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- Chúng ta có cần mô hình phơi nhiễm có độ phân giải thời gian cao ở khu vực thành thị không? Một trường hợp thử nghiệm.
- Ô nhiễm không khí làm trầm trọng thêm tình trạng ngưng thở khi ngủ do tắc nghẽn nhẹ bằng cách làm gián đoạn những thay đổi về đêm ở phần cơ thể ở chi dưới: một nghiên cứu cắt ngang được thực hiện ở thành thị phía bắc Đài Loan.
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- Phát hiện những thay đổi theo không gian về chất lượng sinh thái ở Trung Quốc đại lục: Xu hướng và thuộc tính.
Về môi trường đô thị
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- Giả thuyết phản ứng lẫn nhau giữa nhiệt độ bề mặt và nồng độ khối lượng khí dung (BC và không BC) được quan sát thấy trong môi trường đô thị.
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- Các hình thức xuất hiện và đặc điểm môi trường của phốt pho trong cột nước và trầm tích của các thủy vực đô thị được bổ sung nước khai hoang.
- Đánh giá các tác động về giác quan và sức khỏe của việc tiếp xúc với cống tràn đối với người dân đô thị.
- Một giải pháp bền vững để quản lý sức khỏe hệ sinh thái của các vùng đất ngập nước ở các khu vực đô thị và ven đô của quận Lucknow, Ấn Độ bằng cách sử dụng các kỹ thuật không gian địa lý và cách tiếp cận thực tế dựa vào cộng đồng.
- Tỷ lệ tử vong do vật chất hạt mịn xung quanh và nitơ điôxít ở Thụy Sĩ vào năm 2019: Sử dụng ước tính tác động của hai chất ô nhiễm.
- Chỉ số sức khỏe chất lượng không khí cụ thể theo bệnh (AQHI) để đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe theo không gian của các chất ô nhiễm đa không khí.
- Gánh nặng bệnh tật do tiếng ồn giao thông ở các nước Bắc Âu.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Phân bố tổng thể của các hạt mài mòn lốp, muội than nano và kim loại nặng trong bụi đường được thu thập từ các khu liên hợp công nghiệp thép.
- Kinh tế tuần hoàn hoạt động như thế nào trong công nghiệp? Chiến lược, cơ hội và xu hướng trong văn học học thuật.
- Đo trực tiếp lượng khí thải mêtan từ ngành dầu khí thượng nguồn: Đánh giá kết quả đo lường và tiến bộ công nghệ (2018–2022).
- Sự phân hủy quang xúc tác của các hợp chất hydrocacbon thơm khó tính trong nước sản xuất từ mỏ dầu: Một đánh giá quan trọng.
- Phân tích chiến lược về phát triển khả năng hấp phụ đồng thời và phân hủy sinh học xúc tác trên các chất mang sinh học tiên tiến để xả nước thải công nghiệp không chất lỏng.
- Polyme dựa trên dithiocarbamate mới (DTCP) làm chất phụ gia để cải thiện hiệu quả của màng polysulfone vi xốp trong việc loại bỏ chì và thuốc nhuộm.
- Loại bỏ nhu cầu oxy hóa học và nitơ amoniac khỏi nước thải luyện vonfram có độ mặn cao bằng quá trình oxy hóa điện hóa một bước: Từ thử nghiệm quy mô bàn, thử nghiệm quy mô thí điểm đến thử nghiệm công nghiệp.
- Tác động của việc mua bán và sáp nhập xanh đối với việc xả thải ô nhiễm bất hợp pháp của các công ty gây ô nhiễm nặng: Cơ chế, tính không đồng nhất và tác động lan tỏa.
- Nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng của thạch cao khử lưu huỳnh đến các tính chất kỹ thuật của geopolyme bậc ba: Cải thiện việc tận dụng chất thải công nghiệp.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Downstream carbon transport and surface CO2 evasion in the Hanjiang River Network and their implications for regional carbon budget
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163839
Fluvial carbon fluxes have been increasingly recognized as important components of the global carbon budget. However, it is challenging to accurately quantify carbon fluxes in river networks; therefore, the role of carbon fluxes in the regional carbon budget remains poorly understood. The Hanjiang River Network (HRN) is located in a subtropical monsoon climate zone, and its material transport has a notable impact on the Changjiang River. In this study, it was hypothesized that the total fluvial carbon fluxes from the river network in the subtropical monsoon climate zone are dominated by vertical CO2 evasion and account for a large fraction of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) (e.g., 10 %) and fossil CO2 emissions (e.g., 30 %), which is roughly equivalent to the global average. Therefore, the downstream export of three carbon fractions and CO2 evasion were estimated in the HRN over the last two decades and the findings were compared with NPP and fossil CO2 emissions in the basin. The results suggest that approximately 2.14–6.02 Tg C year−1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) of carbon is exported in the HRN. Vertical CO2 evasion represents the largest destination at 1.22–5.34 Tg C year−1 or 68 % of the total fluvial carbon flux component, corresponding to 1.5 %–11 % of the fossil CO2 emissions. Downstream export of dissolved inorganic carbon is the second largest destination with a magnitude of 0.56–1.92 Tg C year−1. Downstream organic carbon export plays a relatively small role with a magnitude of 0.04–0.28 Tg C year−1. The findings also indicate that the offset of total fluvial carbon fluxes from terrestrial NPP is unexpectedly small (2.0 %–5.4 %). Data availability and the simplification of carbon processes introduced uncertainty; therefore, future research should incorporate a fuller representation of fluvial carbon processes and fractions to improve regional-scale carbon accounting.
2. Do we need high temporal resolution modelling of exposure in urban areas? A test case
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 885, 10 August 2023, 163711
Roadside concentrations of harmful pollutants such as NOx are highly variable in both space and time. This is rarely considered when assessing pedestrian and cyclist exposures.
We aim to fully describe the spatio-temporal variability of exposures of pedestrians and cyclists travelling along a road at high resolution. We evaluate the value added of high spatio-temporal resolution compared to high spatial resolution only. We also compare high resolution vehicle emissions modelling to using a constant volume source. We highlight conditions of peak exposures, and discuss implications for health impact assessments.
Using the large eddy simulation code Fluidity we simulate NOx concentrations at a resolution of 2 m and 1 s along a 350 m road segment in a complex real-world street geometry including an intersection and bus stops. We then simulate pedestrian and cyclist journeys for different routes and departure times.
For the high spatio-temporal method, the standard deviation in 1 s concentration experienced by pedestrians (50.9 μg.m−3) is nearly three times greater than that predicted by the high-spatial only (17.5 μg.m−3) or constant volume source (17.6 μg.m−3) methods. This exposure is characterised by low concentrations punctuated by short duration, peak exposures which elevate the mean exposure and are not captured by the other two methods. We also find that the mean exposure of cyclists on the road (31.8 μg.m−3) is significantly greater than that of cyclists on a roadside path (25.6 μg.m−3) and that of pedestrians on a sidewalk (17.6 μg.m−3).
We conclude that ignoring high resolution temporal air pollution variability experienced at the breathing time scale can lead to a mischaracterization of pedestrian and cyclist exposures, and therefore also potentially the harm caused. High resolution methods reveal that peaks, and hence mean exposures, can be meaningfully reduced by avoiding hyper-local hotspots such as bus stops and junctions.
