5-related ΔMort from 2020 to 2060, highlighting the importance of ozone control. Coordinated controls of PM2.5 and O3 are warranted for reducing health burdens in China during achieving carbon neutrality.

2. A 75-year history of microplastic fragment accumulation rates in a semi-enclosed hypoxic basin

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 854, 1 January 2023, 158751

Abstract

Plastic budgets in the marine environment and their long-term trends are yet to be fully understood. Measuring the accumulation rates in bottom sediments is crucial to solving the riddle of missing ocean plastics. Previous studies based on coastal sediment cores have found that accumulation rates have increased with increases in plastic production and/or regional populations. However, the correlations between the rates and bioactivities or ocean dynamics, which are crucial for modeling the microplastic sinking process, have not been examined. We revealed a 75-year microplastic fragment (0.3–5.0 mm) accumulation rate history in a hypoxic basin, Beppu Bay, Japan, based on multi-core analysis and 210Pb dating of the sediment which was cross-checked by time control with 137Cs radioactivity peaks. We found that a long-term linear increasing trend with an approximately 20-year variation overlapped with significant peaks around 1990 and 2014 with the first polypropylene microplastic fragment detected from a 1958.8–1961.0 CE sediment layer. The maximum rate was 203 pieces m−2 y−1 with an abundance of 86 pieces kg−1-dry in 2014. Smaller fragments in the size range of 0.3–2.0 mm have been consistently dominant in terms of the accumulation rate throughout the 1955–2015 period, accounting for 85.3 % of the total accumulation rate. The three major polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene) accounted for 96.6 % of the total rate. The rate was highly and positively correlated with the chlorophyll-a accumulation rate and concentration in the sediment. Based on the microplastic accumulation rates and concentration in the seawater, the mean sinking velocity of microplastics was estimated to be in the order of 101 m d−1. Our results will contribute to significant progress in modeling the microplastic sinking process by offering the first field measurement-based mean sinking velocity and significant correlations between the rate and bioactivity-related signals.

3. Nanozyme-based pollutant sensing and environmental treatment: Trends, challenges, and perspectives

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 854, 1 January 2023, 158771

Abstract

Nanozymes are defined as nanomaterials exhibiting enzyme-like properties, and they possess both catalytic functions and nanomaterial's unique physicochemical characteristics. Due to the excellent stability and improved catalytic activity in comparison to natural enzymes, nanozymes have established a wide base for applications in environmental pollutants monitoring and remediation. Nanozymes have been applied in the detection of heavy metal ions, molecules, and organic compounds, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Additionally, within the natural environment, nanozymes can be employed for the degradation of organic and persistent pollutants such as antibiotics, phenols, and textile dyes. Further, the potential sphere of applications for nanozymes traverses from indoor air purification to anti-biofouling agents, and even they show promise in combatting pathogenic bacteria. However, nanozymes may have inherent toxicity, which can restrict their widespread utility. Thus, it is important to evaluate and monitor the interaction and transformation of nanozymes towards biosphere damage when employed within the natural environment in a cradle-to-grave manner, to assure their utmost safety. In this context, various studies have concluded that the green synthesis of nanozymes can efficiently overcome the toxicity limitations in real life applications, and nanozymes can be well utilized in the sensing and degradation of several toxic pollutants including metal ions, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents. In this seminal review, we have explored the great potential of nanozymes, whilst addressing a range of concerns, which have often been overlooked and currently restrict widespread applications and commercialization of nanozymes.

4. Multi-stakeholder stochastic optimization of urban low impact developments for climate consistency under uncertainty

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 382, 1 January 2023, 135259

Abstract

Sustainable management of urban floods can prevent damage to the city's infrastructure. In particular, low-impact developments (LIDs) collect and reuse urban stormwaters and mitigate their destructive effects. This study aims to optimize the design of urban LIDs in terms of location and surface area, considering the climatic parameters and model uncertainties. Accordingly, the urban runoff quality and quantity, in addition to the climatic parameters and their uncertainties were analyzed in the modeling by repeated execution of a rainfall-runoff model in MATLAB. Then, using the concept of conditional value at risk, the uncertainty risk consideration was incorporated in the optimal design of the LIDs. Using a non-cooperative game model, stakeholders' priorities were also considered in selecting the best design scenario. In comparison with the baseline scenario (no LID, maximum runoff quantity, and worst runoff quality), the selected scenario decreased runoff volume, and two quality indicators (i.e., total suspended solids (TSS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)) by (56.1–64.6%), (22.1–27.1%), and (13.7–19.2%), respectively. This scenario is the best arrangement of LIDs (location and surface area) in different sub-basins that satisfies stakeholders' priorities. The novelty of this study lies in integrating uncertainty with social complexities in a sustainable quantitative and qualitative urban runoff management using a risk-based stochastic optimization and a flexible conflict resolution model. Incorporating conflict resolution concepts in LIDs design prevents wastage of time and money and facilitates achieving socioecological implications such as ecosystem services, neighborhood aesthetics, recreational spaces, and enhancing land values. The suggested methodology was tested in the Velenjak region, northern Tehran.

5. Distinctive roles of land-use efficiency in sustainable development goals: An investigation of trade-offs and synergies in China

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 382, 1 January 2023, 134889

Abstract

Achieving the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) proposed by the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an intercommunicated mission worldwide. It is primarily known that increasing urban areas and populations can considerably influence numerous SDGs. However, the interaction mechanism between urban expansion (UE), urban population dynamics (UPD), land-use efficiency, and SDGs, until now, has not been fully understood. The present study employed remotely sensed data of population and land covers to analyze spatiotemporal variations in land consumption rate (LCR), population growth rate (PGR) and the ratio of LCR to PGR (LCRPGR) of 31 provinces in China from 1995 to 2015. Moreover, we investigated the relations between land-use efficiency and SDG practice using the Spearman coefficient and explored how economic zones alter the consequence of LCR, PGR, and LCRPGR on SDG implementations. The results show that nine SDGs had synergies with LCRPGR, exceeding the total number of synergy relationships yielded by LCR and PGR, indicating that LCRPGR that considers both LCR and PGR exerts more impacts on SDG implementations compared with the single perspective concerning LCR or PGR. The synergies and trade-offs of LCRPGR were more evident in undeveloped economic zones, while few influences of LCRPGR on SDGs were observed in developing economic zones. It suggests that improving land-use efficiencies to facilitate SDG implementation is essential in undeveloped economic settings. The study provides a better understanding of SDG practice in land-use efficiency for developing countries, i.e., China, and guides the regulations of urban expansion and population growth.

6. How magnitude of PM2.5 exposure disparities have evolved across Chinese urban-rural population during 2010–2019

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 382, 1 January 2023, 135333

Abstract

Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China not only facilitate economic progress, but also aggravate environmental pollution and disparity. Particulate matter (especially PM2.5) pollution has attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to its serious adverse health impact. However, the spatial disparity and socioeconomic inequality between urban and rural population owing to PM2.5 pollution have rarely been quantified. In this study, PM2.5 exposures to urban and rural population in China during 2010–2019 were estimated respectively using satellite data and the convolutional neural network. The association between socioeconomic indexes and PM2.5 exposure was then examined with the geographic detectors, considering the tremendous disparity in socioeconomic development between rural and urban communities. The regional difference and urban-rural disparity in PM2.5 exposure was finally quantified based on Theil index. The results show PM2.5 exposure and its spatial difference have decreased significantly during the decade, with the concentration decreasing by 26% (from 48 to 35 μg/m3) and the Theil index decreasing from 0.13 to 0.05. The inter-provincial difference dominates the overall spatial variation in 2010, changing to intra-provincial difference in 2019. We also find that China has faced environmental inequality in PM2.5 exposure between urban and rural community in the past decade, manifesting that the urban population suffered from higher PM2.5 levels than the rural population, while the inequality had decreased significantly by 2019. This is consistent with the pattern that PM2.5 exposures increase with socioeconomic development in the early stage, and stabilize or decrease in the late stage. The results suggest that China should abandon the old path of "pollute first and control later” on rural revitalization strategy, otherwise rural population may experience higher exposure than urban population, plunging rural communities into the "environment-health-poverty” trap.

7. Use of GIS and BIM tools in determining the life cycle impact of urban systems. Case study: Residential buildings which apply the Eco-Efficiency Matrix in the city of Quito, Ecuador

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 383, 10 January 2023, 135485

Abstract

Of the numerous effects of human activity with a direct impact on changes in the environment, one of the main activities is construction, which generates approximately 33% of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and contributes to an increase in environmental impact. At present, interest in reducing these emissions has led to the development of various tools to quantify, evaluate and control environmental impact. Among the better-known ones, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is frequently linked to BIM modelling. The cities are responsible for 75% of carbon emissions, for that reason, this paper aims to analyse whether urban concentration of high-rise blocks. Using the GIS tool to geographically visualize the urban system of the study area, the main displacement routes were located according to the types of transport used and the location of two study sites in the Hypercentre of Quito considered as points of origin for these trips. These data were entered in several tables to ascertain the overall impact in the use phase at city level. The impact of the building in the production, construction, de-construction and recycling phases was added at a later stage. The use of the three tools - LCA, BIM and GIS - allowed us to establish that the highest number of impacts occurs in the use phase, given the high consumption of operational energy. Finally, it was concluded that in Quito, a city model concentrated in height, displays less environmental impact compared to uncontrolled urban extension. It is therefore essential to locally implement tools, such as the Eco-Efficiency Matrix, which contribute to the sustainable development of the city.

