Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 18-2024/ International Environmental Bulletin No. 18-2024

  • Cập nhật: Thứ hai, 13/5/2024 | 9:47:28 AM

QLMT - Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 18-2024.

The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 18-2024, featuring the following key topics:

Về quản lý môi trường

- Phương pháp mạng lưới thần kinh Bayes dựa trên phân tích giai thừa để định lượng lượng khí thải CO2 của Trung Quốc theo mục tiêu carbon kép.

- Đặc điểm phân bố và con đường di chuyển của kim loại trong quá trình hóa lỏng thủy nhiệt bùn thải đô thị với sự có mặt của các chất xúc tác khác nhau.

- Khung dựa trên nguồn để ước tính tải lượng PFAS hàng năm trong nước thải đô thị.

- Tiềm năng oxy hóa mùa hè của PM2.5 trong khí quyển ở New Delhi: Ảnh hưởng của quá trình lão hóa hạt khí dung.

- Tác động của cải cách thuế bảo vệ môi trường ở các vùng dựa vào tài nguyên theo mô hình CGE.

- Đánh giá mức độ ưu tiên của mô hình kinh doanh chiến lược cho hệ thống quản lý tài nguyên nước thải hiệu quả.

- Phản ứng lịch sử và dự đoán của nhiệt độ nước mặt các hồ ở Đông Nam Á đối với khí hậu ấm lên.

- Các vấn đề sức khỏe hành tinh ở các nước đang phát triển: Động lực giữa các hệ thống giao thông, phát triển kinh tế bền vững và lượng khí thải CO2.

- Sự thay đổi cấu trúc và các yếu tố quyết định mạng lưới dấu chân carbon toàn cầu thể hiện trong di cư quốc tế: Phân tích mạng lưới xã hội.

- Chiến lược tối ưu hóa cho giao dịch tích hợp trong công viên có tính đến các hạn chế về lưu trữ năng lượng và phát thải carbon.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Khai thác phân tích đô thị và học máy để phát triển đô thị bền vững: Một khuôn khổ đa chiều để mô hình hóa các tác động môi trường của quá trình đô thị hóa ở Ả Rập Saudi.

- Các công cụ hỗ trợ quyết định đánh giá tính bền vững trong quản lý nước mưa đô thị – Đánh giá vai trò của chúng trong quản trị và quản lý.

- Quá trình oxy hóa quang hóa của VOC và đánh giá tác động nguồn của chúng đối với tầng ozone trong điều kiện thời tiết thuận lợi ở Tây Đài Loan.

- Nghiên cứu tác động không gian của phát triển kinh tế số tới giảm thiểu carbon đô thị.

- Hướng tới phương tiện không gây ô nhiễm bằng nhiên liệu và công nghệ xử lý khí thải tiên tiến.

- Giám sát động thái tán cây trên các môi trường sống đô thị không đồng nhất: Một nghiên cứu theo chiều dọc sử dụng dữ liệu viễn thám đa nguồn.

- Hiệu quả môi trường của gạch không nung được sản xuất từ việc đồng xử lý chất thải mỏ và tro bay từ quá trình đốt chất thải rắn đô thị dựa trên các thử nghiệm thẩm thấu toàn diện.

- Khám phá hệ thống cống ngầm sâu tối ưu để tăng cường khả năng chống chịu lũ lụt đô thị ở khu vực Gangnam, Hàn Quốc.

- Đặc điểm của quá trình rửa trôi trầm tích lắng đọng trên đường và phân chia chính xác ô nhiễm dòng chảy ban đầu trong không gian đô thị không đồng nhất.

- Đánh giá hành vi đại tiện của các cá nhân không có nơi trú ẩn và sự đóng góp của họ đối với chất lượng nước vi sinh vật ở lưu vực sông đô thị khô cằn.

- Các yếu tố điều chỉnh môi trường xã hội đối với tỷ lệ tử vong liên quan đến nhiệt ở tám thành phố của Thụy Sĩ: Phân tích chuỗi thời gian trường hợp.

- Sự cân bằng giữa giảm lượng carbon giữa tiền xử lý và phân hủy kỵ khí: Nghiên cứu thực địa về nhà máy khí sinh học quy mô công nghiệp.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Cổ phần của nhà đầu tư tổ chức xanh và trách nhiệm môi trường của doanh nghiệp.

- Bảo trì như một công cụ bền vững trong các ngành công nghiệp có rủi ro cao: Đánh giá và định hướng trong tương lai.

- Tổng hợp, tái chế và tái chế dựa trên sinh học - nhịp tim hướng tới ngành công nghiệp polyethylene terephthalate xanh và bền vững.

- Rủi ro của ngành khai thác mỏ và khả năng phục hồi của chuỗi cung ứng kim loại và khoáng sản quan trọng trong tương lai tại các thị trường mới nổi.

- Quá trình khử cacbon trong ngành xi măng: Những phát hiện từ việc kết hợp đánh giá vòng đời tiềm năng của clinker với các kịch bản mô hình đánh giá tích hợp.

- Xanh hóa ngành công nghiệp dầu mỏ: Nhà máy lọc sinh học vi tảo để xử lý nước sản xuất dầu bền vững và phục hồi tài nguyên.

- Kết thúc vòng lặp: Phân tích các quy trình công nghệ sinh học để ổn định bền vững chất thải dệt may từ ngành thời trang nhanh.

- Thực hiện quá trình chuyển đổi xuất khẩu năng lượng: Tác động của bối cảnh thông tin xung đột và cạnh tranh đối với sự chấp nhận của công chúng đối với ngành xuất khẩu hydro của Úc.

- Loại bỏ hiệu quả thuốc nhuộm Rhodamine B bằng than sinh học làm chất hấp phụ: Nghiên cứu hiệu suất, động học, nhiệt động lực học, đường đẳng nhiệt hấp phụ và khả năng tái sử dụng của nó.


Tình trạng ngập lụt đô thị vào mùa mưa tại các thành phố lớn diễn ra ngày càng phổ biến. Ảnh: ITN

Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
The Environmental Management Special Section is pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 18-2024, featuring the following key topics:

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT / QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG 

1. A factorial-analysis-based Bayesian neural network method for quantifying China's CO2 emissions under dual-carbon target
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 920, 10 April 2024, 170698

Abstract

Energy-structure transformation and CO2-emission reduction are becoming particularly urgent for China and many other countries. Development of effective methods that are capable of quantifying and predicting CO2 emissions to achieve carbon neutrality is desired. This study advances a factorial-analysis-based Bayesian neural network (abbreviated as FABNN) method to reflect the complex relationship between inputs and outputs as well as reveal the individual and interactive effects of multiple factors affecting CO2 emissions. FABNN is then applied to analyzing CO2 emissions of China (abbreviated as CEC), where multiple factors involve in energy (e.g., the consumption of natural gas, CONG), economic (e.g., Gross domestic product, GDP) and social (e.g., the rate of urbanization, ROU) aspects are investigated and 512 scenarios are designed to achieve the national dual carbon targets (i.e., carbon peak before 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060). Comparing to the conventional machine learning methods, FABNN performs better in calibration and validation results, indicating that FABNN is suitable for CEC simulation and prediction. Results disclose that the top three factors affecting CEC under the dual‑carbon target are GDP, CONG, and ROU; energy, economic and social contributions are 43.5 %, 34.6 % and 21.9 %, respectively. CEC reaches its carbon peak during 2027–2032 and achieve carbon neutrality during 2053–2057 under all scenarios. Under the optimal scenario (S195), the CO2-emission reduction potential is about 772.2 million tonnes and the consumptions of coal, petroleum and natural gas can be respectively reduced by 3.1 %, 9.9 % and 23.0 % compared to the worst scenario (S466). The results can provide solid support for national energy-structure transformation and CO2-emission reduction to achieve carbon-peak and carbon-neutrality targets.

2. Environmental governance and regional green development: Evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 447, 1 April 2024, 141643

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between government environmental governance (GEG) and regional green development. The findings suggest that GEG boosts green innovation by promoting the "innovation compensation effect" while inhibiting regional green development due to increased environmental costs, supported by the "compliance cost effect". The relationship between GEG and regional green development is moderated by economic development and environmental pollution in an inverted U-shaped pattern. When economic development and environmental pollution are at lesser levels, the positive effect of GEG amplifies as economic growth and environmental pollution ascend. However, if economic growth and environmental pollution continue to escalate, the positive impact of GEG will lose its strength. In low-carbon pilot cities, GEG negatively affects regional green development, whereas the opposite effect is seen in non-pilot cities. Regardless, there is an inverted U-shaped moderating impact of economic development or environmental pollution in both low-carbon pilot and non-pilot cities, yet the inflection point varies across regions. This paper offers an original perspective by creating a theoretical link between green development and environmental governance and emphasizes the significance of a nonlinear viewpoint when examining the relationship between variables in the regional green development process, thereby expanding our understanding of green development phenomena.