3. Air pollution exacerbates mild obstructive sleep apnea by disrupting nocturnal changes in lower-limb body composition: a cross-sectional study conducted in urban northern Taiwan
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 163969
Few studies have explored the role of body composition linking air pollution to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
To estimate the effects of air pollution on body composition and OSA, and that of body composition on OSA.
This study included 3550 individuals. A spatiotemporal model estimated personal exposure. Nocturnal changes in body composition were assessed through bioelectric impedance analysis. OSA was diagnosed using polysomnography. A generalized linear model was used to evaluate the absolute nocturnal changes in body composition associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutants. A generalized logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of mild-OSA compared to non-OSA. Association between body composition and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) was investigated through partial least squares (PLS) regression.
Nocturnal changes in lower-limb body composition were associated with NO2 and PM2.5 in all patients. In participants with AHI <15, both short- and long-term NO2 exposures affected body composition and mild-OSA, while PM2.5 was not associated with either outcome. In a PLS model incorporating eight NO2-associated lower-limb parameters, the variable importance projection scores (VIP) of left leg impedance (LLIMP), predicted muscle mass (LLPMM), fat-free mass (LLFFM), and right leg impedance (RLIMP) exceeded 1; the corresponding coefficients ranked in the top four for AHI prediction. The adjusted OR (mild vs. non-OSA) was 1.67 (95 % CI: 1.36–2.03) associated with an IQR increase in prediction value estimated from body compositions. Notably, the two-pollutant model investigating the effects of pollutants on body compositions revealed associations of four parameters (LLIMP, LLPMM, LLFFM, and RLIMP) with NO2 in all lags, which indicates their indispensability in the association between NO2 and AHI.
NO2 exacerbates mild-OSA by disrupting nocturnal changes in lower-limb body composition of patients with AHI <15. PM2.5 was associated with nocturnal changes in lower-limb body composition but not with mild-OSA.
4. Environmental and health impacts of household energy conversion on PAHs and their derivatives in PM2.5 in typical areas of northern China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 164187
Heavy use of solid fuels in rural households of northern China emits huge amounts of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) that pose notable indoor air pollution and severe inhalation health risks. In this study, the environmental and health benefits of clean energy substitution were accessed by monitoring indoor and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and pulmonary function and biological parameters. After substitutions of traditional lump coal and biomass fuels by clean coal, indoor concentrations of parent PAHs (p-PAHs), alkylated PAHs (a-PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (o-PAHs), and nitro PAHs (n-PAHs) reduced by 71 %, 32 %, 70 %, and 76 %, while personal exposure concentrations decreased by 82 %, 87 %, 93 %, and 86 %, respectively. However, the proportion of low molecular weight PAHs increases, especially for 2-ring a-PAHs and 3-ring n-PAHs. Domestic solid fuel burning induces greater damage to the small airway than the large airway. Pulmonary function parameter reductions in the clean coal group are much less than those in the other two fuel groups. Salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) significantly correlated with PAH species, among which p-PAHs and PAHs derivatives strongly with IL-6 and 8-OHdG, respectively. The correlation between PAHs and biomarkers in urine is insignificant. In addition, the use of clean coal can reduce the cancer risk for the four classes of PAHs by 60 %–97 %, mainly owing to the lower contributions from p-PAHs and o-PAHs. The result of the study provides scientific support for clean energy retrofit and an understanding of health benefits from solid fuel substitutions.
5. The optimization of SO2 emissions by the 4DVAR and EnKF methods and its application in WRF-Chem
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 163796
Emissions are essential for forecasting air quality and pollution control, but traditional emissions are often not real-time by the statistics of "bottom-up” approach due to high human resource demand. The four-dimensional variational method (4DVAR) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are generally used to optimize emissions based on chemical transport models by assimilating observations. Although the two methods solve similar estimation problems, different functions have been developed to address the process of converting the emissions to concentrations. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of the 4DVAR and EnKF methods in optimizing SO2 emissions over China during 23–29 January 2020. The emissions optimized by the 4DVAR and EnKF methods showed a similar spatiotemporal distribution in most regions of China during the study period, suggesting that both methods are useful in reducing uncertainties in the prior emissions. Three forecast experiments with different emissions were conducted. Compared with the forecasts with prior emissions, the root-mean-square error of the forecasts with the emissions optimized by the 4DVAR and EnKF methods decreased by 45.7 % and 40.4 %. This indicates that the 4DVAR method was slightly more effective than the EnKF method in optimizing emissions and improves the accuracy of forecasts. Furthermore, it is found that the 4DVAR method performed better than the EnKF method when the spatial and/or temporal distribution of SO2 observations with strong local characteristics, The EnKF method showed a better performance for the condition of the large difference between prior emissions and real emissions. The results may help to design suitable assimilation algorithms for optimizing emissions and improving model forecasts. The advance data assimilation systems are beneficial for the understanding the effectiveness and value of emission inventories and air quality model.
6. Social sustainability performance: Developing and validating measures in the context of emerging African economies
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137391
Social sustainability has attracted growing research interest. However, studies on social sustainability in emerging African economies are still in their early stages. This study found that companies in these countries are keen to improve their social sustainability, but they often lack an adequate understanding of measuring their company's social sustainability performance (SSP). This study addresses this knowledge gap by identifying the SSP measures relevant to emerging African economies. The study adopts a mixed research method involving several stages. First, fifty initial SSP evaluation measures across eight dimensions were identified based on an extensive literature review and interviews. Second, these measures were examined in a pilot survey followed by a formal survey with senior managers and business owners of 110 companies in Ghana's manufacturing and service industries. A total of 369 valid responses were received. Based on the statistical analysis of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, 26 specific measures of SSP were established. These measures cover seven broad dimensions: community, equity, poverty alleviation, human rights, ethics, regulatory enforcement, and employees. The validated multidimensional measures provide valuable guidance to managers on evaluating and improving their organisation's social sustainability performance.
7. Circular economy 4 business: A program and framework for small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) with three case studies
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137114
To address a gap in empirical evidence, this article provides case studies of three SMEs implementing circular business models through a training program. It highlights lessons for both policy makers and training providers to support uptake of CE practices in SMEs. Governments and companies increasingly recognise the importance of a circular economy to address environmental problems, maximise the value of materials used in production-consumption cycles, and eliminate waste. This article draws attention to the role that small to medium enterprises (SMEs) play in developing niche innovations to advance the circular transition, and provides insights on how SMEs can be enabled through supportive government programs and policies. We first describe the design and outcomes of a government-funded training and pilot program, ‘Circular Economy 4 Business’ that was trialled in Queensland, Australia in 2020–21. Using data obtained during the program, we provide three case studies of circular business models employed by three participating SMEs to improve circularity for important resource types (organics, textiles, packaging, and construction materials) as well as the main successes and opportunities, challenges, and barriers each business encountered. Drawing upon the multi-level perspective of sustainable socio-technical transitions theory, we examine the interdependency of cultural, market, and policy factors to highlight how governments can provide conditions that foster enable niche innovations to scale and displace established linear regimes. The significance of this study builds on the limited empirical evidence of circular business model implementation at the level of SMEs and details a novel and practical training and support program that can guide future design of circular economy programs tailored specifically for SMEs.