8. Resource utilization of solid waste for the collaborative reduction of pollution and carbon emissions: Case study of fly ash

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 383, 10 January 2023, 135449

Abstract

Coal consumption during thermal power generation produces massive amounts of fly ash, accounting for approximately 40% of total municipal solid waste. Fly-ash utilization can reduce solid waste pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and achieve economic benefits. Research on fly-ash resource utilization technology is extensive and detailed; however, studies on its management status and future planning are limited. This study investigates China's spatiotemporal law regulating thermal power plant fly ash. On-site investigations identified the primary metabolic pathways and spatial differences in fly-ash resource utilization. Three resource utilization pathways were selected for environmental impact analysis based on life cycle assessment. The results demonstrated the economic and environmental benefits of fly-ash resource utilization under different allocation situations. The results of this study provide essential data and evaluation support for top-level planning, enterprise layout, and government supervision of fly-ash resource utilization in the future. These results will also provide a reference for further work on bulky solid waste management.

9. Urban green spaces and suicide mortality in Belgium (2001–2011): A census-based longitudinal study

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 1, 1 January 2023, 114517

Abstract

Background

Exposure to green spaces is associated with improved mental health and may reduce risk of suicide. Here, we investigate the association between long-term exposure to residential surrounding greenness and suicide mortality.

Methods

We used data from the 2001 Belgian census linked to mortality register data (2001–2011). We included all registered individuals aged 18 years or older at baseline (2001) residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 3,549,514). Suicide mortality was defined using the tenth revision of the World Health Organisation International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes X60-X84, Y10–Y34, and Y870. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within a 300 m and 1,000 m buffer around the residential address at baseline. To assess the association between residential surrounding greenness and suicide mortality, we applied Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale. Models were adjusted for age, sex, living arrangement, migrant background, educational attainment, neighbourhood socio-economic position. We additionally explored potential mediation by residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. Finally, we assessed potential effect modification by various socio-demographic characteristics of the population (sex, age, educational attainment, migrant background, and neighbourhood socio-economic position). Associations are expressed as hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential surrounding greenness.
Results

We observed a 7% (95%CI 0.89–0.97) and 6% (95%CI 0.90–0.98) risk reduction of suicide mortality for an IQR increase in residential surrounding greenness for buffers of 300 m and 1,000 m, respectively. Furthermore, this association was independent of exposure to NO2. After stratification, the inverse association was only apparent among women, and residents of Belgian origin, and that it was stronger among residents aged 36 or older, those with high level of education, and residents of most deprived neighbourhoods.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that urban green spaces may protect against suicide mortality, but this beneficial effect may not be equally distributed across all strata of the population.

10. Urinary cotinine and exposure to passive smoke in children and adolescents in Germany – Human biomonitoring results of the German Environmental Survey 2014–2017 (GerES V)

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 1, 1 January 2023, 114320

Abstract

Passive smoking is a preventable and significant cause of many serious health problems, with children being particularly at risk. In the fifth German Environmental Survey (GerES V), conducted from 2014 to 2017, information reflecting the extent of passive smoke exposure in children and adolescents was collected by interview-based questionnaires and human biomonitoring (HBM) analyses of cotinine in urine from 2260 participants, aged 3–17 years. Based on these population-representative data, we describe current passive smoke exposure stratified by different subgroups and identify specific exposure determinants using multivariate logistic regression. The questionnaire data revealed that 42% of children and adolescents lived with at least one smoker in the household. Quantifiable concentrations of cotinine could be detected in 56% of the participants. The overall median concentration of cotinine was 0.2 μg/L, with children and adolescents of low socioeconomic status found to be a group particularly affected by passive smoke with higher cotinine concentrations (median = 1.2 μg/L). In the multiple analysis, the most significant predictor of cotinine levels derived from the questionnaire was passive smoking at home (odds ratio (OR) 13.07 [95CI: 4.65, 36.70]). However, parental smoking and passive smoking among friends and relatives could also be identified as independent factors influencing elevated cotinine levels. The comparison between the previous cycle GerES IV (2003–2006) on 3–14-year-olds and GerES V shows that tobacco smoke exposure of children decreased significantly. This decrease is likely an effect of extensive non-smoker protection laws being enforced 2007–2008 on federal and state level. This is reflected by a halving of urinary cotinine concentrations. Nevertheless, our results indicate that passive smoke is still a relevant source of harmful pollutants for many children and adolescents in Germany, and thus support the need for further efforts to reduce passive smoke exposure, especially in the private environment.

11. A review on enhanced microplastics derived from biomedical waste during the COVID-19 pandemic with its toxicity, health risks, and biomarkers

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 1, 1 January 2023, 114434

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic led to the explosion of biomedical waste, a global challenge to public health and the environment. Biomedical waste comprising plastic can convert into microplastics (MPs, < 5 mm) by sunlight, wave, oxidative and thermal processes, and biodegradation. MPs with additives and contaminants such as metals are also hazardous to many aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. Bioaccumulation of MPs in organisms often transfers across the trophic level in the global food web. Thus, this article aims to provide a literature review on the source, quantity, and fate of biomedical waste, along with the recent surge of MPs and their adverse impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. MPs intake (ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact) in humans causing various chronic diseases involving multiple organs in digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems are surveyed, which have been reviewed barely. There is an urgent need to control and manage biomedical waste to shrink MPs pollution for reducing environmental and human health risks.

12. The Great 2011 Thailand flood disaster revisited: Could it have been mitigated by different dam operations based on better weather forecasts?

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 114493

Abstract

This paper revisits the 2011 Great Flood in central Thailand to answer one of the hotly debated questions at the time "Could the operation decisions of the flood control structures substantially mitigate the flood impacts in the downstream areas?”. Using a numerical modeling approach, we develop a hypothesis such that the two upstream dam reservoirs: Bhumibol and Sirikit had more accurately forecasted the typhoon-triggered abnormal rainfall volumes and released more water earlier to save the storage capacity via 17 different scenarios or alternative operation schemes. We subsequently quantify the potential improvements, or reduced flood impacts in the downstream catchments, solely by changing the operation schemes of these two dam reservoirs, with all other conditions remaining unchanged. We observed that changing the operation schemes could have reduced only the flood depth while offering very limited improvements in terms of inundated areas for the lower Chao Phraya River Basin. Among 17 scenarios simulated, the inundated areas could have been reduced at most by 3.68%. This result justifies the limited role of these mega structures in the upstream during the disaster on one hand, while pointing to the necessity of handling local rainfall differently on the other. The paper expands the discussion into how the government of Thailand has drawn the lessons from the 2011 flood to better prepare themselves against the lurking flood risk in 2021, also triggered by tropical cyclones. The highlighted initiatives, both technical and institutional, could have provided important references for the large river catchment managers in Southeast Asia and with implications of our method beyond the present application region.

13. Environmental challenges of COVID-19 pandemic: resilience and sustainability – A review

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 114496

Abstract

The emergence of novel respiratory disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a public health emergency worldwide and perturbed the global economy and ecosystem services. Many studies have reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental compartments, its transmission via environmental routes, and potential environmental challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. None of these studies have comprehensively reviewed the bidirectional relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and the environment. For the first time, we explored the relationship between the environment and the SARS-CoV-2 virus/COVID-19 and how they affect each other. Supporting evidence presented here clearly demonstrates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in soil and water, denoting the role of the environment in the COVID-19 transmission process. However, most studies fail to determine if the viral genomes they have discovered are infectious, which could be affected by the environmental factors in which they are found.The potential environmental impact of the pandemic, including water pollution, chemical contamination, increased generation of non-biodegradable waste, and single-use plastics have received the most attention. For the most part, efficient measures have been used to address the current environmental challenges from COVID-19, including using environmentally friendly disinfection technologies and employing measures to reduce the production of plastic wastes, such as the reuse and recycling of plastics. Developing sustainable solutions to counter the environmental challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic should be included in national preparedness strategies. In conclusion, combating the pandemic and accomplishing public health goals should be balanced with environmentally sustainable measures, as the two are closely intertwined.

14. Climate change and human health in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: Literature review, research priorities and policy suggestions

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 114537

Abstract

Human health is linked to climatic factors in complex ways, and climate change can have profound direct and indirect impacts on the health status of any given region. Susceptibility to climate change is modulated by biological, ecological and socio-political factors such as age, gender, geographic location, socio-economic status, occupation, health status and housing conditions, among other.