3. Distribution characteristics and migration pathways of metals during hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge in the presence of various catalysts
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 920, 10 April 2024, 171023

Abstract

A series of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) experiments with two different samples of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) were conducted at 350 °C for 30 min residence time in a high pressure batch reactor. The main aim of the study was to explore the distribution and migration pathways of a broad range of metals and metalloids in the HTL products (bio-oil, char and aqueous phase) obtained in the presence of various homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts (Na2CO3, Li2CO3, K2CO3, Ba(OH)2, Fe2O3, CeO2, NiMo/MoO3, MoS2, Ni/NiO, SnO2, FeS). The elements under study included 16 environmentally significant metals and metalloids (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Zn and Hg). The study showed that the quantitative migration of the tested metals and metalloids to the particular HTL products, relative to their initial content in the raw sludge, is different for the individual elements. Most metals exhibited a particularly strong affinity to the solid fraction (biochar). In the obtained HTL bio-oils, all tested elements were identified, except of Cd. It was also found that B and As have high affinity to the aqueous phase. A direct effect of catalysts on the contents of some elements in the products was also proved by the study, e.g. increased concentration of Cr in the biochar when Fe2O3 was used as a process catalyst. Due to the wide scope of the tested elements and broad range of catalyst used, the results obtained represent a unique and comprehensive set of environmental data compared to similar HTL studies previously conducted for MSS.

4. Evaluation of key node groups of embodied carbon emission transfer network in China based on complex network control theory
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 448, 5 April 2024, 141605

Abstract

China has committed to enhancing its national efforts to peak CO emissions by 2030. Rather than applying broad emission reduction measures nationwide, a more efficient strategy involves focusing on select provinces and sectors as pioneers in emission reduction. This targeted approach is expected to drive broader, nationwide progress towards the carbon emission reduction goal, thereby improving the effectiveness of emission reduction policies. This study integrates complex network control theory with input–output modeling to develop a detailed analysis of the embodied carbon emission (EC) transfer network at the province-sector level in China for the year 2017. By examining the network’s characteristics and identifying key nodes for control, the study arrives at several notable findings: (1) EC transfers predominantly flow from central and northern provinces to the economically vibrant southeast provinces, and from energy-intensive sectors towards services, manufacturing, and others. (2) The network’s structure follows a scale-free distribution, indicating that a limited number of provincial sectors are central to the network, managing a majority of EC transfers and thus playing a crucial role. (3) Utilizing complex network control theory, an algorithm was developed to identify optimal control nodes, aiming to minimize the costs associated with emission reduction. This approach identified 287 provincial sectors, about one-third of the total, while keeping abatement costs below one-fourth of potential expenses. (4) The identified crucial control nodes consist of approximately 38% source nodes and 20% isolated nodes. Sectors downstream of these source nodes, such as sec04, sec05, and sec22, show significant node strength and betweenness centrality, enhancing the spread of emission reduction impacts. (5) When compared to other node selection strategies, the algorithm not only achieves complete network control but also minimizes abatement costs effectively. This research offers valuable insights for policymakers on the dynamics of interregional trade and EC management. It supports the formulation of a strategic, long-term plan for collaborative emission reduction across provinces and sectors, aligning with China’s environmental commitments.

5. A source-based framework to estimate the annual load of PFAS in municipal wastewater
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 920, 10 April 2024, 170997

Abstract

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of persistent chemicals, whose impact has been observed in various environmental compartments. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered a major emission pathway of PFAS, specifically in the context of the aquatic environment. The goal of this study was to develop a compartmentalized, source-based load estimation model of 7 PFAS within the municipal wastewater influent. Consumer statistics, data from literature on PFAS concentrations and release during use, and specific sampling activities for environmental flows in the related city were used to estimate per capita emission loads. Model results were compared with loads obtained through the monitoring campaign at the municipal WWTP influent. A wide range of discrepancies (≈5 % to ≈90 %) between loads observed in the WWTP influent and source based model estimates was noticed. The loads less accounted by the model were associated with sulfonic acids (PFSAs), whereas for carboxylic acids (PFCAs) most of the observed loads could be reasonably explained by the model, with even an overestimation of nearly 5 % noted for PFNA. Higher heterogeneity in sources was observed in the PFCA group, with a noticeable dominance in the share of consumer products. PFSAs had less of a consumer product input (<20 %), with the rest of the modelled load being attributed to environmental inputs. A large gap of unknown loads of PFSAs indicates a need for examination of other, not yet quantified activities that can potentially explain the remainder of the observed load. Especially commercial activities are considered as potential additional sources for PFSAs. These findings signify the importance of PFAS that originate from both consumer products, as well as environmental inputs in the overall load contribution into the sewage, while identifying the need for further investigation into commercial sources of PFAS emitted into the municipal wastewater.

6. Projection of ecological water consumption under carbon emission in Chinese provinces
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 448, 5 April 2024, 141630

Abstract

Under the background of "double carbon”, ecological water has become one of the significant resources to ensure the healthy and sustainable development of the regional ecological environment. And the ecological water consumption prediction is a prerequisite for optimizing water supply structures. Considering the impact of CO2 emissions on ecological water consumption, the FGM(1,1) model was firstly used to predict CO2 emissions considered as an impact factor in this paper. Then, an adjacent accumulative grey multivariate convolution model (AGMC(1,N)) was combined with the Average Weakening Buffer Operator (AWBO) to predict the annual ecological water consumption of 30 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China. The results show that the AGMC(1,N) model combined with the AWBO has better prediction effect. In addition, in the next decade, only six provinces in the northern region will have a decreasing trend in ecological water consumption. However, the other provinces are showing an upward trend. The ecological water consumption trends deviate from the CO2 emission trends in 12 provinces. The research results are beneficial for the formulation of the ecological water consumption policies and the achievement of the dual carbon goals.

7. Summertime oxidative potential of atmospheric PM2.5 over New Delhi: Effect of aerosol ageing
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 920, 10 April 2024, 170984

Abstract

Exposure to elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations in ambient air has become a major health concern over urban areas worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation due to ambient PM (termed as their oxidative potential, OP) is shown to play a major role in PM-induced health effects. In the present study, the OP of the ambient PM2.5 samples, collected during summer 2019 from New Delhi, were measured using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Average volume-normalized OP (OPV) was 2.9 ± 1.1 nmol DTT min−1 m−3, and mass-normalized OP (OPm) was 61 ± 29 pmol DTT min−1 μg−1. The regression statistics of OPv vs chemical species show the maximum slope of OPV with the elemental carbon (EC, r2 = 0.72) followed by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, r2 = 0.72), and organic carbon (OC, r2 = 0.64). A strong positive correlation between OPm and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, such as NH4+ and NO3− mass fractions) was also observed, indicating that the sources emitting NO2 and NH3, precursors of NO3− and NH4+, also emit DTT-active species. Interestingly, the slope value of OPv vs OC for aged aerosols (OM/OC > 1.7, f44 > 0.12 and f43 < 0.04) was 1.7 times higher than relatively fresh organic aerosols (OA, OM/OC < 1.7, f44 < 0.12, f43 > 0.04). An increase in OPv and OPoc with f44 indicates the formation of more DTT active species with the ageing of OA. A linear increase in OPoc with increasing Nitrogen/Carbon (N/C) ratio suggests that nitrogenous OA have higher OP.

8. Gains in China's sustainability by decoupling economic growth from energy use
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 448, 5 April 2024, 141765

Abstract

China's adoption of an "ecological civilization” strategy since 2012 demonstrates its vision to move toward more sustainable development models while promoting green energy and strengthening environmental protection. However, China's continuing heavy reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, masks the complex positive trends in energy use, more sustainable economic development, and environmental management. Through examining the evolving energy-GDP relationships in China over the past few decades, we elucidated the underlying complex nonlinear processes using environmental Kuznets curve analysis and showed that the energy–GDP relationship has fluctuated between positive and negative decoupling. Furthermore, fluctuating trajectories manifested as sharp regional divergences when early-transitioning coastal areas restructured toward services and exhibited robust decoupling, whereas the industrial interior remained fossil fuel reliant. We identified various forces related to these provincial disparities, where rapid urbanization, industrial realignment, and income growth were all important. By promoting service transitions and enabling low-carbon technologies in coastal hubs, these drivers also exposed infrastructure deficits and entrenched fossil fuel usage in the interior. These problems led to China's latest strategic plans emphasizing "higher quality” growth underpinned by clean energy transitions and coordinated regional policies. Ongoing declines in coal and the rise in renewable energy usage highlight promising momentum, but stable decoupling remains contingent on sustained policy coordination. The intricate balance between growth and environmental pressures in China provides essential lessons to help emerging economies achieve sustainability by catalyzing green transitions and attaining developmental milestones.

9. The impacts of environmental protection tax reform in resource-based regions based on the CGE model
Environmental Research, Volume 247, 15 April 2024, 118211

Abstract

Economic transformation and development serve as effective strategies for resource-based regions to avoid the "resource curse.” By optimizing industrial structure and enhancing energy efficiency through government macro-regulation, these regions can achieve sustainable and environment-friendly growth. The general equilibrium model is widely employed to assess the effectiveness of economic transformation and development. In this study, we constructed a provincial social accounting matrix based on macro data from Shanxi, China, to examine the impact of different environmental protection tax rates on the macro economy, industrial structure, and energy consumption. The findings reveal that the implementation of environmental protection tax has successfully optimized the industrial structure and improved energy utilization efficiency. However, it has also led to a slight decline in total output. Hence, it is imperative to establish a more balanced and reasonable environmental protection tax rate to further promote economic transformation and development in resource-based areas. Consequently, this paper puts forth policy recommendations aimed at achieving a harmonious balance between ecological preservation and economic progress in resource-based regions, ultimately enhancing the overall quality of economic development in such areas.