8. The effect of carbon emission policy on financial performance of target companies in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137437
Carbon emission policy aims to restrict carbon emissions from energy-intensive companies. It encourages target companies to take green innovation but brings fulfillment pressure. Policy prospects for a low-carbon economy are widely discussed in current studies while insufficient attention has been paid to the effect of the policy on the operating activities of target companies. Using the data of Chinese A-share listed companies from 2007 to 2020, this paper explores the effect of carbon emission policy on the financial performance of target companies. The main empirical results prove the significant positive effect of the policy on the financial performance of target companies and reject the interference of earnings management and survivor bias. Further analysis indicates that target companies significantly reduce the selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses and non-operating expenses. The trade of carbon quotas between target companies is allowed and it is regarded as non-operating activity. Results of non-operating revenues and expenses prove that target companies tend to actively reduce carbon emissions but the action does not exceed the policy expectation. The increasing efficiency of asset utilization represents that target companies have taken relevant measures to deal with overcapacity. This paper confirms the positive policy responses of target companies. Policy implications are proposed from the perspective of coverage expansion and market incentive mechanisms to realize the full potential of target companies for carbon emission reduction.
9. Does limited decentralization of environmental enforcement power improve air quality? Quasi-experimental evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137358
Utilizing the Comprehensive Environmental Administrative Enforcement Reform (CEAER) in China as a quasi-natural experiment, this paper has adopted 179 prefecture-level cities from July 2018 to December 2020 as research sample to assess whether the limited decentralization of environmental enforcement power can improve air quality through a time-varying difference-in-difference (DID) approach. Results show that CEAER can achieve better air quality improving effects, which can not only contribute to the decrease of daily mean values of Air Quality Index (AQI), but also contribute to the decrease of daily mean values of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO. And this promotion is mainly achieved through the micro mechanism of raising environmental penalties strength. Further examination of the heterogeneity in terms of economic factors, city rank, pollution abatement pressure, and political constraints reveals that CEAER's policy effects are mostly insignificant in cities with higher levels of economic development and administrative rank, and positively significant in poor historical air quality cities and key environmental protection cities. These results underscore the positive effects of the limited decentralization of environmental enforcement power and provide ideas for other regions to draw on for environmental management system reform.
10. Unleashing the potential: Exploring the nexus between low-carbon digital economy and regional economic-social development in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137552
In 2020, China formally proposed the goal of achieving carbon peaking in 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality in 2060. Since then, widespread attention has been devoted to determining when and how this goal will be achieved. This paper creatively puts forward the view of low-carbon digital economy from the perspective of resource flow, digital flow and energy flow, and studies the synergy effect of low-carbon digital development by constructing the synergy model of low-carbon digital development economic and social development. Based on theoretical research, this paper constructs a synergy model and evaluation index system between low-carbon digital development and economic and social development, and an empirical analysis was conducted based on data related to regional low-carbon digital development and economic and social development in China from 2014 to 2019. The empirical results show that the development of China's low-carbon digital economy is the main driving force for future economic and social development. The effects of low-carbon digital economy on economic and social development varied across regions due to their different regional development patterns. The spatial pattern shows a trend of "high in the east and low in the west”. Further, if the low carbon economy and the digital economy included in the stimulus policies can play a synergistic role, it will be able to play the greatest role in promoting economic and social development. And such a scenario is used as a practice in different regions of China in future. The research conclusion of this paper enriches the discussion on the construction of ecological civilization and the construction of a community with a common future for mankind.
11. Leveraging on structural change and ISO 14001 certification to mitigate ecological footprint in Shanghai cooperation organization nations
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137542
The Shanghai Cooperation Organizations (SCO) nations are suffering from hydro-climatic threats and permafrost thaw, with issues related to floods upsurging. Existing studies on the SCO have mainly focused on ethnic separatism and the fight against regional terrorism. Recently,the need for structural adjustment in economic activities and ISO 14001 certification has gained attention among academicians yet no study has examined their nonlinear effects on ecological footprint. Using data from 2003 to 2019 and the Fully Modified OLS focusing on the eight permanent SCO nations, this study tests the environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) validity and investigates the linear and nonlinear effects of structural change and ISO 14001 certification on ecological footprint. The empirical results confirm the EKC hypothesis. Next, enough evidence has been found that the nature of current structural reform is inadequate to improve their environmental quality, and a shift from short-term, sector-specific reforms to longer-term, holistic solutions will improve SCO environmental quality by 0.092%. Finally, doubling ISO 14001 certifications will improve the environmental quality by 0.008%. As recommendations, policymakers in developing economies should adopt the EKC postulate as the theoretical basis for policies favouring economic growth. Also, to encourage ISO 14001 implementation, there should be awareness creation about its benefits through workshops and conferences, and governments should provide financial incentives to encourage firms to implement the policy.
12. Public perception of microplastics on a popular Chinese social media platform
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137688
Massive but mismanaged plastics have caused global microplastic (MP) problems, forcing the world to reduce and control pollutant emissions from production and consumption. Successful environmental behavior relies heavily on public support. However, the lack of understanding of public awareness towards MPs hinders the creation of specific environmental action plans. This study selected the most popular Chinese social media platform (WeChat), collected six years of online dissemination data (2015–2020), and comprehensively analyzed public attention, attitudes, and opinions regarding MPs. Consecutive online propagation attracted approximately 250.42 × 104 readings from MP posts (WeChat articles). Text mining methods (e.g., content analysis and generalized linear models) showed that MP-related information was widely propagated through diverse social groups, especially traditional media publishers (i.e., newspapers and television), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and developed coastal regions. The public has paid more attention to MP pollution in marine environments and human health-related issues (e.g., food and drinking water). Additionally, knowledge of everyday life-sourced MPs (e.g., microbeads from personal care products) has increased. Increased environmental awareness evokes greater public willingness to reduce plastic usage. To deepen environmental education, more efforts are needed to include more impactive publishers living around important ecological zones (e.g., upstream of larger rivers and Mount Everest), and regions with high consumption of plastic products (e.g., the agricultural areas with excessive use of mulch) to propagate knowledge, and information on risk, source, and pollution control of MPs on social media platforms.
13. Spatiotemporal characteristics and co-effects of air quality and carbon dioxide emissions changes during the COVID-19 epidemic lockdown measures in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137755
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted several nations, including China, to enact unprecedented lockdown measures, leading to significant alterations in environmental conditions. Previous studies have solely analysed the impact of lockdown measures on air pollutants or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during the COVID-19 pandemic in China, but few have focused on the spatio-temporal change characteristics and synergistic effects between the two. In this study, we constructed a methodological framework to examine the spatiotemporal characteristics and co-effects of air quality (PM2.5, SO2, and NO2) and CO2 changes in 324 prefecture-level cities in China due to the COVID-19 blockade measures from January 24 to April 30, 2020, using the regression discontinuity in time method and co-effect control coordinate system. The results show that a significant improvement in air quality and CO2 emissions during the lockdown period, with notable north‒south heterogeneity. During the major lockdown period (January 24 to February 29), the measures resulted in respective reductions of 5.6%, 16.6%, and 25.1% in the concentrations of SO2, NO2, and CO2 nationwide. The proportions of cities with negative treatment effects on PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO2 were 39.20%, 70.99%, 84.6%, and 99.38%, respectively. Provinces where concentrations of CO2 and NO2 declined by over 30% were primarily concentrated in southern areas of the ‘Yangtze River Defense Line’. Starting from March, the improvement effect of air quality and CO2 has weakened, and the concentration of air pollutants has rebounded. This study offers crucial insights into the causal effects of lockdown measures on air quality changes, and reveals the synergy between air quality and CO2, thereby providing a reference for devising effective air quality improvement and energy-saving emission reduction strategies.