In the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME), climatic factors known to affect human health include extreme heat, water shortages and air pollution. Furthermore, the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and the health consequences of population displacement are also influenced by climate change in this region.

To inform future policies for adaptation and mitigation measures, and based on an extensive review of the available knowledge, we recommend several research priorities for the region. These include the generation of more empirical evidence on exposure-response functions involving climate change and specific health outcomes, the development of appropriate methodologies to evaluate the physical and psychological effects of climate change on vulnerable populations, determining how climate change alters the ecological determinants of human health, improving our understanding of the effects of long-term exposure to heat stress and air pollution, and evaluating the interactions between adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Because national boundaries do not limit most climate-related factors expected to impact human health, we propose that adaptation/mitigation policies must have a regional scope, and therefore require collaborative efforts among EMME nations. Policy suggestions include a decisive region-wide decarbonisation, the integration of environmentally driven morbidity and mortality data throughout the region, advancing the development and widespread use of affordable technologies for the production and management of drinking water by non-traditional means, the development of comprehensive strategies to improve the health status of displaced populations, and fostering regional networks for monitoring and controlling the spread of infectious diseases and disease vectors.

15. Age-stratified infection fatality rate of COVID-19 in the non-elderly population

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 3, 1 January 2023, 114655

Abstract

The largest burden of COVID-19 is carried by the elderly, and persons living in nursing homes are particularly vulnerable. However, 94% of the global population is younger than 70 years and 86% is younger than 60 years. The objective of this study was to accurately estimate the infection fatality rate (IFR) of COVID-19 among non-elderly people in the absence of vaccination or prior infection. In systematic searches in SeroTracker and PubMed (protocol: https://osf.io/xvupr), we identified 40 eligible national seroprevalence studies covering 38 countries with pre-vaccination seroprevalence data. For 29 countries (24 high-income, 5 others), publicly available age-stratified COVID-19 death data and age-stratified seroprevalence information were available and were included in the primary analysis. The IFRs had a median of 0.034% (interquartile range (IQR) 0.013–0.056%) for the 0–59 years old population, and 0.095% (IQR 0.036–0.119%) for the 0–69 years old. The median IFR was 0.0003% at 0–19 years, 0.002% at 20–29 years, 0.011% at 30–39 years, 0.035% at 40–49 years, 0.123% at 50–59 years, and 0.506% at 60–69 years. IFR increases approximately 4 times every 10 years. Including data from another 9 countries with imputed age distribution of COVID-19 deaths yielded median IFR of 0.025–0.032% for 0–59 years and 0.063–0.082% for 0–69 years. Meta-regression analyses also suggested global IFR of 0.03% and 0.07%, respectively in these age groups. The current analysis suggests a much lower pre-vaccination IFR in non-elderly populations than previously suggested. Large differences did exist between countries and may reflect differences in comorbidities and other factors. These estimates provide a baseline from which to fathom further IFR declines with the widespread use of vaccination, prior infections, and evolution of new variants.

16. Analysis of the spatiotemporal patterns and decoupling effects of China's water resource spatial equilibrium

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 3, 1 January 2023, 114719

Abstract

The significance of water resource spatial equilibrium (WRSE) research is to maximally remove the spatial restrictions of water on regional development, including social development, economic development and eco-environmental maintenance. Although great achievements have been made, national-scale WRSE research is rare; besides, the spatiotemporal patterns and decoupling effects of WRSE have been poorly studied in current research. Thus, the aim of this research is to measure the WRSE in China for the period 2008–2019 by using an improved coupling coordination model and to empirically analyse its distribution dynamics and decoupling effects. The results show that the WRSE status of China's 31 provincial administrative regions from 2008 to 2019 is at a moderate level. Based on the spatiotemporal patterns and decoupling effects analysis, areas in urgent need of improving WRSE status are identified, and tailored countermeasures are provided for each area. To our knowledge, this paper is the first nationwide study of the spatiotemporal patterns and decoupling effects of WRSE.

17. Environmental, economic, and energy analysis of municipal solid waste incineration under anoxic environment in Tibet Plateau

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 3, 1 January 2023, 114681

Abstract

The first Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant in Lhasa, Tibet, the plateau region of China, started its operation in 2018. Considering the elevation and extreme climate (low pressure and low oxygen content) in Tibet, noticeable differences may be envisaged compared to MSWI elsewhere. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts, economic benefits, and energy efficiency of this MSWI project with three representative MSWI case in plain region using Life cycle assessment (LCA), Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and energy analysis methods. The result showed that enhancing blast volume and cross-sectional area of the boiler help adapt to the oxygen-deficient environment. GaBi model was employed based on the CML 2001 methodology to perform LCA. LCA shows that the Lhasa MSWI project has lower positive environment impacts than the projects in plain region. More attention is needed for the deficiencies in flue gas emissions of MSWI in the plateau region. CBA shows that the payback period is 11.97 years and the internal rate of return is 8.75%. The energy analysis indicates that the boiler energy efficiency is up to 81.92%. MSWI subject to minor changes seems suitable to Tibetan plateau, and can be deployed further.

MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ

1. Ambient volatile organic compounds in urban and industrial regions in Beijing: Characteristics, source apportionment, secondary transformation and health risk assessment

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 855, 10 January 2023, 158873

Abstract

Field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted simultaneously at an urban site and one industrial park site in Beijing in summer. The VOCs concentrations were 94.3 ± 157.8 ppbv and 20.7 ± 8.9 ppbv for industrial and urban sites, respectively. Alkanes and aromatics were the major contributors to VOCs in industrial site, while oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) contributed most in urban site. The most abundant VOC species were n-pentane and formaldehyde for industrial site and urban site, respectively. The calculated ozone formation potential (OFP) and OH loss rates (LOH) were 621.1 ± 1491.9 ppbv (industrial site), 102.9 ± 37.3 ppbv (urban site), 22.0 ± 39.0 s−1 (industrial site) and 5.3 ± 2.2 s−1 (urban site), respectively. Based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, solvent utilization I (34.1 %), solvent utilization II (27.9 %), mixture combustion source (19.3 %), OVOCs related source (9.6 %) and biogenic source (9.1 %) were identified in the industrial site, while OVOCs related source (27.8 %), vehicle exhaust (22.1 %), solvent utilization (19.3 %), coal combustion (16.0 %) and biogenic source (14.8 %) were identified in the urban site. The results of O3-VOCs-NOx sensitivity indicated that O3 formation were respectively under the VOC-limited and NOx-limited conditions in Beijing urban and industrial regions. Additionally, aromatics accounted remarkable SOA formation ability both in the two sites, and SOA potentials of xylene, toluene and ethylbenzene as the indicator species for the solvent utilization in industrial site were remarkable higher than those obtained in urban regions. The hazard index values in the industrial and urban sites were 1.72 and 3.39, respectively, suggesting a high non-carcinogenic risks to the exposed population. Formaldehyde had the highest carcinogenic risks in the two sites, and the cumulative carcinogenic risks in the industrial site and urban site were 1.95 × 10−5 and 1.21 × 10−5, respectively.

2. Spatial-temporal occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in urban rivers in southern Brazil

Chemosphere, Volume 311, Part 1, January 2023, 136814

Abstract

The widespread use and misuse of antibiotics and pesticides has been linked with several risks to the environment and human health. In the present report, the results of the monitoring of 64 pharmaceuticals and 134 pesticides occurrence in an urban river in Southern Brazil are presented and discussed. Sampling campaigns have covered the period 2016–2018. The identification and determination of the analytes were achieved by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed using chemometric tools to obtain spatial-temporal models. Toxicological evaluation was achieved using acute toxicity (zebrafish standardized protocol), and determination of risk quotient. Within the 198 analytes included in the targeted analysis method for surface water, 33 were identified in an urban river during 2 years of monitoring, being 20 pharmaceuticals and 13 pesticides. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, a suspect screening approach was established in an un-target analysis. The evaluation was carried out using a data bank built from consumption data of drugs and pesticides, in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre - RS and their respective metabolites. The suspect screening analysis done with a data bank with more than 1450 compounds results in 27 suspect findings. The target analysis results showed a continuous prevalence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, analgesics, antipyretics, beta-blockers, corticoids, and antibiotics. Regarding the pesticides, the main classes were fungicides, especially those from triazol and strobilurin classes.