10. Evaluating prioritization of strategic business model for efficient wastewater resource management system
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 449, 10 April 2024, 141271

Abstract

In recent decades, the world has witnessed a sudden rise in population and rapid urbanization. This has led to an increase in the water demand and consequently an upsurge in wastewater. Water scarcity, coupled with untreated wastewater, has become a major concern throughout the world. Municipalities are challenged with the task of treating wastewater and meeting domestic, agricultural, and industrial demands. Mismanagement of wastewater results in economic, social and environmental loss. The high concentration of population, lack of sanitation and water security, reduced awareness, and evident pollution have made India a home full of opportunity and innovation in the wastewater management (WWM) business. The paper gives a comprehensive review to understand the wastewater management and business approach. The research uses Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) to identify, acknowledge, and interpret the major factors for the stakeholders and for future companies who wish to venture into the wastewater management business. The study provides insight into developing a circular economy solution and gives a vivid framework highlighting the relevant factors for a successful WWM business. The study also provides direction to the practitioners who are involved in the WWM industry and helps evaluate their options, prioritizing resource-efficient solutions.

11. Historical and projected response of Southeast Asian lakes surface water temperature to warming climate
Environmental Research, Volume 247, 15 April 2024, 118412

Abstract

The temperature of surface and epilimnetic waters, closely related to regional air temperatures, responds quickly and directly to climatic changes. As a result, lake surface temperature (LSWT) can be considered an effective indicator of climate change. In this study, we reconstructed and investigated historical and future LSWT across different scenarios for over 80 major lakes in mainland Southeast Asia (SEA), an ecologically diverse region vulnerable to climate impacts.

Five different predicting models, incorporating statistical, machine and deep learning approaches, were trained and validated using ERA5 and CHIRPS climatic feature datasets as predictors and 8-day MODIS-derived LSWT from 2000 to 2020 as reference dataset. Best performing model was then applied to predict both historical (1986–2020) and future (2020–2100) LSWT for SEA lakes, utilizing downscaled climatic CORDEX-SEA feature data and multiple Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). The analysis uncovered historical and future thermal dynamics and long-term trends for both daytime and nighttime LSWT.

Among 5 models, XGboost results the most performant (NSE 0.85, RMSE 1.14 °C, MAE 0.69 °C, MBE -0.08 °C) and it has been used for historical reconstruction and future LSWT prediction. The historical analysis revealed a warming trend in SEA lakes, with daytime LSWT increasing at a rate of +0.18 °C/decade and nighttime LSWT at +0.13 °C/decade over the past three decades. These trends appeared of smaller magnitude compared to global estimates of LSWT change rates and less pronounced than concurrent air temperature and LSWT increases in neighbouring regions. Projections under various RCP scenarios indicated continued LSWT warming. Daytime LSWT is projected to increase at varying rates per decade: +0.03 °C under RCP2.6, +0.14 °C under RCP4.5, and +0.29 °C under RCP8.5. Similarly, nighttime LSWT projections under these scenarios are: +0.03 °C, +0.10 °C, and +0.16 °C per decade, respectively. The most optimistic scenario predicted marginal increases of +0.38 °C on average, while the most pessimistic scenario indicated an average LSWT increase of +2.29 °C by end of the century.

This study highlights the relevance of LSWT as a climate change indicator in major SEA's freshwater ecosystems. The integration of satellite-derived LSWT, historical and projected climate data into data-driven modelling has enabled new and a more nuanced understanding of LSWT dynamics in relation to climate throughout the entire SEA region.

12. Planetary health issues in the developing world: Dynamics between transportation systems, sustainable economic development, and CO2 emissions
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 449, 10 April 2024, 140842

Abstract

The earth is experiencing unprecedented global warming and this has an adverse impact on the health of the planet, people and economies. A major contributor to the degradation of planetary health is CO2 emissions that are contributed by the transportation sector. The brunt of the environmental degradation is experienced by developing countries, where the transportation sector is dependent on cheaper fossil-fuels. This study examines the causal interface between transportation infrastructure development, economic growth, institutional quality, and CO2 emissions in 79 developing countries over the period 2005 to 2022. A quantile-on-Quintile regression (QQR) and vector error-correction model (VECM) are deployed to study the causal relationships between the above-mentioned variables. The empirical findings show strong endogenous relationships between the variables in the short-run and long-run. The concerning trend is that, while the transportation sector and improvement in the institutions contribute positively to the economic growth of these countries, CO2 emissions (from the transportation sector) have a detrimental, and perhaps larger, impact on economic growth. A key insight from these findings is that there is a need to reduce CO2 emissions by ensuring greater use of renewable energy to power the transportation sector. A more environmentally-friendly transportation sector will be critical in enabling these countries to transition towards sustainable economic growth trajectories.

13. The impact of EID policy and trade on the environmental effects of Chinese paper enterprises from the perspective of financial constraints
Environmental Research, Volume 247, 15 April 2024, 118170

Abstract

Accompanying China's accession to the World Trade Organization, the rapid development of the Chinese economy has led to increasingly serious environmental issues. However, the inherent mechanisms underlying the impact of Environmental Information Disclosure (EID) policy and trade on the environmental effects of Chinese paper enterprises remain unclear in the context of the era's requirement for a resource-conserving and environmentally-friendly society. The pollution problem in the papermaking industry has received attention worldwide, and how to balance the environmental and development issues of papermaking enterprises is an urgent issue that needs to be solved in the academic community. This study explores the impact mechanisms of EID policy and trade on the environmental effects of enterprises from the perspective of financial constraints. Utilizing the PSM-DID model, the study investigates the moderating effects of financial constraints on the EID policy and import-export trade. The findings reveal that both external and internal financial constraints have negative, detrimental effects on the environmental effects of the EID policy and trade. These constraints impede research and development investment and technological upgrades, hinder productivity improvement, and hamper the realization of "regulatory and trade innovation effects”. This study enriches our understanding of the mechanisms by which trade affects the environmental effects of Chinese paper enterprises and further identifies the impacts of Chinese EID policy and trade on pollution emissions by enterprises, providing a theoretical basis and practical foundation for the government in formulating financial, environmental, and trade policies.

14. The structural change and determinants of global carbon footprint network embodied in international migration: A social network analysis
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 449, 10 April 2024, 141651

Abstract

The carbon footprint embodied in international population mobility has a complex spatial correlation, which exacerbates the difficulty of global climate governance. However, the features, changing trends, and determinants of the carbon footprint flow embodied in global population migration are poorly understood. This study employed social network analysis and the exponential random graph model (ERGM) to investigate the structural changes and drivers of the carbon footprint network embodied in global migration from 1995 to 2015. The results showed that approximately 50% of carbon footprint flow embodied in international migration flowed from developing to developed countries. The spatial connections between countries in the network were becoming increasingly close, displaying a typical small-world structure, and showing low reciprocity and negative assortativity. Moreover, centrality analysis highlighted the United States and the European Union as being at the core of the network, whereas some emerging economies (e.g., China, India, and South Africa) were shown as having an increasing influence on the network. The determinants of network formation were divided into three effects. For node attribute effect, countries with developed economy, high proportion of industrial value added, urbanization and openness were becoming the destinations of carbon inflows from immigrants, while countries with high consumption of renewable energy and energy intensity had a trend of carbon outflows with emigrants over periods. As for exogenous network effect, the significance of economic integration on the formation of the network was strengthening, while that of geographical proximity and cultural similarity was declining. Additionally, the positive impact of self-organizational effect on the network was decreasing. This study provided guidance for countries to formulate policies to reduce the carbon emissions embodied in international migration.

15. Does patent pledge reduce pollution and carbon emissions? Evidence from China
Environmental Research, Volume 247, 15 April 2024, 118274

Abstract

The existing literature has extensively examined the impact of green innovations, such as patents, on pollution and carbon emissions. However, there has been comparatively less emphasis on the debt financing of green innovation by using patents as collateral. This oversight may have implications for the realization of pollution and carbon emissions reduction goals. Using a natural experiment based on the patent pledge pilot policy in China, this study investigates the impact of patent pledge on pollution and carbon emissions. We find that a significant reduction in the emissions of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide attributable to the patent pledge pilot policy, particularly in cities with lower initial green patent rates, and these results still hold after an array of robustness checks. We show that the encouragement of green innovation and the stimulation of environmental entrepreneurship are the mechanisms underlying these emission reduction effects. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that the impact of patent pledges on emission reduction is more pronounced in cities characterized by higher levels of government-reported environmental concern, public engagement in environmentally related searches, pollution information transparency indices, and green development evaluation indices.