14. Economic and environmental solutions for the PV solar energy potential in Spain
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137489
Solar photovoltaic plants have become one of the most widely used installations for generating electricity in a sustainable manner. However, their optimization in terms of production and economics depends on various factors, such as meteorological phenomena specific to the selected site. Selecting the right location is fundamental, and therefore in this work we developed a geographical map for choosing the optimal sites on the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands (Spain) where build photovoltaic plants, considering the photovoltaic potential, the orography of the terrain and the losses caused by dust deposition on the modules, which can reach up to 10%. To calculate the losses due to dust deposition, the HSU model was used, which estimates the losses using variables such as accumulated precipitation or the concentration of particles. Consequently, economic profitability maps and amortization times were developed for a sized photovoltaic plant, obtaining figures of 806 M€ and amortizing the installation within 9 years in the worst case scenario. For this economic study, the investment cost (CAPEX) and the maintenance cost (OPEX), as well as the economic losses due to dust accumulation, were taken into account. As a complement, the savings in terms of tonnes of that would result from the construction of a dimensioned photovoltaic plant have been studied, arriving at a total annual saving figure of 3000M metric tonnes of CO2.
15. Research trends, themes, and insights on artificial neural networks for smart cities towards SDG-11
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137300
Smart Cities can promote economic growth, sustainable transport, environmental sustainability, and good governance among cities. These benefits can support cities in achieving the SDG-11 targets. Smart Cities entails the integration of smart technologies, including machine learning techniques, in cities. Among the machine learning techniques, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is prominent. Literature revealed significant research interest on ANN for Smart Cities, resulting to several existing review works. Existing works revealed research interests on applications for structural monitoring, Internet of Things (IoT), transport systems, and cybersecurity among others. However there is a scarcity in understanding the implications of ANN for Smart Cities towards SDG-11. This work, therefore, reviews the research trends on ANN for Smart Cities towards SDG-11 through a systematic bibliometric methodology. This work utilizes a keyword-based search retrieving 743 documents for descriptive analysis and 131 documents for content analysis. The results reveal an exponential growth in research interest and cluster formation among pertinent themes. This work determined the prominent themes on Environmental Impact, on Transport Systems, and on Urbanization. This review highlights insights on research trends, on thematic prominence, and on specific SDG-11 themes.
16. Detection of spatiotemporal changes in ecological quality in the Chinese mainland: Trends and attributes
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163791
Global climate change and revegetation programs have significantly changed the ecological quality (EQ) in the Chinese mainland after 1999. Monitoring and assessing the changes in the regional EQ and analyzing their drivers are crucial for ensuring ecological restoration and rehabilitation. However, it is challenging to carry out a long-term and large-scale quantitative assessment of the EQ of a region based on traditional field investigations and experiment methods alone; notably, in previous studies, the effects of carbon and water cycles and human activities on the variations in EQ have not been studied comprehensively. Therefore, in addition to remote sensing data and principal component analysis, we used the remote sensing-based ecological index (RSEI), to assess the EQ changes in the Chinese mainland during 2000–2021. Additionally, we also analyzed the impacts of carbon and water cycles and anthropological activities on the changes in the RSEI. The main conclusions of this study were: since the beginning of the 21st century, we observed a fluctuating upward trend in the EQ changes in the Chinese mainland and eight climatic regions. From 2000 to 2021, in terms of the EQ, North China (NN) portrayed the highest increase rate (2.02 × 10−3 year−1, P < 0.05). There was a breaking point in 2011, the EQ in the region experienced a change, from a downward trend to an upward one. Northwest China, Northeast China, and NN portrayed an overall significant increasing trend in the RSEI, whereas the southwest part of the Southwest Yungui Plateau (YG) and a part of the plain region of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River (CJ) river region portrayed a significant decreasing trend in the EQ. Overall, the carbon and water cycles and human activities played a pivotal role in determining the spatial patterns and trends of the EQ in the Chinese mainland. In particular, the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index, actual evapotranspiration (AET), gross primary productivity (GPP), and soil water content (Soil_w) were identified as the key drivers of the RSEI. In the central and western Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QZ) and the northwest region of NW, the changes in RSEI were dominated by AET; however, in central NN, southeastern QZ, northern YG, and central NE, the changes were driven by GPP, and in the southeast region of NW, south region of NE, northern region of NN, middle YG region, and a part of the middle CJ region, the changes were driven by Soil_w. The population-density-related change in the RSEI was positive in the northern regions (NN and NW) but negative in the southern regions (SE), whereas the RSEI change related to ecosystem services was positive in the NE, NW, QZ, and YG regions. These results are beneficial for the adaptive management and protection of the environment and the realization of green and sustainable developmental strategies in the Chinese mainland.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Impacts of household PM2.5 pollution on blood pressure of rural residents: Implication for clean energy transition
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163749
High blood pressure associated with PM2.5 exposure is of great concern, especially for rural residents exposed to high PM2.5 levels. However, the impact of short-term exposure to high PM2.5 on blood pressure (BP) has not been well elucidated. Thus, this study aims to focus on the association between short-term PM2.5 exposure with BP of rural residents and its variation between summer and winter. Our results showed that the summertime PM2.5 exposure concentration was 49.3 ± 20.6 μg/m3, among which, mosquito coil users had 1.5-folds higher PM2.5 exposure than non-mosquito coil users (63.6 ± 21.7 vs 43.0 ± 16.7 μg/m3, p < 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively) of rural participants were 122 ± 18.2 and 76.2 ± 11.2 mmHg in summer, respectively. The PM2.5 exposure, SBP, and DBP in summer were 70.7 μg/m3, 9.0 mmHg, and 2.8 mmHg lower than that in winter, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation between PM2.5 exposure and SBP was stronger in winter than that in summer, possibly due to higher PM2.5 exposure levels in winter. The transition of household energy from solid fuels in winter to clean fuels in summer would be benefit to the decline of PM2.5 exposure as well as BP. Results from this study suggested that the reduction of PM2.5 exposure would have positive effect on human health.
2. Precipitation and discharge changes drive increases in Escherichia coli concentrations in an urban stream
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 886, 15 August 2023, 163892
Determining the driving factors of E. coli dynamics and predicting future E. coli changes in urban aquatic systems are important for regulating water quality. In this study, data from 6985 measurements of E. coli from 1999 to 2019 in an urban waterway Pleasant Run in Indianapolis, Indiana (USA) were statistically analyzed by Mann-Kendall and multiple linear regression to assess the long-term trends in E. coli concentrations and to project E. coli concentrations under future climate change scenarios. E. coli concentrations monotonically increased over the last two decades, with the value increasing from 111 Most Probable Number (MPN)/100 mL in 1999 to 911 MPN/100 mL in 2019. E. coli concentrations have exceeded the Indiana standard of 235 MPN/100 mL since 1998. E. coli showed peak concentration in summer and higher concentration in sites with combined sewer overflows (CSOs) relative to those without. Precipitation had both direct and indirect impacts on E. coli concentrations meditated by stream discharge. Multiple linear regression results showed that annual precipitation and discharge accounted for 60 % of E. coli concentration variability. Based on the observed precipitation-discharge-E. coli concentration relationship, the projected results showed that, in the highest emission representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate scenario, E. coli concentrations in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s will be 1350 ± 563 MPN/100 mL, 1386 ± 528 MPN/100 mL, and 1443 ± 479 MPN/100 mL, respectively. This study illustrates that climate change can impact E. coli concentrations by altering temperature, precipitation patterns, and stream flow in an urban stream and predicts an undesired future situation under a high CO2 emission scenario.