3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coarse particles (PM10) over the coastal urban region in Poland: Distribution, source analysis and human health risk implications

Chemosphere, Volume 311, Part 2, January 2023, 137130

Abstract

In this study, the results of PM10-bound PAH measurements were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) approach and diagnostic ratios to investigate their levels, seasonal variability, impact of primary anthropogenic sources, and human health risk via the inhalation route. Daily ground-based observations were carried out at a representative coastal site in Gdynia (northern Poland), from April to December 2019. The concentrations of Σ13PAHs in PM10 varied between 0.45 ng m−3 and 54.02 ng m−3, with a mean of 5.22 ± 8.67 ng m−3. A clear seasonality and distribution profiles of PM10-bound PAHs were observed as a result of local/remote sources and meteorological conditions. The highest Σ13PAH concentration was found in December (18.56 ± 16.45 ng m−3) and the lowest values were observed between June and September (3.89 ± 0.52 ng m−3). The PMF-based analysis revealed five factors, suggesting the importance of primary anthropogenic sources of PAHs, i.e. coal combustion, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, industrial and shipping activities as well as natural gas combustion. In summer, PAH levels were mostly controlled by local shipping emissions as well as traffic-related and non-combustion sources such as photochemical decomposition. The winter PAH maxima were attributed to a strong increase in residential coal combustion. A Spearman's rank correlation and multilinear regression analysis showed that ambient temperature and NO× had a significant impact on intra-annual variability in PM10-bound PAH transformation in this region. PAH congeners in coarse-size fraction were positively correlated with SO2, indicating their shared anthropogenic sources. The annual mean of epidemiologically based ILCR value was 6.6 × 10−5. This work indicates a potential carcinogenic risk for the local population and a significant difference in BaPeq levels between the individual seasons in this region.

4. Spatial distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in the sediment of a tropical coastal environment subjected to heavy urban inputs

Chemosphere, Volume 312, Part 1, January 2023, 137067

Abstract

Jurujuba Cove is located in Guanabara Bay (adjacent to highly populated city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which receives diffuse sources of contaminants along with two main freshwater inputs (the Cachoeira and Icaraí rivers), and hosts mussel farms. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations distributions in the sediments of the cove and their associations with physical and chemical parameters, thereby assessing their geochemical behavior. Twenty samples of surface sediments were collected and characterized for grain size, pH, redox potential, organic carbon, total phosphorus, THg and MeHg. Spatial distribution maps were produced for each parameter and a principal components analysis was carried out, to assess THg and MeHg behavior and their relationships with other parameters. The principal components analysis showed that grain size functions as the main diluting agent. The highest THg concentrations were observed in the mussel-farm area (656.1 ng g−1), and were related to fine grain size and elevated organic carbon values. High MeHg concentrations also occurred in the center of the cove, probably favored by high organic carbon content (low-energy environment). Total phosphorus concentrations indicate that Cachoeira River is a possible source of sewage, but little mercury seems to come from it. The results showed that although total mercury concentrations are elevated, with exception of a few locations, small methylmercury convertion rates were recorded in the sediments.

5. Odor emission rate of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill during different operation stages before final closure

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 856, Part 2, 15 January 2023, 159111

Abstract

This study investigated the odor emission rate from different areas of a municipal solid waste landfill. The surface odor emission rate (SOER) of eight odorous compound groups were determined by flux chamber method. The SOER of working face, seams of daily cover, membrane surface of daily cover, seams of temporary cover, membrane surface of temporary cover, seams of intermediate cover, membrane surface of intermediate cover were 138.34, 49.83, 13.56, 90.35, 14.48, 4.05, and 8.14 μg/(m2·s), respectively. Therefore, odor emission hotspots were at seams of daily and temporary cover areas. Converting the odor emissions at emission hotspots to the entire membrane cover surface, the average SOER of working face, daily cover area, temporary cover area and intermediate cover area were 138.34, 17.95, 22.43, and 6.24 μg/(m2·s), respectively. Combined with the size of each landfill area, the total odor emissions of the four above areas of a landfill zone were 830, 108, 1346, and 5175 mg/s, respectively, suggesting the necessity to control the odor emission of membrane cover stages especially for large-scale landfills. In terms of odor components, alcohols (38.7 %), sulfur compounds (22.9 %) and aldehydes (15.7 %) were major odorous groups.

6. Life cycle analysis of gasification and Fischer-Tropsch conversion of municipal solid waste for transportation fuel production

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 382, 1 January 2023, 135114

Abstract

Non-recyclable municipal solid waste (MSW) can be used as feedstock for liquid fuel production via gasification followed by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Given the heterogeneity of MSW material composition and variation in material properties, its convertibility to liquid hydrocarbon fuels could vary widely, affecting the sustainability of utilizing non-recyclable MSW for fuel production. This study evaluates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon intensities [CIs]) of FT fuels from non-recyclable MSW. Key issues that could greatly affect the CIs were examined, including fossil carbon content of the MSW, emission implications of diverting non-recyclable MSW from landfills to fuel production, and conversion efficiency. Results show that the CIs of fuels produced from various waste streams range 80–105 gCO2e/MJ, which may exceed the CI of petroleum fuels. Higher fossil carbon content in the MSW feedstock tends to incur higher GHG emissions as biogenic carbon emissions are considered carbon neutral. Meanwhile, diverting different fractions of non-recyclable MSW, such as food waste and low-quality paper, from landfills may result in GHG emissions that may include the potential avoidance of methane emissions and potential sequestration of biogenic carbon that is foregone. To reduce GHG emissions, a carbon capture and sequestration option in the fuel production stage is considered, which could reduce the CI by 53–64 gCO2e/MJ. Carbon fates of different non-recyclable MSW in landfills are further evaluated to determine how they vary and impact the CIs of MSW-derived fuels.

7. The source distribution and seasonal discrepancies of antibiotic resistance genes among multiple environment media in a cold megacity

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 384, 15 January 2023, 135164

Abstract

Atmosphere, wastewater, and soil are the main natural receptacles of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the profiles and transmission of ARGs across the above-mentioned phases during freezing temperatures remain poorly realized. In this study, several ARGs in dust, wastewater and soil phases from 5 human-associated point-sources during dairy mean air temperature from −27 °C to 29 °C were examined. The factors (e.g., VGT (bacteria biomass), HGT (intI1 gene), seasonal variations (non-cold and cold seasons), environmental phases, and point-sources) were also explored. Results showed the wastewater phase harbored the highest total targeted ARGs (2.00 × 10−2 gene copies per 16S rRNA gene copies). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with Bray-Curtis distance indicated that the selected ARGs in the dust phase might originate from the wastewater and soil phases. The pig farm was a potential hotpot of ARGs, which carried the highest relative abundances of total targeted ARGs in the dust (5.34 × 10−1) and wastewater phases (3.59 × 10−1). Seasonal variations potentially influenced the concentration of ARGs among three phases, the percentages of sul genes (sul1, sul2) and erm gene (ermB, ermC) relative abundances presented higher proportions in the non-cold season (41.06%) and cold season (42.62%), respectively. The positive correlations between 16S rRNA, intI1, and selected ARGs strengthened in dust and wastewater phases during the cold season and non-cold season, respectively, which hinted vertical gene transfer (VGT) and intI1-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) varied with natural phases and seasons. This study highlights the critical roles of environmental phases and seasons in huge ranges of temperatures for ARG dissemination.

8. A comparative sustainability evaluation of alternative configurations of an urban nitrogen removal solution targeting different pathways

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 384, 15 January 2023, 135619

Abstract

Limiting the introduction of excess nitrogen to natural water sources is a growing priority for water security and environmental health. This poses particular difficulties in urban environments where available land for potential solutions is limited. A promising option is the integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process that requires only a small footprint and is capable of high total nitrogen (TN) removal through multiple pathways. In light of the sustainable development goals set out by the United Nations, the present work has sought to compare the sustainability of two TN removal pathways by comparing the technical, economic and environmental performance of their optimum configurations. Through modelling, a single-stage configuration demonstrated the capacity to achieve an effluent TN concentration of 8.7 mg/L by the simultaneous nitrification denitrification pathway when a dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.5 mg/L was provided. Addition of a post-anoxic stage at equal volume to the aerobic stage (1:1 aerobic to anoxic ratio) to target conventional nitrification denitrification could realise an effluent TN concentration of 4.2 mg/L when DO was increased to 4.5 mg/L, although 5.8 mg/L of effluent TN could be achieved with only a 5:1 ratio. In terms of environmental burden and economic costs, analysis of the system's life-cycle under these different configurations indicated considerable asymmetry of the two pathways during the operational phase due mainly to the increased aeration. However in spite of this, the two conventional configurations were ultimately both shown to be more sustainable than that of the simultaneous pathway due to the greater TN removal capacity afforded.