16. An optimization strategy for intra-park integration trading considering energy storage and carbon emission constraints
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 447, 1 April 2024, 141031

Abstract

Energy development in industrial parks promotes both industrial and inter-park economies. However, as the number of industrial parks increases and the economic level of the parks rises, energy consumption is also increasing rapidly. The rapid expansion of inter-park trading markets is accompanied by a surge in carbon emissions, making industrial parks increasingly significant contributors to carbon emissions within the industrial sector. In response to this environmental challenge, this paper proposes an integrated trading approach within industrial parks that considers carbon constraints. By implementing a spot trading method for surplus industrial energy, the goal is to mitigate the carbon emission pressure within these parks. Firstly, the paper conducts an analysis of the characteristics of combined heat and power units in industrial parks. It introduces an integrated analysis method within the target region, consolidating information from various park units to enhance flexibility in energy utilization. Secondly, an energy storage model is established. This model efficiently leverages energy storage capacity to balance fluctuations in energy supply and demand within industrial parks, thereby alleviating carbon emission pressure. Finally, the study and analysis of an industrial park in Liaoning Province were conducted using the Yalmip + Gurobi commercial software on the MATLAB platform. Compared with the traditional industrial park, the carbon dioxide emission of the industrial park is reduced by 91.49t, and the energy cost is saved by 11.2 million RMB. Numerical results from instances indicate that this method surpasses traditional trading approaches, aligning with the rigorous standards of scientific research.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ 

1. Harnessing urban analytics and machine learning for sustainable urban development: A multidimensional framework for modeling environmental impacts of urbanization in Saudi Arabia
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 357, April 2024, 120705

Abstract

Sustainable urban development is crucial for managing natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts induced by rapid urbanization. This study demonstrates an integrated framework using machine learning-based urban analytics techniques to evaluate spatiotemporal urban expansion in Saudi Arabia (1987–2022) and quantify impacts on leading land, water, and air-related environmental parameters (EPs). Remote sensing and statistical techniques were applied to estimate vegetation health, built-up area, impervious surface, water bodies, soil characteristics, thermal comfort, air pollutants (PM2.5, CH4, CO, NO2, SO2), and nighttime light EPs. Regression assessment and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to assess the relationships between urban expansion and EPs. The findings highlight the substantial growth of urban areas (0.067%–0.14%), a decline in soil moisture (16%–14%), water bodies (60%–22%), a nationwide increase of PM2.5 (44 μg/m3 to 73 μg/m3) and night light intensity (0.166–9.670) concentrations resulting in significant impacts on land, water, and air quality parameters. PCA showed vegetation cover, soil moisture, thermal comfort, PM2.5, and NO2 are highly impacted by urban expansion compared to other EPs. The results highlight the need for effective and sustainable interventions to mitigate environmental impacts using green innovations and urban development by applying mixed-use development, green space preservation, green building technologies, and implementing renewable energy approaches. The framework recommended for environmental management in this study provides a robust foundation for evidence-based policies and adaptive management practices that balance economic progress and environmental sustainability. It will also help policymakers and urban planners in making informed decisions and promoting resilient urban growth.

2. Decision support tools of sustainability assessment for urban stormwater management – A review of their roles in governance and management
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 447, 1 April 2024, 141646

Abstract

Urban areas face growing sustainable challenges arising from stormwater issues, necessitating the evolution of stormwater management concept and practice. This transformation not only entails the adoption of a multifunctional, holistic, and sustainable approach but also involves the integration of water quality and quantity considerations with governance and management aspects. A means to do so is via decision support tools. However, whilst existing studies using the tools by employing sustainability assessment principles or as indicators to plan blue-green infrastructures and strategies, uncertainties remain regarding how decision support tools encompass governance and management dimensions. The aim of this review study is to provide much-needed clarity on this aspect, in doing so, a systematic review of decision support tools used in sustainability assessment within the stormwater management context is conducted, focusing on their abilities to include governance and management. Findings encompass governance aspects, such as actors, discourses, rules, and resources considered, and explore how these relate to long-term management. The results reveal the recognized potential of decision support tools in facilitating governance and management for sustainable stormwater management, however, future research and efforts need to be allocated in: (i) Exploring practical challenges in integrating all sustainability assessment pillars with consistent criteria into decision support tools, to determine the optimal use of all criteria in fostering open and informed stormwater governance and management. (ii) Understanding how to engage diverse stormwater actors with future decision support tools, to secure ownership and relevance. (iii) Using retrospective (ex-post) sustainability assessments to provide more tangible knowledge and to support long-term management.

3. Energy-saving targets and carbon neutrality: A perspective on carbon emissions and carbon substitution in 288 Chinese cities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 356, April 2024, 120523

Abstract

Environmental protection is a shared task among nations. In pursuit of its commitment to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, China has implemented more robust energy-saving targets. This study utilizes panel data from 288 Chinese cities spanning from 2006 to 2020 to examine the policy effects of energy-saving targets on carbon neutrality. The findings reveal that (1) energy-saving targets positively impact carbon substitution, resulting in reduced carbon emissions and facilitating the progress towards carbon neutrality through three primary channels: energy governance, energy production, and energy consumption. (2) The influence of energy-saving targets on carbon neutrality exhibits a significant spatial spillover effect, driven primarily by the reduction in carbon emissions, although the spatial spillover effect of carbon substitution is relatively limited. The collaboration between the government and enterprises plays a crucial role in achieving carbon neutrality, while the engagement of the general public is yet to be fully realized. (3) However, the inadequacy of enhancing carbon neutrality through energy-saving targets lies in the compulsory emissions reduction behavior at the expense of sacrificing some economic benefits in cities that overachieve energy-saving targets. This undermines the coordinated development of ecology and economy. Therefore, it is recommended to establish a policy implementation monitoring system to ensure the scientific basis of policy objectives, enhance the level of green technology innovation, accelerate the digital transformation of enterprises, and establish a synergistic mechanism that involves multiple stakeholders.

4. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs and their source impact assessment on ozone under de-weather conditions in Western Taiwan
Environmental Pollution, Volume 346, 1 April 2024, 123662

Abstract

The application of statistical models has excellent potential to provide crucial information for mitigating the challenging issue of ozone (O3) pollution by capturing its associations with explanatory variables, including reactive precursors (VOCs and NOX) and meteorology. Considering the large contribution of O3 in degrading the air quality of western Taiwan, three-year (2019–2021) hourly concentration data of VOC, NOX and O3 from 4 monitoring stations of western Taiwan: Tucheng (TC), Zhongming (ZM), Taixi (TX) and Xiaogang (XG), was evaluated to identify the effect of anthropogenic emissions on O3 formation. Owing to the high-ambient reactivity of VOCs on the underestimation of sources, photochemical oxidation was assessed to calculate the consumed VOC (VOCcons) which was followed by the source identification of their initial concentrations. VOCcons was observed to be highest in the summer season (16.7 and 22.7 ppbC) at north (TC and ZM) and in the autumn season (17.8 and 11.4 ppbC) in southward-located stations (TX and XG, respectively). Results showed that VOCs from solvents (25–27%) were the major source at northward stations whereas VOCs-industrial emissions (30%) dominated in south. Furthermore, machine learning (ML): eXtreme Gradient Boost (XGBoost) model based de-weather analysis identified that meteorological factors favor to reduce ambient O3 levels at TC, ZM and XG stations (−67%, −47% and −21%, respectively) but they have a major role in accumulating the O3 (+38%) at the TX station which is primarily transported from the upwind region of south-central Taiwan. Crucial insights using ML outputs showed that the finding of the study can be utilized for region-specific data-driven control of emission from VOCs-sources and prioritized to limit the O3-pollution at the study location-ns as well as their accumulation in distant regions.

5. Research on the spatial effect of digital economy development on urban carbon reduction
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 357, April 2024, 120764

Abstract

Cities are one of the main sources of regional carbon emissions, and reducing urban carbon emission is the key to reducing emissions. The digital economy has transformed the economic operation mode, and it is a significant approach to support the "dual carbon goals” (carbon peaking and carbon neutrality). This article considers the externalities of the digital economy and carbon emissions. And we use spatial econometric models to analyze the effectiveness of digital economy in empowering carbon emissions reduction. Besides, we explore the static and dynamic spillover effects, and use spatial Durbin panel quantile model to analyze the digital economy’s heterogeneity on carbon emissions. Research has shown that the digital economy has a remarkable carbon reduction effect, and the conclusion remains valid after considering robustness tests such as replacing the weight matrices, calculation methods, and proxy variables. The analysis of static and dynamic spillover effects indicates that the degree of the digital economy’s impact on carbon emissions are significantly different. Heterogeneity analysis shows that as the digital economy develops from a low level to a high level, its impact on carbon emissions also shifts from positive promotion to negative suppression. This paper proposes a policy reference to help the development of digital economy and promote carbon neutrality in the face of severe environmental challenges.

6. Towards zero pollution vehicles by advanced fuels and exhaust aftertreatment technologies
Environmental Pollution, Volume 347, 15 April 2024, 123665

Abstract

Vehicular emissions deteriorate air quality in urban areas notably. The aim of this study was to conduct an in-depth characterization of gaseous and particle emissions, and their potential to form secondary aerosol emissions, of the cars meeting the most recent emission Euro 6d standards, and to investigate the impact of fuel as well as engine and aftertreatment technologies on pollutants at warm and cold ambient temperatures. Studied vehicles were a diesel car with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), two gasoline cars (with and without a gasoline particulate filter (GPF)), and a car using compressed natural gas (CNG). The impact of fuel aromatic content was examined for the diesel car and the gasoline car without the GPF. The results showed that the utilization of exhaust particulate filter was important both in diesel and gasoline cars. The gasoline car without the GPF emitted relatively high concentrations of particles compared to the other technologies but the implementation of the GPF decreased particle emissions, and the potential to form secondary aerosols in atmospheric processes. The diesel car equipped with the DPF emitted low particle number concentrations except during the DPF regeneration events. Aromatic-free gasoline and diesel fuel efficiently reduced exhaust particles. Since the renewal of vehicle fleet is a relatively slow process, changing the fuel composition can be seen as a faster way to affect traffic emissions.