3. Mutual response hypothesis between surface temperature and aerosol (BC and non-BC) mass concentration observed in an urban environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164048
The mutual response between near surface aerosol concentration and surface temperature works in a complicated manner. A recent study has introduced a hypothesis of mutual response between surface temperature and near surface black carbon (BC) mass concentration which states that ‘more fall in morning hour surface temperature (T) contribute to the enhancement of BC fumigation peak after the sunrise which positively impacts the extra rise in mid-day temperature over a region during the day time’. Morning hour surface temperature is proportionally linked with the strength of the night time near surface temperature inversion which contributes to the enhancement of the fumigation peak of BC aerosols after the sunrise and the enhanced fumigation peak can impact the degree of the mid-day surface temperature rise by influencing the instantaneous heating. However, it didn't mention the role of non-BC aerosols. Further, the hypothesis was drawn based on the co-located ground-based observations of surface temperature and BC concentration at a rural location of peninsular India. Though, it was mentioned that the hypothesis can be tested independently of locations, but was not thoroughly validated for an urban environment where the loading of both BC and non-BC aerosols are high. In this context, the first objective of the present work is to methodically test the BC –T hypothesis over an Indian metropolitan city, Kolkata, using the suite of measurements obtained from Kolkata Camp Observatory of NARL (KCON) along with other supporting data. In addition, the validity of the hypothesis for the non-BC fraction of PM2.5 aerosols over the same location is also tested. Besides ascertaining the above-mentioned hypothesis over an urban location, it is found that the enhancement of non-BC PM2.5 aerosols peak after the sunrise can negatively influences the mid-day temperature rise over a region during the day time.
4. New insights on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill plastisphere structure and function
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 163823
Plastisphere plays crucial role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles and microplastics formation. Global Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills contain 42 % plastic waste, therefore representing one of the most significant plastispheres. MSW landfills are also the third largest anthropogenic methane sources and the important anthropogenic N2O source. Surprisingly, knowledge of microbiota and the associated microbial carbon and nitrogen cycles of landfill plastispheres is very limited. In this study, we characterized and compared the organic chemicals profile, bacterial community structure and metabolic pathway on plastisphere and the surrounding refuse in a large-scale landfill using GC/MS and 16S rRNA genes high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Landfill plastisphere and the surrounding refuse differed in organic chemicals composition. However, abundant phthalate-like chemicals were determined in both environments, implying the plastics additives leaching. Bacterial colonizing on the plastics surface had significantly higher richness than that in the surrounding refuse. Plastic surface and the surrounding refuse had distinct bacterial community composition. Genera of Sporosarcina, Oceanobacillus and Pelagibacterium were detected on the plastic surface with high abundance, while Ignatzschineria, Paenalcaligenes and Oblitimonas were rich in the surrounding refuse. Typical plastics biodegradation genus Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus were detected in both environments. However, Pseudomonas was dominant in plastic surface (up to 88.73 %), whereas Bacillus was rich in the surrounding refuse (up to 45.19 %). For the carbon and nitrogen cycle, plastisphere was predicted to had significant (P < 0.05) higher functional genes involved in carbon metabolism and nitrification, indicating more activated carbon and nitrogen microbial activity on the plastics surface. Additionally, pH was the main driver in shaping the bacterial community composition on plastic surface. These results indicate that landfill plastispheres serve as unique niches for microbial community habitation and function on microbial carbon and nitrogen cycles. These observations invite further study of the landfill plastispheres ecological effect.
5. Occurrence forms and environmental characteristics of phosphorus in water column and sediment of urban waterbodies replenished by reclaimed water
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 164069
To illustrate the evolution process, environmental feature and phytoremediation effect of phosphorus (P) in waterbodies with long-term replenishment by reclaimed water (RW), an urban waterbody using RW as the sole supply was selected as a case study. The concentration and distribution of soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), dissolved organic P (DOP) and particulate P (PP) in water column, as well as organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP), exchangeable P (Ex-P), BD-P (redox-sensitive P), NaOH-P (P bound to Fe and Al oxyhydroxides) and HCl-P (P bound to Ca) in sediment were investigated. Results showed that the seasonal average concentrations of total phosphorus (TPw) in water column ranged from 0.048 to 0.130 mg∙L−1, with the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. P in water column was predominantly present in dissolved state, with the similar proportions of SRP and DOP. SRP decreased apparently in midstream, where the phytoremediation was applied extensively. PP content obviously increased in non-phytoremediation area in downstream, due to visitor activity and sediment resuspension. Total phosphorus (TPs) in sediments was between 352.9 and 1331.3 mg∙kg−1, with average 365.7 mg∙kg−1 of IP and 382.8 mg∙kg−1 of OP. Among IP, HCl-P had the highest proportion, followed by BD-P, NaOH-P and Ex-P. OP was significantly higher in phytoremediation areas than that in non-phytoremediation areas. Coverage of aquatic plants was positively correlated with TP, OP, BAP, while it was negatively correlated with BD-P. Hydrophyte stabilized and conserved active P in sediment and prevented release of active P. Moreover, hydrophyte increased NaOH-P and OP contents in sediment through regulating the abundance of phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), such as Lentzea and Rhizobium. Four sources were identified through two multivariate statistical models. RW and runoff were the dominant sources of P accounting for 52.09 %, which mainly contributed to P in sediment especially IP.
6. Evaluating the sensory and health impacts of exposure to sewer overflows on urban population
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137498
Sewer overflow contains several hazardous contaminants causing adverse health effects and annoyance to the public. Despite this importance, few studies has hitherto been undertaken on examining the odor nuisance and risk of diseases due to contact with untreated overflow. However, quantitative investigation of odor emission from the sanitary sewage overflows has not been addressed. As such, this study aims to scrupulously investigate the deleterious impact of such phenomenon on public health in terms of the aforesaid matters. To this end, a multi-stage methodological approach was employed. Firstly, field data was collected from the vicinity of a wastewater treatment plant for three years, and then the concentrations of H2S in the aqueous phase and gaseous phase were estimated based on the environmental parameters. Afterward, the Gaussian aerial dispersion model and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) were employed. In parallel, the impact of the exposure to the malodorous H2S emitted from overflow cases was assessed. Furthermore, the results obtained from impact assessment were validated using the developed questionnaire survey. From the results obtained, the following major conclusions are drawn: (1) levels of H2S(g) near the overflow were high enough to be perceived by individuals, (2) concentrations of NH3(g) in the ambient air were estimated lower than the perception threshold, (3) the sulfide concentration in the overflow was the most influential parameter with positive linear correlation with the concentration of H2S(g), (4) the concentration of odor causes high annoyance, according to the questioning from the residents near the overflow events (5) exponential dose-response indicated 89–95% infection risk and (6) the good correlation between the estimated values of annoyance and the real annoyance level perceived by the residents proved accuracy of the methodology for estimation of H2S concentration and annoyance level. The unique findings obtained from this study guide the environmental decision-makers to take pre-emptive actions, preventing risk of infection and complaints from the residents.