9. Investigating the impact of multi-dimensional urbanization and FDI on carbon emissions in the belt and road initiative region: Direct and spillover effects  
                                                                     
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 384, 15 January 2023, 135608

Abstract

The climate ambition led by the net zero goal has prompted growing concern among international organizations about the carbon emissions effects of urbanization and foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) region. Due to the limited data experiments, the direction and externalities of the impact of urbanization and FDI on carbon emissions in the BRI region remain largely unclear, and accounting for urbanization is also isolated. To address this knowledge gap, this study quantified the direct and spillover effects of multi-dimensional urbanization and FDI on carbon emissions using multiple remote sensing data from 2000 to 2018. The study explored the spatial distribution, evolutionary trends, bivariate evolutionary relationships, and influence mechanisms of carbon emissions with multi-dimensional urbanization and FDI by combining temporal trend (Slope), bivariate spatial autocorrelation, spatial Durbin model (SDM), and other methods. The results indicate that from 2000 to 2018, the total BRI carbon emissions added 253 million tons at an average annual growth rate of 3.68%; since 2013, the average annual growth rate has dropped sharply to 1.34%. East and South Asian countries (especially China and India) posted the highest increase in carbon emissions and had faster growth rates in multi-dimensional urbanization and FDI. Only some European countries, such as France and Germany, achieved overall carbon reduction. The results highlight the adaptability of the "Environmental Kuznets Curve” hypothesis. The "Low-Low” was the main cluster type of the evolutionary trends of carbon emissions associated with each variable. Multi-dimensional urbanization and FDI directly contributed to local carbon emissions, but the effects have gradually weakened over time (except for land urbanization). After controlling for the direct effects, we found a widespread consistently enhanced positive effects of population urbanization and land urbanization on carbon emissions in adjacent areas (especially after the BRI implementation), while FDI reduced the direct impact and strengthened the gain effect on carbon reduction in adjacent regions. Our findings confirm the importance of integrating policies to reduce emissions in population, economy, land, and foreign investment and provide strong evidence for joint governance of carbon emissions among BRI countries.

10. Urbanisation, agriculture and convergence of carbon emissions nexus: Global distribution dynamics analysis

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 385, 20 January 2023, 135697

Abstract

Urbanisation and agriculture have been commonly used in the studies of carbon emissions. However, the issue of convergence of carbon emissions and intensity across countries with different urbanisation and agrarian structures has been under-researched. Unlike previous studies, we examine whether the urbanisation level and the agrarian orientation determine the tendency for countries' relative carbon intensity (REPGDP) and relative per capita carbon emissions (REPC) to converge over time. We employ the display tools of the distribution dynamics approach and a panel of 217 countries from 2000 to 2016. The main findings are as follows. First, with one exception, two to four convergence clubs will emerge across all groups of countries in the long run. Second, most of the clubs occur at values far from (below and above) the global average emissions level. Third, we construct the ‘policy priority list’ consisting of the above-average carbon emitters with a high tendency to diverge further from the global average in the coming years. Accordingly, we identify the least urbanised (most agrarian-oriented) countries with a REPC value of around 2.2 (1.9) to have a 65% (80%) probability of further divergence. Fourth, the results based on the REPC vis-à-vis the REPGDP variable are largely different. The study extends the existing knowledge about the urbanisation, agriculture and carbon emissions nexus and offers policy recommendations.

11. Iron carbon particle dosing for odor control in sewers: Laboratory tests

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 1, 1 January 2023, 114476

Abstract

Treatment of malodor in the sewer system is a priority in many municipalities for human health concerns, sewer pipe corrosion prevention. In this study, the removal effects of iron-carbon (Fe–C) particles on the inhibition of sulfide in the liquid phase, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (MeSH) in the headspace were investigated using laboratory-scale reactors simulating gravity-flow sewer system. The results indicated that the sulfide in the liquid phase can be reduced from 15.1 to 16.5 mg S/L to 0.05 and 0.14 mg S/L after 70 g/L and 50 g/L Fe–C particles dosing. The flux of H2S and MeSH in the headspace was also inhibited, and its flux decreased by up to 99%. Meanwhile, the microbial community structures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the sediment surface and water were also analyzed, and the results revealed that the relative abundance of SRB in the water and sediment surface was inhibited greatly after adding Fe–C particles, especially for Sulfurospirillum, Clostridium, and Desulfovibrio, while Fe–C particles promoted the growth of SOB. Moreover, the surface deposition was collected and analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the results indicated that sulfide can be removed by co-precipitation with ferrous ions formed through micro-electrolysis of Fe–C. This study provides a new approach to control the in-situ odor pollution for sewage systems.

12. Engineering the electronic structure of high performance FeCo bimetallic cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cell application in treating wastewater

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 1, 1 January 2023, 114542

Abstract

The development of high-performance, strong-durability and low-cost cathode catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great significance for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a series of bimetallic catalysts were synthesized by pyrolyzing a mixture of g-C3N4 and Fe, Co-tannic complex with various Fe/Co atomic ratios. The initial Fe/Co atomic ratio (3.5:0.5, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3) could regulate the electronic state, which effectively promoted the intrinsic electrocatalytic ORR activity. The alloy metal particles and metal-Nx sites presented on the catalyst surface. In addition, N-doped carbon interconnected network consisting of graphene-like and bamboo-like carbon nanotube structure derived from g-C3N4 provided more accessible active sites. The resultant Fe3Co1 catalyst calcined at 700 °C (Fe3Co1-700) exhibited high catalytic performance in neutral electrolyte with a half-wave potential of 0.661 V, exceeding that of the commercial Pt/C (0.6 V). As expected, the single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) with 1 mg/cm2 loading of Fe3Co1-700 catalyst as the cathode catalyst afforded a maximum power density of 1425 mW/m2, which was 10.5% higher than commercial Pt/C catalyst with the same loading (1290 mW/m2) and comparable to the Pt/C catalyst with 2.5 times higher loading ( 1430 mW/m2). Additionally, the Fe3Co1-700 also displayed better long-term stability over 1100 h than the Pt/C. This work provides an effective strategy for regulating the surface electronic state in the bimetallic electro-catalyst.

13. Environmental, economic, and energy analysis of municipal solid waste incineration under anoxic environment in Tibet Plateau

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 3, 1 January 2023, 114681

Abstract

The first Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant in Lhasa, Tibet, the plateau region of China, started its operation in 2018. Considering the elevation and extreme climate (low pressure and low oxygen content) in Tibet, noticeable differences may be envisaged compared to MSWI elsewhere. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts, economic benefits, and energy efficiency of this MSWI project with three representative MSWI case in plain region using Life cycle assessment (LCA), Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and energy analysis methods. The result showed that enhancing blast volume and cross-sectional area of the boiler help adapt to the oxygen-deficient environment. GaBi model was employed based on the CML 2001 methodology to perform LCA. LCA shows that the Lhasa MSWI project has lower positive environment impacts than the projects in plain region. More attention is needed for the deficiencies in flue gas emissions of MSWI in the plateau region. CBA shows that the payback period is 11.97 years and the internal rate of return is 8.75%. The energy analysis indicates that the boiler energy efficiency is up to 81.92%. MSWI subject to minor changes seems suitable to Tibetan plateau, and can be deployed further.

14. Pandemic urban development is leading us away from nature

Environmental Research, Volume 217, 15 January 2023, 114858

Abstract

Recovery plans in Europe in the COVID-19 pandemic era have stimulated construction-led development, which has eclipsed nature-based agendas in terms of scale, size, and policy. One estimate is that only 0.3% of spending on urban infrastructure globally is directed towards various nature-based solutions and other ecosystem efforts supporting human well-being. In the future we will urgently need to employ nature-based approaches in crisis management for the power and potential of nature to be fully employed in pursuit of urban recovery. We strongly recommend that nature-based approaches be an explicit requirement to secure funding for future recovery plans.

15. Residential greenness and dyslipidemia risk: Dose-response relations and mediation through BMI and air pollution

Environmental Research, Volume 217, 15 January 2023, 114810

Abstract

Background

Evidence on associations of residential greenness with dyslipidemia is limited, particularly regarding dose-response relations and mediation.

Objectives

To investigate associations between greenness and dyslipidemia, non-linear dose-response relationships and mediators.

Methods

This cross-sectional study draws on the 2018 Fujian Behavior and Disease Surveillance (FBDS) cohort that used multi-stage stratified random sampling from the general population of Fujian Province, China. Participants with one or more abnormities in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were classified as having dyslipidemia. Residential greenness was operationalized as 3-year average of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI500m) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI500m). A doubly robust approach was used for effect quantification. Dose-response relations were studied with natural cubic splines. Mediation via physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 was also examined.

Results

Data from 43,183 participants were analyzed. Increases in NDVI500m and EVI500m residential greenness were associated with decreased dyslipidemia risk and improved blood lipids. Non-linear dose response relationships were discovered. Significant reduction of dyslipidemia risk was observed at levels of EVI500m > 0.48 and NDVI500m > 0.65. Joint mediation effects of PA, BMI, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 on the associations of NDVI500m and EVI500m with dyslipidemia risk were 49.74% and 44.64%, respectively.

Conclusions

Increased residential exposure to greenness was associated with decreased risk of dyslipidemia. A non-linear dose-response relationship between greenness and dyslipidemia suggests that specific thresholds of greenness need to be reached in order to achieve effects. BMI, PM2.5, and PM10 partially mediated the association.

16. The potential of multilayer green roofs for stormwater management in urban area under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 326, Part A, 15 January 2023, 116643

Abstract

Different low impact development measures have been proposed to make cities more flood-resilient, and recent literature is paying great attention to the evaluation of their direct benefits in terms of flood risk mitigation and the numerous co-benefits that they may offer. This study describes an experimental prototype of a technologically advanced multilayer green roof installed in a Mediterranean urban area (i.e., Palermo, Italy) and explores the results of an analysis of data collected over a one-year monitoring period by a complex sensors network.