7. Monitoring tree canopy dynamics across heterogeneous urban habitats: A longitudinal study using multi-source remote sensing data
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 356, April 2024, 120542

Abstract

Urban trees have attracted increasing attention to serve as a green prescription for addressing various challenges facing human society like climate change and environmental deterioration. However, without healthy growth of urban trees, they cannot service any environmental, social, and economic benefits in a sustainable manner. By monitoring the canopy development, the tree growth dynamics in different urban habitats can be detected and appropriate management approaches can be executed. Using the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong, as a case, this study explores how remote sensing data can help monitor and understand the impacts of heterogeneous urban habitats on tree canopy dynamics. Four algorithms based on WorldView-2 satellite image are compared to optimize the canopy segmentation. Then the individual tree canopy is integrated with Sentinel-2 satellite data to obtain canopy growth dynamics for each season from 2016 to 2020. Three indicators are applied to reflect tree canopy status, including the fluorescence correction vegetation index (FCVI, tracking leaf chlorophyll density), the soil adjusted total vegetation index (SATVI, measuring the density of woody branches and twigs), and the normalised difference phenology index (NDPI, capturing canopy water content). And four heterogeneous habitats where urban trees stand are specified. The results revealed that urban trees show varying canopy growth status, in a descending order from natural terrains, parks, residential lands, to road verges, suggesting that urban habitats curtail trees’ growth significantly. Additionally, two super-typhoons in 2017 and 2018, respectively, caused serious damages to tree canopy. Relevant resiliency of tree varies, echoing the sequence of canopy growth status with those in road verges the least resilient. This study shows how remote sensing data can be used to provide a better understanding of long-term tree canopy dynamics across large-scale heterogeneous urban habitats, which is key to monitoring and maintaining the health and growth of urban trees.

8. Environmental performance of unfired bricks produced from co-disposal of mine tailings and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash based on comprehensive leaching tests
Environmental Pollution, Volume 347, 15 April 2024, 123795

Abstract

The potential leaching of heavy metals is a crucial concern for construction materials produced from solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment of wastes. This study comprehensively evaluated the leaching characteristics of heavy metals from the unfired bricks produced from co-disposal of Pb–Zn mine tailings and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using batch, sequential, and semi-dynamic leaching tests. The results show that S/S treatment drastically reduced the leachability of heavy metals from the unfired bricks through lowering their distribution in the acid-soluble fraction. The effective diffusion coefficients of heavy metals within unfired bricks were all below 1.55 × 10−13 cm2/s, which is indicative of low mobility in the environment. The release of heavy metals from the unfired bricks was primarily governed by diffusion and dissolution. Slaking treatment of fly ash significantly reduced the leaching of heavy metals from the unfired bricks due to their improved structural integrity and compactness, which minimizes the surface area in the solid matrix accessible by the leaching medium. The leachability indices of heavy metals within the unfired bricks ranged from 13.12 to 18.10, suggesting that they are suitable for "controlled utilization” in specific scenarios. Compared to untreated mine tailings, converting them into unfired bricks could reduce the releases of heavy metals by several to hundreds of folds. These findings demonstrate that S/S can be an effective and sustainable strategy for co-disposal of mining tailings and incineration fly ash to produce construction materials with sound long-term environmental performance.

9. Exploring optimal deep tunnel sewer systems to enhance urban pluvial flood resilience in the gangnam region, South Korea
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 357, April 2024, 120762

Abstract

Urban pluvial flooding is becoming a global concern, exacerbated by urbanization and climate change, especially in rapidly developing areas where existing sewer systems lag behind growth. In order to minimize a system's functional failures during extreme rainfalls, localized engineering solutions are required for urban areas chronically suffering from pluvial floods. This study critically evaluates the Deep Tunnel Sewer System (DTSS) as a robust grey infrastructure solution for enhancing urban flood resilience, with a case study in the Gangnam region of Seoul, South Korea. To do so, we integrated a one-dimensional sewer model with a rapid flood spreading model to identify optimal routes and conduit diameters for the DTSS, focusing on four flood-related metrics: the total flood volume, the flood duration, the peak flooding rate, and the number of flooded nodes. Results indicate that, had the DTSS been in place, it could have reduced historical flood volumes over the last decade by 50.1–99.3%, depending on the DTSS route. Regarding the conduit diameter, an 8 m diameter was found to be optimal for minimizing all flood-related metrics. Our research also developed the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) surfaces in three dimensions, providing a correlation between simulated flood-related metrics and design rainfall characteristics to distinguish the effect of DTSS on flood risk reduction. Our findings demonstrate how highly engineered solutions can enhance urban flood resilience, but they may still face challenges during extreme heavy rainfalls with a 80-year frequency or above. This study contributes to rational decision-making and emergency management in the face of increasing urban pluvial flood risks.

10. Characterization of road-deposited sediment wash-off and accurate splitting of initial runoff pollution in heterogeneous urban space
Environmental Pollution, Volume 347, 15 April 2024, 123766

Abstract

Particulate materials arising from road-deposited sediments (RDS) are an essential target for the control and management of surface runoff pollution. However, the heterogeneity of urban spaces hinders the identification and quantification of particulate pollution, which is challenging when formulating precise control measures. To elucidate the factors that drive particulate pollution in heterogeneous urban spaces, the accumulation of RDS on dry days and the total suspended solids during six natural rainfall events were investigated across three urban–rural spatial units (central urban, central suburban, and remote suburban). The underlying surface type (asphalt or cement roads) and particle size composition jointly determined the spatial heterogeneity in the static accumulation and dynamic output loads of RDS during rainfall. These two factors explained 59.6% and 18.9% of the spatial heterogeneity, respectively, according to principal component analysis. A novel - exponential wash-off equation that incorporates particle size composition and underlying surface type was applied. It precisely described the spatial heterogeneity of RDS wash-off loads, the estimated values exhibiting event mean concentration errors of 10.8–18.2%. When coupled with the _(_) curve, this - exponential wash-off equation more precisely split the initial volume of runoff: a lower total volume (17.6–38.0%) was shown to carry a higher proportion of the load (70.0–93.7%) compared to the traditional coupled exponential wash-off equation (volume: 31.6–49.0%, load: 37–90%). This study provides a new approach to characterizing RDS wash-off processes and splitting initial runoff in heterogeneous spaces.

11. Energy-saving targets and carbon neutrality: A perspective on carbon emissions and carbon substitution in 288 Chinese cities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 356, April 2024, 120523

Abstract

Environmental protection is a shared task among nations. In pursuit of its commitment to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, China has implemented more robust energy-saving targets. This study utilizes panel data from 288 Chinese cities spanning from 2006 to 2020 to examine the policy effects of energy-saving targets on carbon neutrality. The findings reveal that (1) energy-saving targets positively impact carbon substitution, resulting in reduced carbon emissions and facilitating the progress towards carbon neutrality through three primary channels: energy governance, energy production, and energy consumption. (2) The influence of energy-saving targets on carbon neutrality exhibits a significant spatial spillover effect, driven primarily by the reduction in carbon emissions, although the spatial spillover effect of carbon substitution is relatively limited. The collaboration between the government and enterprises plays a crucial role in achieving carbon neutrality, while the engagement of the general public is yet to be fully realized. (3) However, the inadequacy of enhancing carbon neutrality through energy-saving targets lies in the compulsory emissions reduction behavior at the expense of sacrificing some economic benefits in cities that overachieve energy-saving targets. This undermines the coordinated development of ecology and economy. Therefore, it is recommended to establish a policy implementation monitoring system to ensure the scientific basis of policy objectives, enhance the level of green technology innovation, accelerate the digital transformation of enterprises, and establish a synergistic mechanism that involves multiple stakeholders.

12. Assessing the defecation practices of unsheltered individuals and their contributions to microbial water quality in an arid, urban watershed
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 920, 10 April 2024, 170708

Abstract

Outdoor defecation by people experiencing homelessness is frequently perceived as a potentially large source of human fecal pollution and a significant source of health risk in urban waterbodies with recreational contact. The goal of this study was to count the number of people experiencing homelessness and quantifies their sanitation habits in an urban river corridor setting, then use this information for estimating human fecal pollutant loading on a watershed scale. Two types of census counts were conducted including periodic point-in-time counts over six years and weekly counts of encampments. While the population census varied from count-to-count, the range of population estimates in the river corridor varied from 109 to 349 individuals during the six-year span, which mirrored the weekly counts of encampments. A face-to-face survey of people experiencing homelessness assessed the sanitation habits of the unsheltered population (N = 63), including outdoor defecation frequency and containment practices. Overall, 95 % of survey respondents reported defecating outdoors; 36 % practiced outdoor defecation between 4 and 7 days/week and 27 % practiced outdoor defecation <1 day/week. Of those that did practice outdoor defecation, 75 % contained their feces in a bucket or bag, thereby limiting fecal material contributions to the river; 6.7 % reported defecating on low ground near the river that could wash off when flood waters rise during a storm event. Only a single survey respondent reported defecating directly into the river. Based on literature values for average HF183 output for an adult human, and the average rainfall in the urban watershed, the total watershed contribution of HF183 averaged 1.2 × 1010 gene copies per storm event (95 % CI: 0.9 × 1010–1.6 × 1010) along the 41 km stretch of river in this study. This human fecal loading estimate is at least two orders of magnitude less than cumulative HF183 loading from all human sources measured at the bottom of the watershed.