7. A sustainable solution to manage ecosystem health of wetlands in urban and peri-urban areas of Lucknow district, India using geospatial techniques and community based pragmatic approach
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137646
Wetlands are multi-functional landscapes between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that provide habitat for wildlife, support groundwater recharge, moderate climate, control flood and fulfil the livelihood of the communities. Rapid population growth, urban expansion, and industrialization have caused the degradation of wetlands over the last few decades. The wetlands located in the urban and peri-urban areas are generally the most threatened ecosystems globally. The present study assessed the ecosystem health of urban and peri-urban wetlands of Lucknow district in India and recommended a sustainable solution for their management. Remote sensing data derived from the normalized difference vegetation index, modified normalized difference water index, and land use/land cover change were utilized for analyzing the spatiotemporal change in areas under wetlands, from 1989 to 2018. Site-specific indicators on pressure, state and response were integrated in FRAGSTATS-based assessment to construct a Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model. A qualitative field survey has been conducted through focus group discussion and expert opinion to validate the result from the PSR model. The results revealed that the overall health of the wetlands has deteriorated drastically in these peri-urban areas owing to anthropogenic activities. The wetland ecosystem's health is significantly correlated with land transformation. The study recommended community participation, and involvement of local authorities in storing rainwater, constructing culverts and channels, and interlinking them with wetlands for sustainable conservation and effective management of the wetland ecosystem.
8. Black-odorous water bodies annual dynamics in the context of climate change adaptation in Guangzhou City, China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137781
Black-odorous water (BOW) in urban areas has brought detrimental ecological effects and posed a threat to the health of surrounding residents. Identifying BOWs in urban areas is difficult because they are usually small in area, and discontinuous in spatial distribution. The efforts to adapt to climate change in cities have a direct connection to urban environment and may affect the dynamics of BOWs, but their relationship has seldom been addressed in previous research. This research builds a new urban BOW detection model using Gaofen (GF) images and ground-level in-situ water quality data to detect the spatiotemporal dynamics of BOWs in Guangzhou City's main urban area from 2016 to 2020, when comprehensive climate adaptation strategy has been implemented as a pilot metropolitan area in China. Spatial analysis in the study area with a total of 97 focused rivers revealed a decreasing trend in BOW occurrence (from 85.57% in 2016 to 21.65% in 2020) in the context of climate change adaptation efforts. Redundancy analysis between BOWs occurrence and environmental factors showed that across the entire study area, the contributions of anthropogenic factors (highest proportion at 14.3% for the area percentage of built-ups) to BOW, such as population density, agricultural water use, domestic water use, and so on, distinctly stronger than climatic drivers (largest contribution of 4.4% for temperature). The results suggested that climate change adaptation efforts help to decrease BOW occurrence in the study area, while exploring the response mechanism between climate change adaptation measures and the changes of BOWs is necessary in the future research. The findings were conducive to the development of targeted measures to decrease the occurrence of urban BOWs while improving adaptability of the city to climate change.
9. Vertical evolution of the concentrations and sources of volatile organic compounds in the lower boundary layer in urban Beijing in summer
Chemosphere, Volume 332, August 2023, 138767
Exploring the vertical variations in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and quantifying the sources of VOCs at different heights can help control atmospheric photochemical pollution in summer. Here, VOCs were vertically detected at three heights (47 m, 200 m and 320 m) along a 325 m tower of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, in the mornings (8:00) and afternoons (15:00) from May 19 to June 18, 2021. The VOC concentrations in Beijing in summer were 16.2 ± 5.6 ppbv, 14.7 ± 2.5 ppbv and 14.9 ± 3.8 ppbv at 47 m, 200 m and 320 m, respectively, and alkanes accounted for the largest proportion at all heights (>56%). The vertical gradients of the VOC concentrations and components did not significantly change, which was consistent with the summer observations of other stations in North China in recent years, but these results significantly differed from observations from more than a decade ago. To determine the reason for this, a classification based on atmospheric stability was performed, revealing that the vertical distribution of VOCs was uniform in convective and stable conditions and decreased with increasing height in neutral condition. With the transition of atmospheric stability from neutral to convective to stable, the contributions of fuel combustion sources and solvent use sources gradually increased, while those of biogenic sources and background sources gradually decreased. With increasing height, the contributions of background sources increased, those of biogenic sources, solvent use and gasoline vehicular emissions decreased, and those of fuel combustion and industrial emissions remained basically unchanged. The above results indicated that with air pollution treatment, the potential for reducing emissions of VOCs in Beijing has decreased. Therefore, regional joint prevention and control are the main ways to control VOC pollution in Beijing.
10. Mortality attributable to ambient fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Switzerland in 2019: Use of two-pollutant effect estimates
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 1, 15 August 2023, 116029
Air pollution health risk assessments have traditionally used single-pollutant effect estimates for one proxy ambient air pollutant such as PM2.5. Two-pollutant effect estimates, i.e. adjusted for another correlated pollutant, theoretically enable the aggregation of pollutant-specific health effects minimizing double-counting. Our study aimed at estimating the adult mortality in Switzerland in 2019 attributable to PM2.5 from a single-pollutant effect estimate and to the sum of PM2.5 and NO2 from two-pollutant estimates; comparing the results with those from alternative global, European and Swiss effect estimates.
For the single-pollutant approach, we used a PM2.5 summary estimate of European cohorts from the project ELAPSE, recommended by the European Respiratory Society and International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ERS-ISEE). To derive the two-pollutant effect estimates, we applied ELAPSE-based conversion factors to ERS-ISEE PM2.5 and NO2 single-pollutant effect estimates. Additionally, we used World Health Organization 2021 Air Quality Guidelines as counterfactual scenario, exposure model data from 2019 and Swiss lifetables.
The single-pollutant effect estimate for PM2.5 (1.118 [1.060; 1.179] per 10 μg/m3) resulted in 2240 deaths (21,593 years of life lost). Using our derived two-pollutant effect estimates (1.023 [1.012; 1.035] per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 adjusted for NO2 and 1.040 [1.023; 1.058] per 10 μg/m3 NO2 adjusted for PM2.5), we found 1977 deaths (19,071 years of life lost) attributable to PM2.5 and NO2 together (23% from PM2.5). Deaths using alternative effect estimates ranged from 1042 to 5059.
Estimated premature mortality attributable to PM2.5 alone was higher than to both PM2.5 and NO2 combined. Furthermore, the proportion of deaths from PM2.5 was lower than from NO2 in the two-pollutant approach. These seemingly paradoxical results, also found in some alternative estimates, are due to statistical imprecisions of underlying correction methods. Therefore, using two-pollutant effect estimates can lead to interpretation challenges in terms of causality.
11. Disease specific air quality health index (AQHI) for spatiotemporal health risk assessment of multi-air pollutants
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 1, 15 August 2023, 115943
While significant reductions in certain air pollutant concentrations did not induce obvious mitigations of health risks, a shift from air quality management to health risk prevention and control might be necessary to protect public health. This study thus constructed an Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for respiratory (Res-AQHI), cardiovascular (Car-AQHI), and allergic (Aller-AQHI) risk groups using mixed exposure under multi-air pollutants and portrayed their distribution and variation at multiple spatiotemporal scales using spatial analysis in GIS with the medical big data and air pollution remote sensing data by taking Hunan Province in China as a case. Results showed that the AQHIs constructed for specific health-risk groups could better express their risks than common AQHI and AQI. Moreover, based on the spatiotemporal association of health and environmental information, the allergic risk group in Hunan provided the highest health risk mainly affected by O3. The following cardiovascular and respiratory risk groups can be significantly attributed to NO2. Moreover, the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of AQHIs within regions was also evident. On the annual scale, the population in the air health risk hotspots for respiratory and cardiovascular risk decreased, while allergic risks increased. Meanwhile, on seasonal scale, the hotspots for respiratory and cardiovascular risks expanded significantly in winter while completely disappearing for allergic risk. These findings suggest that disease specific AQHIs effectively disclose the health effects of multi-air pollutants and their subsequently varied spatiotemporal distribution patterns.