Multilayer green roofs, or "blue-green” roofs (BGRs), are characterized by a high water retention capacity compared to traditional green roofs due to the presence of an additional storage layer (blue layer), usually equipped with a valve that allows for regulating discharge outflow and water storage. Due to their recent development, BGRs are still scarcely explored in literature and have never been tested before in semi-arid environments, where they could represent valid measures to counter possible climate change and growing urbanization effects.

In this study, the hydrological effectiveness of the experimental BGR is quantitatively evaluated by using appropriate indicators, based on the comparison between the hydrological response of the system and an equal size benchmark "grey” roof. The analyses are prevalently focused on the system's stormwater retention function, also investigating the relative contributions of the green layer and the storage layer to the overall retention capacity through the introduction of new BGRs specific indicators.
Results emphasize the high impact of storms characteristics, antecedent soil moisture of the green layer, and initial water storage in the blue layer on the system's retention capacity. The overall mean retention rate for the experimental BGR, on average equal to 77% at the daily scale and 61% at the event scale, is comparable to the typical values of traditional extensive green roofs and could be further improved through a "retention-oriented” management of the outflow valve. The system was able to entirely retain almost half of the rainfall events occurred during the monitoring period and, for all the others, it was however extremely effective in reducing runoff peaks and delaying the hydrograph produced.

17. Further mitigating carbon footprint pressure in urban agglomeration by enhancing the spatial clustering

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 326, Part B, 15 January 2023, 116715

Abstract

The increasing environmental pressure of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is impeding the sustainability of urban agglomerations (UAs). Recent research has shown that the spatial clustering of UA elements reduces CO2 emissions but underestimates its impact on vegetation carbon sequestration. Using an extended IPAT equation analysis framework and the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition approach, this study revealed the positive effects of the economy and population spatial clustering on carbon footprint pressure (CFP) mitigation. Specifically, improving economic spatial clustering mitigated the rise in UA's CFP caused by affluence and population growth. Furthermore, population clustering in core cities effectively mitigated CFP in neighboring cities. Additionally, we found that the efficiency improvement, i.e., the decrease in the ratio of carbon emissions and gross domestic product, should be the dominant driver of CFP mitigation, followed by improved vegetation carbon sequestration. However, these drivers have limited future potential. We believe that by improving UA's spatial clustering of the economy and population, future urban environmental pressures and climate risks will be mitigated.

MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP

1. Real-world characterization of carbonaceous substances from industrial stationary and process source emissions

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 854, 1 January 2023, 158505

Abstract

Carbonaceous substances in industrial emissions are harmful to human health, air quality, and climate change. Owing to the existence of various fuel types and different technological processes, the characterization of carbonaceous substances from industrial emissions varies significantly, which causes a large uncertainty in source apportionment. Therefore, nine typical industrial sources were selected and separated into two types: stationary combustion and industrial process sources. The emission factors based on different units and profiles of carbonaceous substances, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), subgroups of OC and EC, EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), methyl PAHs (MPAHs), and n-alkanes emitted from nine industrial sources were obtained. The results showed that the difference in dust removal efficiency or emission of other auxiliary materials in the industrial process could cause different emission factors for carbonaceous substances. Furthermore, the emission factors of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), OC, and EC for coal-fired plant were significantly lower than those of residential coal combustion. For profiles of carbonaceous substances in different industrial sources, the relative fractions of OC subgroups emitted from stationary combustion sources were lower than those from industrial process sources, whereas the proportions of EC were higher. The source profiles of nonpolar organic matter emitted from industrial process sources were clearly different from those of industrial stationary source emissions. For the four industrial process sources, the proportion of n-alkanes was significantly higher than that of PAHs, whereas the source profiles for different industrial stationary sources were extremely different. Finally, the concentrations of carbonaceous substances obtained in this study were lower than those reported in previous studies, indicating that marked reduction results were achieved by implementing reduction measures.

2. Speciation, in vitro bioaccessibility and health risk of antimony in soils near an old industrial area

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 854, 1 January 2023, 158767

Abstract

Antimony (Sb) contamination in soil has become a major environmental issue due to its adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. In this paper, 1255 soil samples were analyzed to investigate the distribution, speciation, in vitro oral bioaccessibility (8 soil samples) and human health risk of Sb in contaminated soils and its impacts on groundwater. The results showed that 4.38 % of the soil samples within the depth of 0–31 m exceeded the Risk Screening Values (RSV). Sb mainly existed in the residual fraction (38.05 % ∼ 94.22 %), Fe/Mn oxides (0.01 % ∼ 31.80 %) and the organic fraction (0.32 % ∼ 21.55 %) with poor mobility. The bioaccessibility of Sb was approximately <31 %. The total concentration of Sb (TSb) in soil was the dominant factor influencing the bioaccessible concentration of Sb (SbBio). Soil physiochemical properties such as Fe, Mn, and organic matter content (OM) also affected the magnitude of SbBio. Health risk assessment based on in vitro bioaccessibility suggested that the hazard quotient (HQ) of adults was within the acceptable level (HQ < 1) for industrial scenario, while the HQ of children and adults was greater than the acceptable level (HQ ≥ 1) for residential scenario, with a higher risk to children than adults. The results of the leaching experiment involving Dilution-Attenuation Factor (DAF) model suggested that the predicted maximum concentration of Sb in groundwater was 2.40 μg/L that is lower than the acceptable standard value (5 μg/L), implying that groundwater was not contaminated by Sb in soil. The findings of this study provide some insights into the speciation, in vitro bioaccessibility and health risk of toxic trace metals in contaminated soils and the potential environmental impacts.

3. Engineering microbial cells with metal chelating hydroxylated unnatural amino acids for removable of synthetic pollutants from water

Chemosphere, Volume 311, Part 1, January 2023, 136756

Abstract

Lead (Pb2+) is a well-known heavy metal and toxic synthetic industrial pollutant in the ecosystem and causes severe threats to living organisms. It is paramount to develop a sustainable microbial engineering approach to remove synthetic pollutants from the environment. Genetic code engineering is emerging as an important microbial engineering tool in biosciences to biosynthesis congener protein production beyond the canonical set of natural molecules and expand the chemistries of living cells. Here, we prepare cells expressing unnatural amino acid encoded congener proteins for effectively removable toxic synthetic industrial pollutants (Pb2+) with high binding efficiency. Native and the developed congener proteins expressing cells adapted the Langmuir and Sips adsorption model that recommends uniform adsorption with Pb2+ ions. This could be due to a more significant number of functional groups on the protein surface. Fluorescence spectroscopic, field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis, and protein-metal molecular stimulation coordination allowed us to explore the role of hydroxylation on Pb2+ adsorption. The bioreactor filled with immobilized protein-containing active granules showed >90% of lead removal in the contaminated water samples. The desorption of bound Pb2+ from GFP and its variants were studied by varying the pH to reuse the proteins for subsequent usage. We observed that about 70% of the GFP and its variants could be recycled and >75% of fluorescence efficiency could be recovered. Among all the variants, GFPHPDP exhibits high affinity and maintains the reusability efficiency in 7 consecutive cycles. These results suggest that genetic code engineering of cells encoding unnatural amino acids could be a next-generation microbial engineering tool for manipulating and developing the microbial strain's selective and effective removal of synthetic pollutants from the environment.

4. Optimistic influence of multi-metal tolerant Bacillus species on phytoremediation potential of Chrysopogon zizanioides on metal contaminated soil

Chemosphere, Volume 311, Part 1, January 2023, 136889

Abstract

The current study investigated the plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics of multi-metal-tolerant Bacillus cereus and their positive effect on the physiology, biomolecule substance, and phytoremediation ability of Chrysopogon zizanioides in metal-contaminated soil. The test soil sample was detrimentally contaminated by metals including Cd (31 mg kg−1), Zn (7696 mg kg−1), Pb (326 mg kg−1), Mn (2519 mg kg−1) and Cr (302 mg kg−1) that exceeded Indian standards. The multi-metal-tolerant B. cereus seemed to have superb PGP activities including fabrication of hydrogen cyanide, siderophore, Indole Acetic Acid, N2 fixation, as well as P solubilisation. Such multi-metal-tolerant B. cereus attributes can dramatically reduce or decontaminate metals in contaminated soils, and their PGP attributes significantly improve plant growth in contaminated soils. Hence, without (study I) and with (study II) the blending of B. cereus, this strain vastly enhances the growth and phytoremediation potency of C. zizanioides on metal contaminated soil. The results revealed that the physiological data, biomolecule components, and phytoremediation efficiency of C. zizanioides (Cr: 7.74, Cd: 12.15, Zn: 16.72, Pb: 11.47, and Mn: 14.52 mg g-1) seem to have been greatly effective in study II due to the metal solubilizing and PGP characteristics of B. cereus. This is a one-of-a-kind report on the effect of B. cereus's multi-metal tolerance and PGP characteristics on the development and phytoextraction effectiveness of C. zizanioides in metal-polluted soil.