13. Telecoupling between urban expansion and forest ecosystem service loss through cultivated land displacement: A case study of Zhejiang Province, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 357, April 2024, 120695

Abstract

Urbanization can either directly occupy forests or indirectly lead to forest loss elsewhere through cultivated land displacement, resulting in further forest fragmentation and ecosystem service (ES) loss. However, the effects of urban expansion on forest area and ESs are unknown, and this is especially true for indirect effects. Taking Zhejiang Province, China, a typical deforested province, as an example, this study quantified the direct and indirect effects of urban expansion on forest area and five ESs (timber yield, water yield, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, and biodiversity) from 2000 to 2020, explored the relationship between forest structure (forest proportion, mean patch area, edge density, and mean euclidean nearest neighbor distance) change and ESs, and revealed the telecoupling of urban expansion and forest loss and cascade effects among urbanization, deforestation, forest structure, and ESs. The results indicated that the indirect forest loss (4.30%–6.15%) caused by cultivated land displacement due to urban expansion was larger than the direct forest loss (2.42%). Urban expansion has a greater negative impact on carbon sequestration (6.40%–8.20%), water yield (6.08%–7.78%), and biodiversity (5.79%–7.44%) than on timber yield (4.77%–6.17%) and soil conservation (4.43%–5.77%). The indirect forest ES loss was approximately 2.83–4.34 times greater than the direct forest ES loss. Most forest ESs showed a nonlinear significant positive correlation with changes in forest proportion and mean patch area and a significant nonlinear negative correlation with changes in edge density and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (p < 0.05). There is telecoupling between urban expansion in one region and forest ES loss in other distant regions. This study contributes to guiding sustainable forest conservation and management globally.

14. Socio-environmental modifiers of heat-related mortality in eight Swiss cities: A case time series analysis
Environmental Research, Volume 246, 1 April 2024, 118116

Abstract

In the light of growing urbanization and projected temperature increases due to climate change, heat-related mortality in urban areas is a pressing public health concern. Heat exposure and vulnerability to heat may vary within cities depending on structural features and socioeconomic factors. This study examined the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association of three socio-environmental factors in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups (<75 and ≥ 75 years, males, females): urban heat islands (UHI) based on within-city temperature contrasts, residential greenness measured as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP). We used individual death records from the Swiss National Cohort occurring during the warm season (May to September) in the years 2003–2016. We performed a case time series analysis using conditional quasi-Poisson and distributed lag non-linear models with a lag of 0–3 days. As exposure variables, we used daily maximum temperatures (Tmax) and a binary indicator for warm nights (Tmin ≥20 °C).
In total, 53,593 deaths occurred during the study period. Overall across the eight cities, the mortality risk increased by 31% (1.31 relative risk (95% confidence interval: 1.20–1.42)) between 22.5 °C (the minimum mortality temperature) and 35 °C (the 99th percentile) for warm-season Tmax. Stratified analysis suggested that the heat-related risk at 35 °C is 26% (95%CI: −4%, 67%) higher in UHI compared to non-UHI areas. Indications of smaller risk differences were observed between the low vs. high greenness strata (Relative risk difference = 13% (95%CI: −11%; 44%)). Living in low SEP neighborhoods was associated with an increased heat related risk in the non-elderly population (<75 years). Our results indicate that UHI are associated with increased heat-related mortality risk within Swiss cities, and that features beyond greenness are responsible for such spatial risk differences.

15. Can digital economy development contribute to urban carbon emission reduction? - Empirical evidence from China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 357, April 2024, 120680

Abstract

In the context of global digitalization, fostering the expansion of the digital economy holds immense importance in promoting energy efficiency and reducing emissions. Utilizing a sample of 281 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2019, this research analyzes the impact of the digital economy on urban carbon emissions in China. This study employs various methods, including principal component analysis, fixed-impact model, and mediating effect model. Based on the research findings, the development of the digital economy has the potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions in metropolitan areas. Moreover, these effects are especially noticeable in cities located to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line. These cities are characterized by limited reliance on resources and a high level of marketization. Further research reveals that promoting technical innovation and modernizing industrial structures can reduce the intensity of carbon emissions in metropolitan areas. This study provides empirical evidence supporting the effective reduction of carbon emissions in developing countries during the evolution of the digital economy. It acts as a crucial cornerstone for guiding policies and executing strategies aimed at fostering top-tier economic development in the future. The findings of this study confirm the inhibitory effect of the digital economy on urban carbon emission intensity. However, this study has limitations in data samples, research scope, and depth of mechanism analysis, which prevent a full exploration of the spatial spillover effect of the digital economy and other factors. Therefore, the conclusions drawn in this study can only provide empirical evidence for identifying the relationship between the digital economy and carbon emission intensity to a certain extent. Future research should aim to expand on these aspects.

16. Carbon reduction trade-off between pretreatment and anaerobic digestion: A field study of an industrial-scale biogas plant
Environmental Research, Volume 246, 1 April 2024, 118139

Abstract

With the implementation of municipal solid waste source segregation, the enormous sorted biogenic waste has become an issue that needs to be seriously considered. Anaerobic digestion, which can produce biogas and extract floating oil for biodiesel production, is the most prevalent treatment in China for waste management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction, in accordance with Sustainable Development Goal 13 of the United Nations. Herein, a large-scale biogas plant with a capacity of 1000 tonnes of biogenic waste (400 tonnes of restaurant biogenic waste and 600 tonnes of kitchen biogenic waste) per day was investigated onsite using material flow analysis, and the parts of the biogas plant were thoroughly analyzed, especially the pretreatment system for biogenic waste impurity removal and homogenization. The results indicated that the loss of the total biodegradable organic matter was 41.8% (w/w) of daily feedstock and the loss of biogas potential was 18.8% (v/v) of daily feedstock. Life cycle assessment revealed that the 100-year GHG emissions were −61.2 kgCO2-eq per tonne biogenic waste. According to the sensitivity analysis, pretreatment efficiency, including biodegradable organic matter recovery and floating oil extraction, considerably affected carbon reduction potential. However, when the pretreatment efficiency deteriorated, GHG benefits of waste source segregation and the subsequent biogenic waste anaerobic digestion would be reduced.

INDUSTRIAL AREA ENVIRONMENT / MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP 

1. Optimal carbon emission path of the building sector: Evidence from China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 919, 1 April 2024, 170553

Abstract

To combat climate change, China's building sector, responsible for almost 50 % of national emissions, must undergo a drastic decarbonization transformation. This paper charts the optimal path to achieve this goal, leveraging a combined framework of the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) and System Dynamics (SD) for scenario-based forecasting of energy consumption and emissions in 2021–2060. A linear programming model is further developed to identify the lowest-cost combination of 26 building green technologies that align with China's carbon peaking and carbon neutrality targets. Results show that in a business-as-usual scenario, building carbon emissions will peak at 6393 million tons of CO2 in 2041, missing the 2030 carbon peaking target. Key drivers of this shortfall include the high energy intensity for "Transport, Storage and Post” and the large carbon emission factors for "Wholesale, Retail Trades, Hotels, and Catering Services” and "Residential” sectors. Under various technology application scenarios assuming uniform penetration rates, the 2030 carbon peak target appears attainable, though at a considerably high cost. Finally, under optimal technology combinations, building carbon emissions are forecasted to peak in 2030 at 5139 million tons of CO2, a mere 4.4 % increase from 2020. The cost of this optimized combination is projected to represent only 1.5 % of the total GDP in 2060. This scenario also leads to a significantly weaker correlation between energy consumption and carbon emissions in the building sector around 2036, nearly 17 years ahead of the business-as-usual trajectory.

2. Assessing influential factors of Chinese industrial aqueous cadmium emissions based on machine learning and shapley additive explanations
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 448, 5 April 2024, 141431

Abstract

As the main contributor of cadmium (Cd) pollution in China, industrial aqueous Cd emissions are influenced by both industrial and socioeconomic characteristics owing to their "environmental service” nature. It is essential to understand the relationship between these characteristics and industrial aqueous Cd emissions during industrialization. In this study, a data-driven framework was proposed to reveal these relationships. The framework comprises two key steps. i) Three state-of-the-art tree-based machine learning models, including LightGBM, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree and Random Forest, were trained to capture the relationships among variables. ii) Shapley additive explanation was utilized to decompose the contribution of the characteristics to the prediction for each sample. The trained LightGBM model demonstrated the most superior performance in predicting industrial aqueous Cd emissions in test datasets, significantly overperforming traditional linear regression model. Our analysis revealed that during our sample period, the influence of industrial characteristics on regional industrial aqueous Cd emissions was approximately 1.796 times greater than that of socioeconomic characteristics. Shifts in the characteristics of the non-ferrous metal industry contributed to approximately 74% of the average increase in industrial aqueous Cd emissions in China approximately. Regional emissions were found to be positively affected by average size and density but negatively affected by the operation duration of local non-ferrous metal industrial firms. Further driver analysis showed that the growth trajectory of emissions in China can be split into three stages based on the main drivers and growth rate: 2000–2002, 2003–2004, and 2005–2007. The proposed framework overcomes the limitations of the previous methods in terms of application scope, potential factor considerations, and regression structure predefinition. Our analysis implies that policymakers should proactively adjust industrial policies and emissions regulations in response to market shocks and industrial shifts, to a better management of industrial aqueous Cd emissions.