12. Burden of disease due to transportation noise in the Nordic countries
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 1, 15 August 2023, 116077
Environmental noise is of increasing concern for public health. Quantification of associated health impacts is important for regulation and preventive strategies.
To estimate the burden of disease (BoD) due to road traffic and railway noise in four Nordic countries and their capitals, in terms of DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years), using comparable input data across countries.
Road traffic and railway noise exposure was obtained from the noise mapping conducted according to the Environmental Noise Directive (END) as well as nationwide noise exposure assessments for Denmark and Norway. Noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and ischaemic heart disease were included as the main health outcomes, using exposure-response functions from the WHO, 2018 systematic reviews. Additional analyses included stroke and type 2 diabetes. Country-specific DALY rates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study were used as health input data.
Comparable exposure data were not available on a national level for the Nordic countries, only for capital cities. The DALY rates for the capitals ranged from 329 to 485 DALYs/100,000 for road traffic noise and 44 to 146 DALY/100,000 for railway noise. Moreover, the DALY estimates for road traffic noise increased with up to 17% upon inclusion of stroke and diabetes. DALY estimates based on nationwide noise data were 51 and 133% higher than the END-based estimates, for Norway and Denmark, respectively.
Further harmonization of noise exposure data is required for between-country comparisons. Moreover, nationwide noise models indicate that DALY estimates based on END considerably underestimate national BoD due to transportation noise. The health-related burden of traffic noise was comparable to that of air pollution, an established risk factor for disease in the GBD framework. Inclusion of environmental noise as a risk factor in the GBD is strongly encouraged.
13. Inferring microbial community assembly in an urban river basin through geo-multi-omics and phylogenetic bin-based null-model analysis of surface water
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 3, 15 August 2023, 116202
Understanding the community assembly process is a central issue in microbial ecology. In this study, we analyzed the community assembly of particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) surface water microbiomes in 54 sites from the headstream to the river mouth of an urban river in Japan, the river basin of which has the highest human population density in the country. Analyses were conducted from two perspectives: (1) analysis of deterministic processes considering only environmental factors using a geo-multi-omics dataset and (2) analysis of deterministic and stochastic processes to estimate the contributions of heterogeneous selection (HeS), homogeneous selection (HoS), dispersal limitation (DL), homogenizing dispersal (HD), and drift (DR) as community assembly processes using a phylogenetic bin-based null model. The variation in microbiomes was successfully explained from a deterministic perspective by environmental factors, such as organic matter–related, nitrogen metabolism, and salinity-related parameters, using multivariate statistical analysis, network analysis, and habitat prediction. In addition, we demonstrated the dominance of stochastic processes (DL, HD, and DR) over deterministic processes (HeS and HoS) in community assembly from both deterministic and stochastic perspectives. Our analysis revealed that as the distance between two sites increased, the effect of HoS sharply decreased while the effect of HeS increased, particularly between upstream and estuary sites, indicating that the salinity gradient could potentially enhance the contribution of HeS to community assembly. Our study highlights the importance of both stochastic and deterministic processes in community assembly of PA and FL surface water microbiomes in urban riverine ecosystems.
14. Economics of household preferences for water-saving technologies in urban South Africa
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 339, 1 August 2023, 117953
Drought severity is expected to increase in South Africa in the coming years, given the deteriorating effects of climate change on rainfall patterns, global temperature, and evaporation. A common mitigation strategy adopted by households is to promote water demand management initiatives to reduce water consumption volume and complement existing water supply management approaches implemented by suppliers. This study contributes to the discussion on adaptation strategies by investigating household preference heterogeneity for water-saving technologies through empirical evidence from urban Cape Town, South Africa. Using a choice modelling framework, we collected primary survey data from 512 urban households in five of the city's major suburbs and investigated heterogeneity among the households based on their preferences for characteristics embedded in four water-saving technologies. Four preference classes were identified by accounting for taste heterogeneity. Overall, respondents had the highest marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for the greywater technology alternative at 17,025 ZAR (US$ 1142) while rainwater technology has the least willingness to pay value at 5206 ZAR (US$ 349). In addition, the results show that respondents in classes 1 and 2 have a high interest in technologies that save a large quantity of water, whereas members of classes 3 and 4 rely on inexpensive conservation and behavioral habits as climate adaptation measures. This study has important policy implications for many water-stressed and arid cities within and outside South Africa since like Cape Town, many large cities require long-lasting measures that help reduce the pressure on their strained water systems.
15. Sustainable network analysis and coordinated development simulation of urban agglomerations from multiple perspectives
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137378
Sustainable and coordinated development plays a crucial role in urban planning. However, previous studies have not fully explored the complex interplay between different factors that affect coordinated development within urban agglomerations. To address this gap, our study proposes a novel network-based approach that combines qualitative analysis and quantitative verification to assess the coordinated development of urban agglomerations. In this study, we focused on the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) as our study area. Firstly, we constructed a network for sustainable development in urban agglomerations based on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) data. Next, we analyzed the spatial patterns of intercity resource exchange flows to gain a more comprehensive and diversified perspective on regional coordinated development. By integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis, we then used the Exponential Random Graph Model (ERGM) to identify the driving factors of coordinated development. Finally, we optimized the development score of urban subgroups by using a greedy algorithm and determined the direction for coordinated development among different cities in the YRDUA. The findings of our study reveal that the development potential and optimal agglomeration pattern of urban subgroups in the YRDUA are closely linked to intercity cooperation, science and technology industries, foreign investment, and multiple interaction flows. Furthermore, our results suggest that local governments should focus on building a multi-core network flow pattern and fully utilizing the distinctive advantages of urban subgroups according to local conditions and time. These insights can guide policymakers and urban planners in designing more coordinated and efficient urban agglomerations.