5. Assessment of cross-media effects deriving from the application of lower emission standards for acid pollutants in waste-to-energy plants

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 856, Part 2, 15 January 2023, 159159

Abstract

The recent release of the new European Commission reference document on the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for waste incineration has set ambitious targets for the control of the emission of pollutants. However, an improved performance of the existing flue gas treatment systems in waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities is usually associated to an increase of cross-media effects, i.e., additional indirect environmental impacts related to the increased consumption of reactants and to the increased generation of process residues/wastewater in flue gas treatment. The present study introduces an innovative approach to assess cross-media effects deriving from more stringent acid gas emission standards in the WtE sector. By coupling simplified process modelling and life cycle analysis, the proposed methodology links the higher removal efficiency required for flue gas treatment to the impacts related to the reactants supply and waste disposal chain. An application to the Italian WtE sector exemplifies the potential of the method. The results evidence that, in case of HCl emission setpoints lower than 1 mg/Nm3, the reduction of acidifying emissions at the WtE stacks can be offset by the increase of global warming and smog formation impacts in the supply chain of flue gas cleaning reactants. In case of setpoints lower than 0.5 mg/Nm3, even within the acidification category the increase of indirect impacts more than compensates the decrease of WtE emissions. The net environmental benefit is strongly affected by the type of acid gas removal technology adopted, with dry systems typically associated with a larger increase of cross-media burdens when required to perform at higher removal efficiencies.

6. Impacts of heterogeneous environmental regulation on green transformation of China's iron and steel industry: Evidence from dynamic panel threshold regression

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 382, 1 January 2023, 135214

Abstract

Comprehensively observing the influencing mechanisms of heterogeneous environmental regulations on industrial green transformation will provide important implications for environmental policy-making. This study first proposes a global super adjusted epsilon-based measure with undesirable outputs to evaluate industrial green transformation performance (GTP). A dynamic panel threshold model with interaction term is then constructed to estimate the non-linear and interactive effects of heterogeneous regulations on GTP. Empirical tests based on 49 large- and medium-sized iron and steel (IS) firms during 2010–2017 demonstrate that: 1) The GTP of the IS industry experienced fluctuating enhancement during the observation period, and a cumulative cyclic effect is found for the GTP; 2) both formal and informal regulations improve industrial GTP, and formal regulation shows two thresholds while informal regulation has one threshold; 3) the interactive effect between formal and informal regulations has formed and exerted positive effects on GTP. Based on the empirical results, corresponding suggestions are posited to further facilitate the IS industry's green transformation and environmental governance.

7. Analysis of industrial symbiosis case studies and its potential in Saudi Arabia

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 385, 20 January 2023, 135536

Abstract

Industrial symbiosis (IS) involves sharing waste, by-products, heat, and logistics streams. Participating entities are benefitted by reducing resource utilization and waste disposal cost, improving reuse, and creating job opportunities. Hence, countries have used it to ensure clean and sustainable economic growth. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has initiated a few IS-related approaches that focus mainly on the power sector. However, the role of IS in Saudi industries is still limited, and there is significant potential for the enhancement of the major sectors, including oil and gas, petrochemicals, iron and steel, power generation, desalination, cement, and paper and pulp industries. This study investigated 11 successful IS cases and proposed a symbiotic exchange framework. A roadmap for IS implementation is also developed by considering the enablers and the barriers and by outlining the framework, initial steps, and policy levels. However, to deploy IS activities in KSA, technological, economic, and regulatory obstacles must be overcome and the enablers should be enhanced to conserve resources, reduce environmental impacts, and improve social well-being. The future studies should focus on unique challenges of the Kingdom including availability of energy resources at low price, dependency on fossil-fuels, dispersed development, limited availability of water resources, and limited R&D focus on IS.

8. Functional polypropylene fibers sphere combined with citric acid for efficient remediation of heavily cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil based on adsorption and citric acid recycling

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 385, 20 January 2023, 135692

Abstract

Excessive Cd(II) in the soil seriously threats human health and ecological security. It is a challenge to efficiently remove Cd(II) from heavily contaminated soil by sustainable approaches without destroying soil ecological vitality and physicochemical properties. Here, functional polypropylene (AA/ASA-f-PP) fibers sphere with non-clogging, easy separation, and high selectivity for Cd2+ was prepared. It was combined with 0.2 g/L citric acid solution to remove Cd(II) from contaminated soil. Soil remediation result showed that more than 91% acid-soluble Cd(II), 83% oxidizable Cd(II), and 88% reducible Cd(II) could be removed, most of the unremoved Cd(II) was residual Cd(II) with poor bioavailability. A small amount of citric acid could ensure the adequate release of acid-soluble, oxidizable, reducible Cd(II) from contaminated soil into its solution by complexation. This was attributed to AA/ASA-f-PP fibers sphere could quickly capture Cd2+ from citric acid - Cd complex. Meanwhile, citric acid returned to its original state which can re-form the complex with Cd2+ and prompt Cd(II) release from the soil. The separation of citric acid solution from remediated soil could be omitted due to only ‰0.8 citric acid was introduced into the soil and Cd2+ was finally adsorbed to AA/ASA-f-PP fiber spheres. The generation of wastewater, soil nutrient loss, and high agent consumption can be avoided to ensure the cleaner production of soil remediation. Plant assay showed good ecological vitality of remediated soil and its feasibility for plant cultivation. These results provide a new insight for the remediation of Cd(II) contaminated soil. The potential risks of Cd(II) could be reduced or even eliminated with negligible changes in soil composition and properties. This technology holds the promise of Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and other heavy metals removal from contaminated soil within a few hours.

9. PM2.5 elemental composition in indoor residential environments and co-exposure effects on respiratory health in an industrial area

Environmental Research, Volume 216, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 114630

Abstract

This study aimed to identify and characterise indoor sources of particulate matter (PM) in domestic environments. 74 inhabited apartments located in the urban area of Gela (Sicily, Italy), close to a refinery, and in three villages of the hinterland were evaluated, in real-world conditions, for the elemental composition of PM2.5. The samples were collected simultaneously inside and outside each apartment for 48 h. In addition, two of the apartments were simultaneously studied for four weeks.

The elemental composition of PM2.5 was determined by applying a chemical fractionation procedure followed by inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry analysis, with both optical emission and mass detection. The extractable, more bio-accessible fraction (ext), and the mineralised residual fraction (res) of each element were determined, thus increasing the selectivity of elements as source tracers.

Indoor air in the considered apartments was affected by both outdoor pollution and specific indoor emission sources. The behaviour of each source was studied in detail, identifying a reliable tracer: Tires for soil, Asext for industrial sources, Vext for heavy oil combustion, Ce for cigarette smoking and Mo for the use of vacuum dust cleaners. Asext and Vext showed an excellent infiltration capacity, while the concentration of Tires was affected by a low infiltration capacity and by the contribution of particles re-suspension caused by the residents' movements. In the case of Ce and Mo, indoor concentrations were much higher than outdoor with a high variability among the apartments, due to the inhabitants’ habits concerning cigarette smoke and use of electric appliances. To test the overall effect of the concomitant exposure to the identified sources on Wh12 M and on DDA, a WQS analysis was conducted. Cigarette smoking and heavily oil combustion driven the Wh12 M odds increase, while the DDA odds increase was mainly driven by heavily oil combustion and the use of vacuum dust cleaners.

10. Sustainable approaches on industrial food wastes to value-added products – A review on extraction methods, characterizations, and its biomedical applications

Environmental Research, Volume 217, 15 January 2023, 114758

Abstract

The concept of zero waste discharge has been gaining importance in recent years towards attaining a sustainable environment. Fruit processing industries generate millions of tons of byproducts like fruit peels and seeds, and their disposal poses an environmental threat. The concept of extracting value-added bioactive compounds from bio-waste is an excellent opportunity to mitigate environmental issues. To date, significant research has been carried out on the extraction of essential biomolecules, particularly polysaccharides from waste generated by fruit processing industries. In this review article, we aim to summarize the different extraction methodologies, characterization methods, and biomedical applications of polysaccharides extracted from seeds and peels of different fruit sources. The review also focuses on the general scheme of extraction of polysaccharides from fruit waste with special emphasis on various methods used in extraction. Also, the various types of polysaccharides obtained from fruit processing industrial wastes are explained in consonance with the important techniques related to the structural elucidation of polysaccharides obtained from seed and peel waste. The use of seed polysaccharides as pharmaceutical excipients and the application of peel polysaccharides possessing biological activities are also elaborated.

11. The role of digitalization on green economic growth: Does industrial structure optimization and green innovation matter?