3. Research on waste gas treatment technology and comprehensive environmental performance evaluation for collaborative management of pollution and carbon in China's pharmaceutical industry based on life cycle assessment (LCA)
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 919, 1 April 2024, 170555

Abstract

China is the largest industrial and pharmaceutical country in the world. The pharmaceutical industry, being a highly polluting sector, is the primary target of environmental regulation in the industry. The rapid development of pharmaceutical industry has posed a severe challenge to the environmental protection strategy of "carbon reduction and carbon neutrality” and the goal of "synergizing the reduction of pollution and carbon emissions” in China's "14th Five-Year Plan”. Therefore, this paper starts from the whole industry, takes the life cycle of the whole production process of the pharmaceutical industry as the guidance, and selects a pharmaceutical company in Tianjin as the research object. Then using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to Characterization, Standardization, and Weighting the environmental impact of the waste gas treatment process before and after improvement based on waste gas emission characteristics from the pharmaceutical factory. LCA results show that GWP and AP are the most important environmental impact types, which account for >85 % of the total characterization value. I and II - Chemical Pharmaceutical Stage is the critical life cycle stage, accounting for over 80 % of the total characteristic values. This research proposes emission reduction countermeasures based on LCA results and simulates Emission reduction scenarios and economic evolution. If effectively implementing emission reduction countermeasures, reducing the environmental characterization value by 80 to 90 %, and generating economic benefit of 2.66 × 108 RMB/year. This research could guide improvement plans and emission reduction countermeasures of waste gas treatment in the pharmaceutical industry, which realizes collaborative management about efficient reduction of pollution and carbon and generates significant environmental, technological, economic, and social benefits.

4. Unexpected PM2.5-related emissions and accompanying environmental-economic inequalities driven by "clean” tertiary industry in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 919, 1 April 2024, 170823

Abstract

The tertiary industry, led by service sectors, usually have "clean” production processes and thus is ignored by current PM2.5 pollution mitigation strategies in China. Actually, the tertiary industry heavily relies on the supplies from its upstream industries, resulting in pollutant emissions and economic benefits transferring among different regions. With the application of the multiregional input–output (MRIO) model, our study explores the emission contribution from the tertiary industry's consumption activities in China and analyses the accompanying emission-economy relationship. We find that the production process of tertiary industry (with the sector Transportation excluded) contributes only ∼1 % of China's PM2.5-related emissions in 2017. However, its consumption-based emission contributions could increase to 11 %–17 %, among which >95 % are indirectly contributed. More than 40 % of tertiary industry consumption-based emissions, accompanied by 25 % of the consumption-based value added, are transferred via interprovincial trade. The proportion of transferred emissions even exceeds 50 % for the top 10 importers. The spatial pattern of value-added flows is nearly opposite to that of emission flows. Our results also reveal that among the 30 provinces and 870 interprovincial trading pairs, 6 provinces are experiencing environmental-economic win, 7 provinces are experiencing environmental-economic loss, and in detail 326 trading pairs are experiencing environmental-economic win or loss. To reduce the unexpected emissions and inequalities embodied in seemingly "clean” industries, consumption activities should be considered and strengthened in China's new-stage environmental policies.

5. Green institutional investors’ shareholding and corporate environmental responsibility
Finance Research Letters, Volume 62, Part B, April 2024, 105232

Abstract

Data on listed companies in China from 2016 to 2022 serve as a research sample to investigate whether shareholding by green institutional investors improves the environmental governance performance and initiatives of listed companies. Shareholding by green institutional investors is shown to improve the environmental performance and initiatives of listed companies. The promotion effect of green institutional investors in improving the environmental performance of listed companies is more evident for non-state-owned enterprises and those in non-heavily polluted industries than their counterparts.

6. Impact of pollution prevention practices and Green Environmental practices on sustainable performance: Empirical evidence from Chinese SMEs
Environmental Research, Available online 25 April 2024, 118991

Abstract

Adequate protection of the environment is one of the hot spots of concern for all sectors of society due to severe environmental pollution. The solution to this issue is friendly management of the environment. With the rapid growth of Chinese Manufacturing SMEs for economic development, environmental pollution and abuse of resources are arising. To resolve these issues, Chinese manufacturing SMEs are accelerating the implementation of green innovation in their industries. However, it is a complex task that involves enterprise, government, and social considerations. Therefore, it is essential to identify the green drivers for this implementation. With a focus on China's current situation from previous research and views from experts, this study aims to investigate how Chinese Manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are responding to resource misuse and environmental pollution by implementing green innovation, emphasising the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in improving environmental performance. This study primarily looks into the factors that influence the adoption of green innovations by analysing the growth paths of Chinese SMEs operating in highly polluting industries over a longer time frame than five years. Artificial Intelligence is a valuable tool for solving the issues of ecological degradation. A quantitative method has been implemented for the Chinese companies’ samples from the deeply polluting industries for more than five years. The findings of this paper advise that the average board size, the governing board meetings, and organisational performance are positively connected with the Chinese firms' environmental process. Board independence and diversity of gender have irrelevant associations with ecological performance. A convenient threshold regression model has been used to accumulate the respondents' data. It also reveals that larger board sizes and more frequent governing board meetings are positively associated with improved environmental performance among these firms. The findings state the critical implications for the firm executives, policymakers, environmental activists, and regulators. This result supports the insight drained from the resource dependence, stakeholder, firm agency, and legitimacy theories.

7. Maintenance as a Sustainability Tool in High-Risk Process Industries: a Review and Future Directions
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Available online 23 April 2024, 105318

Abstract

The intricate interplay between sustainability and maintenance management within high-risk process industries constitutes a focal point for scientists, engineers, and strategic planners. Recognizing maintenance management as a pivotal component of comprehensive development strategies, this study delves into the challenges posed and opportunities presented by these critical sectors. Leveraging cross-sectoral scientific data from diverse applications and databases, this research aims to discern novel developmental patterns and multifaceted sustainability aspects embedded within high-risk industrial contexts. Drawing upon an extensive literature review, the study identifies three fundamental pillars (environmental, economic, and social) that underpin emerging trends in maintenance development. These pillars serve as guiding principles, directing research endeavours towards maintenance strategies conducive to both improvement and sustainability objectives.

This article meticulously examines the nexus between maintenance capacity and the realization of sustainability goals. By exploring nuanced sustainability considerations in the realm of maintenance development possibilities, the research illuminates the vital role of maintenance in ensuring the sustainability of high-risk process industries. This study underscores maintenance management as an indispensable component within the framework of a sustainable organization. This study aims to provide a decision-making framework for stakeholders in the process industries to design sustainable maintenance strategies.

8. Biobased de novo synthesis, upcycling, and recycling — the heartbeat toward a green and sustainable polyethylene terephthalate industry
Current Opinion in Biotechnologym, Volume 86, April 2024, 103079

Abstract

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has revolutionized the industrial sector because of its versatility, with its predominant uses in the textiles and packaging materials industries. Despite the various advantages of this polymer, its synthesis is, unfavorably, tightly intertwined with nonrenewable fossil resources. Additionally, given its widespread use, accumulating PET waste poses a significant environmental challenge. As a result, current research in the areas of biological recycling, upcycling, and de novo synthesis is intensifying. Biological recycling involves the use of micro-organisms or enzymes to breakdown PET into monomers, offering a sustainable alternative to traditional recycling. Upcycling transforms PET waste into value-added products, expanding its potential application range and promoting a circular economy. Moreover, studies of cascading biological and chemical processes driven by microbial cell factories have explored generating PET using renewable, biobased feedstocks such as lignin. These avenues of research promise to mitigate the environmental footprint of PET, underlining the importance of sustainable innovations in the industry.

9. Mining industry risks, and future critical minerals and metals supply chain resilience in emerging markets
Resources Policy, Volume 91, April 2024, 104887

Abstract

The mining industry is at a crossroads with the growing demand for exploration and exploitation of critical minerals for the energy transition to reverse the debilitating impacts of global warming such as heat waves, droughts, floods, hurricanes, and biodiversity loss. The industry has a significant role of supplying the critical minerals and metals required for the energy transition. Yet, it is faced with numerous risks which may hinder the uninterrupted supply of essential materials for the transition. This study leverages resilience theory and borrows insights from risk management literature to build a framework of mining industry supply chain resilience to help mining firms and emerging markets nations to seamlessly deliver critical raw materials. In this critical review of literature, we substantiate and expand on the four dimensions of risk categorised as machine and systems factors, human factors, general factors, and environmental factors, which must be addressed in building critical minerals and metals supply chain resilience. It is found that building supply resilience calls for developing strong risk assessment and management capabilities to moderate how the four dimensions of risk relate with supply chain resilience. The findings have significant practical implications for mining industry's ability to seamlessly maintain the supply of critical minerals from emerging markets, and for building theory of critical minerals and metals supply resilience.

10. Decarbonizing the cement industry: Findings from coupling prospective life cycle assessment of clinker with integrated assessment model scenarios
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 450, 15 April 2024, 141884

Abstract

In the race to achieve global climate neutrality, carbon intensive industries like the clinker and cement industry are required to decarbonize rapidly. The environmental impacts related to potential transition pathways to low-carbon systems can be evaluated using prospective life cycle assessment (pLCA). This study conducts a pLCA for future global clinker production, integrating long-term transition pathways from the IMAGE integrated assessment model (IAM) to maintain global consistency. It systematically modifies the ecoinvent v3.9.1 database using the Python library premise to create future database versions representing future clinker production embedded in a future economy according to a 3.5°C-baseline, a 2°C-compliant and a 1.5°C-compliant scenario. Our study indicates that climate change impacts of clinker production may decrease from about 1.03 kg CO2-eq/kg clinker in 2020 to 0.94 (3.5°C-baseline), 0.20 (2°C-compliant), and 0.16 (1.5°C-compliant) kg CO2-eq/kg clinker in 2060 for the global average. This corresponds to a 10% (3.5°C-baseline), 81% (2°C-compliant) and 84% (1.5°C-compliant) decrease by 2060 compared to 2020. Under these scenarios, global clinker production alone would require 5%–11% of the remaining end-of-century carbon budget for the 2 °C and 1.5 °C-target, respectively. While the climate change impacts are substantially reduced, our study also indicates that the transition pathways shift the burden towards other impact categories, such as ionizing radiation, ozone depletion, material resources and land use. Developing IAM-compatible scenarios for more product groups helps to increase the coherence of pLCA studies. As this study is based on an IAM heavily reliant on carbon capture and storage and bioenergy, future research should explore the effects of different technology pathways and alternative mitigation strategies.

11. Greening the oil industry: Microalgae biorefinery for sustainable oil-produced water treatment and resource recovery
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 60, April 2024, 105259

Abstract

This paper examines the utilization of microalgae to treat oil-produced water (OPW), a complex wastewater stream from the oil and gas industry. An examination of the challenges and potential solutions associated with treating OPW using microalgae is provided, emphasizing the feasibility of microalgae biorefineries to recover resources. Due to the complex composition of OPW, nutrient supplementation and pretreatment are required for microalgae cultivation in OPW. It is difficult for microalgae to grow in salty waters, toxic compounds, and low nutrient ratios. There needs to be more certainty regarding the overall effectiveness of microalgae for removing contaminants and producing biomass in OPW. A circular economy approach is also applied to microalgae, which can be used to produce biofuels and biobased chemicals. Bioproducts can be produced from microalgae, contributing to the sustainability of the environment. There is a discussion of the socioeconomic and environmental aspects, with a particular focus on the creation of jobs and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. OPW treatment and resource recovery are potential benefits of microalgae biorefineries. The full potential of these technologies for a sustainable future will, however, require further research and development.

12. The impact of EID policy and trade on the environmental effects of Chinese paper enterprises from the perspective of financial constraints
Environmental Research, Volume 247, 15 April 2024, 118170

Abstract

Accompanying China's accession to the World Trade Organization, the rapid development of the Chinese economy has led to increasingly serious environmental issues. However, the inherent mechanisms underlying the impact of Environmental Information Disclosure (EID) policy and trade on the environmental effects of Chinese paper enterprises remain unclear in the context of the era's requirement for a resource-conserving and environmentally-friendly society. The pollution problem in the papermaking industry has received attention worldwide, and how to balance the environmental and development issues of papermaking enterprises is an urgent issue that needs to be solved in the academic community. This study explores the impact mechanisms of EID policy and trade on the environmental effects of enterprises from the perspective of financial constraints. Utilizing the PSM-DID model, the study investigates the moderating effects of financial constraints on the EID policy and import-export trade. The findings reveal that both external and internal financial constraints have negative, detrimental effects on the environmental effects of the EID policy and trade. These constraints impede research and development investment and technological upgrades, hinder productivity improvement, and hamper the realization of "regulatory and trade innovation effects”. This study enriches our understanding of the mechanisms by which trade affects the environmental effects of Chinese paper enterprises and further identifies the impacts of Chinese EID policy and trade on pollution emissions by enterprises, providing a theoretical basis and practical foundation for the government in formulating financial, environmental, and trade policies.

13. Closing the loop: Analysis of biotechnological processes for sustainable valorisation of textile waste from the fast fashion industry
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, Volume 38, April 2024, 101481

Abstract

The textile industry currently stands as one of the most polluting sectors globally. The proliferation of fast fashion has led to an unprecedented increase in textile production and waste generation, marked by mixed material compositions and significant reduction in the lifespan of each garment. These factors contribute to the creation of complex mixed waste streams, with a majority ending up in landfills. In agreement with international sustainability directives, the textile sector has emerged as a prime candidate for harnessing valuable raw materials from waste.

This review specifically targets the transformation of the prevailing linear production model into a more circular one. It focuses on utilizing biotechnological processes to convert textile waste into secondary raw materials to produce platform chemicals and added-value products, able to replace petrochemical-derived materials. The review begins with an extensive analysis of the state-of-the-art and the determination of technically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sustainable waste valorisation techniques.

The focus is on the pre-treatment phases of hydrolysis and fermentation of textile waste to produce industrially promising building blocks. Cotton and cotton-polyester blends, the two most common waste materials in fast fashion, were selected as the primary research materials. Significant variables affecting the efficiency of pre-treatment and hydrolysis methods are identified, highlighting the importance of pre-treatment and the potential use of enzymes for textile hydrolysis.

Following the selected studies, the review defines the environmental and economic interests of the projects. These assessments provide essential insights into the sustainability and financial feasibility of the proposed waste valorisation methods.

14. Delivering an energy export transition: Impact of conflicting and competing informational contexts on public acceptance of Australia's hydrogen export industry
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 61, 3 April 2024, Pages 226-237

Abstract

This study uses an online quasi-experiment with a national sample from Australia to evaluate public acceptance of hydrogen exports. It explores the complex communications environment that messaging about hydrogen exports is typically encountered in. We find that acceptance of green hydrogen exports is significantly higher than blue or brown hydrogen exports, and acceptance of blue hydrogen exports higher than brown hydrogen exports. Additionally, results show economic-framed benefit messages are associated with lesser public acceptance when encountered in communication contexts that outline differently-focused environmental downsides (competing contexts), but not same-focused economic downsides (conflicting contexts). In contrast, environment-framed benefit messages are associated with lesser public acceptance when presented in communication contexts that outline same-focused environmental downsides (conflicting contexts), but not differently-focused economic downsides (competing contexts). Overall, the study indicates message framing can impact acceptance of hydrogen exports, and that organisations should consider the informational context within which their communications will be received.

15. Efficient removal of Rhodamine B dye using biochar as an adsorbent: Study the performance, kinetics, thermodynamics, adsorption isotherms and its reusability
Chemosphere, Volume 354, April 2024, 141702

Abstract

Removal of toxic dyes such as Rhodamine B is essential as it pollutes aqueous and soil streams as well. This comprehensive study explores the potential of Calophyllum inophyllum seed char as an efficient bio-adsorbent based on their characteristic properties and a comparative study between various carbon-based adsorbents on the adsorption capacity of Rhodamine B dye. In this study, the char was prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum seed using a slow pyrolysis process (298 K/min) at an optimum temperature of 823 K and used as an adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine B from water. The resulting char was mesoporous and had 155.389 m2/g surface areas (BET) and 0.628 cc/g pore volume. The formation of pores was observed from the SEM analysis. The adsorption studies were tested and optimized through various parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, stirring speed, contact time, and solution temperature. Maximum 95.5 % removal of Rhodamine B was possible at the pH: 2, stirring speed: 100 rpm, time: 25 min, temperature 308 K, and dose: 1.2 g/L. The highest adsorption capacity at equilibrium was determined to be 169.5 (mg/g) through Langmuir adsorption isotherm studies and followed pseudo 2nd order kinetics. The thermodynamics study confirmed the adsorption processes were spontaneous (ΔG°=−0.735 kJ/mol) and endothermic (ΔH° = 4.1 kJ/mol) processes. The reusability study confirmed that the mesoporous char can be reused as an efficient adsorbent for up to 3 cycles for environmental remediation.

16. Cutting ties with local bureaucrats: How does the environmental vertical management reform affect firm pollution in China?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 447, 1 April 2024, 141432

Abstract

China's local environmental protection agencies are the basic government units that implement the country's environmental regulations. Initiated decades ago, the vertical environmental management reform was gradually rolled out throughout the country with the aim of enhancing the independence of local environmental enforcement by shifting the control of the agencies' resources from local governments to higher-level environmental protection authorities. This research investigates the effects and influencing channels of this reform on firm pollution behavior in China. Combining manually collected data on the timing of the reform at the county level with a unique firm-level emission dataset, we use a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of the reform. Our results suggest that the reform leads to a significant reduction in firms' pollution, and this reduction is achieved mainly through a scaled-back production and a cleaner production process. A further analysis shows that the reform weakens local bureaucrats' political and economic incentives that could distort environmental enforcement. Our findings highlight the importance of minimizing political interventions in environmental governance in a large country like China to achieve environmental targets.

CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam

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Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 22-2024.

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