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 325, Part A, 1 January 2023, 116504

Abstract

The digital economy has demonstrated strong resilience and great potential, under the interwoven influence of the global pandemic and severe environmental concerns across the world. Therefore, there is a need to focus on the value of green economic growth in the digital economy. This paper constructs an evaluation index system and adopts the SEEA (System of Environmental and Economic Accounting) method to measure the digitalization level (Digi) and green economy growth level (GEG) of China. The internal mechanism and linear relationship between digitalization and green economy growth are examined based on the panel data from 2013 to 2019. Moreover, this study explores the spatial spillover effect. The major study findings are as follows: (1) Digitalization and green economy growth represent a steady growth trend, and the former as a whole significantly promotes the latter, with a marginal effect of 1.648. (2) The mechanism analysis indicates the intermediary effects’ size of three crucial intermediaries: green technology innovation > advanced industrial structure > the rationalization of industrial structure. (3) Both the "local effect” (0.556; 0.574) and "neighboring effect” (1.382; 1.415) of digitalization on green economy growth are positive under the two weight matrices and display "simultaneous resonance” characteristics based on the spatial perspective. (4) There exists obvious regional spatial heterogeneity and resource endowment heterogeneity. Finally, this study put forward corresponding policy implications, such as construction of new digital infrastructures and guiding green-energy consumption.

12. Abatement of paraquat contaminated water using solar assisted heterogeneous photo-Fenton like treatment with iron-containing industrial wastes as catalysts

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 325, Part B, 1 January 2023, 116550

Abstract

Owing to the tremendous increase of chemicals for agricultural practices, the quality of water has degraded significantly and requires inevitable attention. With this in mind, present work aims at treating Paraquat (PQ) contaminated water using Fe containing industrial waste as a catalyst via photo-Fenton treatment. Utilizing the industrially generated Fe rich waste by-products i.e., Fly ash (FA), Foundry sand (FS), Red mud (RM), and Blast sand (BS) as catalysts marks the novelty of the work since this idea of using waste for treating waste serves the dual purpose of environment remediation:first by treating wastewater and second by resolving the issue of solid waste disposal. In the present study, 25 mg/L PQ was subjected to both UV and solar radiations in the presence of FeSO4, FA, FS, RM, and BS as catalysts. The presence of Fe in the catalysts was verified using analytical techniques namely FTIR, FESEM-EDX, and their XRD was also analyzed. The system was further optimized for various parameters and results indicated maximum PQ degradation under UV radiations was attained in the order FeSO4 (73%) > BS (65%) > FS (46%) > RM (37%) > FA (14%) within 60 min which significantly increased with introduction of solar radiations to 83% for Fe salt and 76% for BS justifying the potential of using waste for treating waste. Further, to enhance the real-life utilization of industrial waste, Fe2O3/BS heterojunction (Fe-BS) was synthesized which along with leading to 88% degradation of PQ, also showed 82% COD removal indicating that the catalyst not only degrades the pollutant but also converts it into a lower toxic form. Further, the intermediates formed during the process were analyzed using LCMS.

13. Potential impact of industrial transfer on PM2.5 and economic development under scenarios oriented by different objectives in Guangdong, China

Environmental Pollution, Volume 316, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 120562

Abstract

For sustainable regional development, industrial transfer is an important trend that will potentially change the spatial and temporal pattern of air pollution and economic development. Aiming to better regulate industrial transfer and guide policy-making, this study proposes an assessment framework for industrial transfer that combines precise enterprise data, GIS technology and a 3-D air quality model. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, this study simulates the redistribution of 4015 high-pollution and high-energy-consumption (double-high) enterprises in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to surrounding areas, and the potential impact on air quality is further evaluated. Three mutually independent transfer scenarios with different objectives are designed—ENV (ENVironment), ENT (ENTerprise), and GOV (GOVernment)—which aim to maximize benefits from the standpoint of the residents of Guangdong, the enterprises themselves, and local governments, respectively.

Results show that Western Guangdong (WG), Northern Guangdong (NG), and Eastern Guangdong (EG) would be the primary transfer-in regions under the ENV, ENT, and GOV scenarios due to different resource endowment. Controlled by the different scenarios, the redistribution of enterprises presented different characteristics regarding the transport of pollutant emissions and economic added value between the PRD and surrounding areas. The average concentration of PM2.5 and the related population-weighted concentrations (PWC) showed a slight decrease over the PRD (−0.75 to −0.62 μg/m3 and -0.35 to −0.49 μg/m3 per person) but increased dramatically in surrounding areas under the three scenarios (0.46–7.68 μg/m3 and 0.07–4.44 μg/m3 per person). The transfer of double-high enterprises could potentially decrease the industrial fossil fuel consumption intensity (fossil energy consumption per unit of industrial GDP) of most of the cities while exacerbating pollution intensity (concentration of PM2.5 per unit of industrial GDP), reflecting the huge gap in the regional industrial development pattern in Guangdong Province at this stage, and illustrating the importance of emission control of these enterprises for improvement of regional air quality in the future. The research perspective on industrial transfer proposed in this study could provide a reference for future studies.

14. The impact of three related emission industries on regional atmospheric chlorinated paraffins pollution

Environmental Pollution, Volume 316, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 120564

Abstract

Identifying the contributions of various chlorinated paraffins (CPs) sources in the environment plays an important practical role in the prevention and control of the CPs contamination. However, little is known about how main CP-related emission industries affect the regional atmospheric characteristics of CPs, including CP products industry, metal working industry, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. In this study, 60 passive air samples were collected from five typical cities in Henan Province, China, which had serious CP pollution and different structures of CP-related emission industry. Short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs) were detected in all samples in concentrations ranging of 2.6–7.7 × 102 and 2.1–4.3 × 102 ng m−3, respectively, which were higher than those in most reports. Moreover, Luoyang (LY) is different from other cities, showing a relatively severe MCCP contaminations. The CP pollution characteristics between different cities are obviously affected by the proportion of local CP-related industries. According to the results of cluster heatmaps, the local CP-related emission industrial structure had a greater impact on MCCPs pollution than SCCPs. Additionally, the contribution of metal working industry was beyond that of PVC production industry and CP products industry.

15. The environmental monitoring of air pollution in the Santa Cruz industrial district of Rio de Janeiro using a plant fertility model

Environmental Pollution, Volume 316, Part 2, 1 January 2023, 120653

Abstract

In 2010, a steel company was established in Santa Cruz, Rio de Janeiro. In 2012, silver rain raised concerns about human and environmental impacts. In 2013, the steel company signed an Adjustment of Conduct Term (ACT). To evaluate air pollution in the vicinity of the steel company based on a plant fertility assay before and after ACT implementation. A pollen abortion assay was implemented using flower buds of Bauhinia forficata in 2013 and Delonix regia in 2015. Sites over 5 km from the steel company, highways, and tunnels were classified as unexposed; sites 5 km from highway/tunnel were classified as exposed to other sources; and sites 5 km from the steel company were classified as exposed. Random plant collection occurred during the dry and rainy seasons (10 buds/site and 300 cells/slide). Aborted grains were analyzed using a 400-fold magnification microscope. Statistical analyses were considered significant at the 5% level. In 2013 were collected flower buds in 27 sites (2 unexposed, 18 highway/tunnel-exposed, and 7 steel company-exposed); and 34 sites in 2015 (14 unexposed, 18highway/tunnel-exposed, and 2 steel company-exposed). In both years, the mean pollen abortion was significantly higher in the dry season for sites exposed to highway/tunnel (p < 0.001) and the steel company (p = 0.005). In 2013, the mean pollen abortion was significantly higher in sites exposed to highway/tunnel compared to unexposed sites (p = 0.004) and in sites exposed to the steel company compared to sites exposed to highway/tunnel (p = 0.034). In 2015, compared to unexposed sites, the mean pollen abortion was significantly higher in sites exposed to highway/tunnel (p = 0.014) and the steel company (p < 0.001). Overall, compared to unexposed sites, the mean pollen abortion was 5.79-fold higher in sites exposed to the steel company and 4.08-fold higher in sites exposed to highway/tunnel. Compared to unexposed plants, greater air pollution effects occurred in plants exposed to the steel company before (2013) and after (2015)ACT implementation.

16. Overcoming barriers to circular economy implementation in the oil & gas industry: Environmental and social implications

Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 26 January 2023, 136133

Abstract

This anticipated consumer demand has put unprecedented pressure on natural resources. Being the highest contributor in the energy transition, Oil & gas (O&G) industry needs to lessen the negative impact of climate change and natural disasters. To combat the impact of emissions and a move towards circularity, O&G industry has undertaken numerous initiatives including energy efficiency, process fuel improvements, and technological transformation etc. But due to certain barriers O&G industry is unable to embrace Circular Economy (CE) implementation in the firms. Therefore, this study has proposed a model to examine the existing critical barriers and suggest strategies to overcome the barriers. The current study has employed an extensive analysis using a hybrid methodology of Fuzzy-DEMATEL (F-DEMATEL) and Best Worst Method (BWM) for assessing the barriers and ranking the strategies. The results showed that ‘knowledge barriers’ are the most critical in the O&G industry that hampers the implementation of CE currently. Further, the strategies ‘Developing collaborative model’ and ‘Internal research and development, innovation’ are the two most significant strategies that may help to reduce the barriers to a minimum. The findings, social and environmental implications are beneficial for the stakeholders and policy-makers to support the transition to CE.


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