16. Characteristics and sources of VOCs in a coastal city in eastern China and the implications in secondary organic aerosol and O3 formation
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164117
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an essential role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and O3. However, our understanding of the characteristics and sources of VOCs in coastal cities is still limited. Here we conducted one-year measurements of VOCs during 2021–2022 in a coastal city in eastern China using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Our results showed strong seasonal variations in total VOCs (TVOCs) with the highest concentrations in winter (28.5 ± 15.1 ppbv) and the lowest values in autumn (14.5 ± 7.6 ppbv). Alkanes dominated the TVOCs during all seasons, on average accounting for 36.2 %–50.2 %, while the contributions of aromatics (5.5 %–9.3 %) were ubiquitously lower than those in other megacities in China. Aromatics exhibited the largest contribution to SOA formation potential (77.6 %–85.5 %) during all seasons, while alkenes (30.9 %–41.1 %) and aromatics (20.6 %–33.2 %) were the dominant contributors to ozone formation potential, and the O3 formation is "VOC-limited” in summer in the city. Particularly, we found that the estimated SOA yield only explained 9.4 %–16.3 % of the observed SOA, suggesting a significant absence of semi-volatile and intermediate-volatile organic compounds. Positive matrix factorization demonstrated that industrial production and fuel combustion were the main sources of VOCs especially in winter (24 % and 31 %), while secondary formation was dominant in summer and autumn (37 % and 28 %). Comparatively, the sources of liquefied petroleum gas and vehicular exhaust were also important, yet did not show strong seasonal variations. Potential source contribution function further highlighted a great challenge for VOCs control in autumn and winter because of the large influences of regional transport.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Overall distribution of tire-wear particles, nano‑carbon black, and heavy metals in size-fractionated road dust collected from steel industrial complexes
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163878
Tire-wear particles (TWP) from vehicles serves as a non-exhaust emission source. The mass content of metallic species in road dust may increase owing to the traffic of heavy vehicles and industrial activity; consequently, metallic particles are also present in road dust. Herein, road dust collected from steel industrial complexes with high traffic of high-weight vehicles and the composition distribution of five size-fractioned particle sizes were analyzed. Road dust samples were collected from three areas near steelmaking complexes. The mass distribution of TWP, carbon black (CB), bituminous coal, and heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Cd, and Hg) in different size fractions of road dust was quantified by combining four different analytical techniques. In the magnetic separation for <45 μm fraction, 34.4 wt% and 50.9 wt% was removed for steelmaking and steel-related industrial complexes, respectively. As the particle size decreased, the mass content of Fe, Mn, and TWP increased. The enrichment factors of Mn, Zn, and Ni were higher than two, indicating that they were related to industrial activities in steel complexes. The maximum concentrations of TWP and CB originating from the vehicle varied depending on the region and particle size range: TWP 2.066 wt% at 45–75 μm (industrial complex) and CB 5.559 wt% at 75–160 μm (steel complex). Coal was only found in the steel complex. Finally, to reduce the exposure of the finest particles to road dust, three methods were suggested. Magnetic fraction must be removed from road dust using magnetic separation; the fly dust of coal during transportation must be suppressed, and covers must be used in coal yards; the mass contents of TWP and CB in road dust should be removed by vacuum cleaning instead of water flushing.
2. Significant co-benefits of air pollutant and CO2 emission reduction from biomass energy utilization in power plants in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164116
Replacing coal energy with biomass energy in power plants is important in reducing air pollutants and CO2 emissions in China. We first calculated the optimal economic transport radius (OETR) to evaluate the optimally available biomass (OAB) and the potentially available biomass (PAB) for the year 2018. The OAB and PAB of power plants are estimated to be 423–1013 Mt, with higher values found in the provinces with higher population and crop yields. Unlike crop and forestry residue, the PAB can access to OAB for waste, mainly because the waste is easier to collect and transfer to a power plant. When all the PAB were consumed, the NOx, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 emissions would decrease by 41.7 kt, 115.3 kt, 117.6 kt, 26.0 kt, and 701.2 Mt, respectively. The scenario analysis results showed that the PAB will not be sufficient to meet the biomass power growth estimated for 2040, 2035, and 2030 under the baseline scenario (BS), policy scenario (PS), and reinforcement scenario (RS), respectively, whereas the CO2 emission will dramatically decrease by 1473 Mt in 2040 under the BS, 1271 Mt in 2035 under the PS, and 1096 Mt in 2030 under the RS. Our findings indicate that the abundant biomass resources in China will bring significant co-benefits, reducing air pollutants and CO2 emissions, if biomass energy can be applied in power plants. Furthermore, more advanced technologies, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), are expected to be used in power plants in the future, which will probably result in significantly lower CO2 emissions and promote the achievement of the CO2 emission peaking target and carbon neutrality. Our results provide useful information for developing a strategy for the coordinated reduction of air pollutants and CO2 emissions from power plants.
3. How does circular economy work in industry? Strategies, opportunities, and trends in scholarly literature
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137312
The concept of circular economy (CE) has been a topic of interest for researchers, managers, and policy makers. It is recognised as the latest attempt to balance industrial development, environmental health, and economic growth. Although academic literature in this field has been gradually developing, it is limited in its analysis in terms of economic and competitive opportunity in the face of different strategies. This article provides a holistic view by mapping the literature on strategies-based EC for the economic competitiveness of companies through a systematic literature review supported on the co-citation bibliometric technique. To this end, 126 articles were selected and organised into 5 clusters: (i) strategic applications of CE; (ii) mediating factors for implementing CE strategies; (iii) drivers of CE strategies; (iv) determinants used to promote CE; and (v) emerging digital technologies used to enable CE practices. The results of this study help practitioners assess EC from a new point of view and design competitive strategies for a circular model without neglecting economic growth and competitive advantage, in addition to serving as crucial evidence for policymakers, helping them leverage policies to circumvent sustainability concerns and promote circularity. A future agenda for detailed cluster-based research is put forward based on the identified gaps, including a framework to help managers set priorities to escape the zero-profit trend associated with green and sustainable practices.
4. Photovoltaic supply chain and government subsidy decision-making based on China's industrial distributed photovoltaic policy: A power perspective
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137438
As a clean energy source, photovoltaic (PV) power generation best meets the current demand for energy transformation. In particular, industrial distributed PV projects in China have developed rapidly, forming a mature market trading mechanism, and the Chinese government's subsidy policy has strongly supported their development. However, lucrative government subsidies often lead to PV enterprises not paying attention to technological innovation and blind production. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of government subsidies, enhance the overall performance of the PV supply chain, and achieve the healthy and long-term development of the PV industry. In this paper, we consider the actual demand preference characteristics of users, and construct game models of the PV supply chain under different power structures. We explore the optimal decisions of the PV supply chain enterprises and the formulation of optimal government subsidies under different power structures. The results show that (1) reasonable government subsidies have an incentive effect, which can increase manufacturers' profits, service providers' profits and social welfare level, and improve the demand for PV products. (2) Different power structures significantly affect the government's optimal subsidy, PV system manufacturer (PSM)'s and PV system service provider (PSSP)'s optimal decision-makings, while it does not affect social welfare. (3) Government subsidies are much larger in the Stackelberg case than in the Nash equilibrium case. Government subsidies are positively proportional to PV product market size, user quality preference factor (QPF), user product coverage preference factor (PCPF), industrial unit electricity price, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, and effective generation hours, and inversely proportional to PV product discount sensitivity, production cost, quality innovation cost factor (QICF), and effort performance cost factor (EPCF).
5. Direct measurement of methane emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector: Review of measurement results and technology advances (2018–2022)
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137693
The increasing methane emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector deviates from the goals of the Paris Agreement on sustainable development and climate control. This paper reviews recent direct measurement results and technological advances in the upstream oil and gas sector, based on more than 100 sources published between 2018 and 2022. No consensus was found on the correlation between methane emissions and well data items such as production volume and well age. Aircraft surveys were the most frequently used technology during the study period. Developed countries lead in direct measurement, with only 12.5% of studies conducted in developing countries. The sensing method and the performance of sensor carriers lead to different characterisations of direct measurement techniques. Growing upstream methane emissions accelerate global warming and pose risks to groundwater. Mitigating super-emitters and reported venting and flares could reduce total methane emissions by 20% and 25%, respectively. China, the world's largest methane emitter, emitted approximately 2135 kt methane from its upstream oil and gas sector, mainly through venting (80%). Direct methane measurements and the strength of government management could assist China in prioritising carbon emission reduction and filling the legislative gap.
6. Photocatalytic degradation of recalcitrant aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in oilfield-produced water: A critical review
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137567
Oilfield-produced water (OPW) contains a complex mixture of toxic and hazardous organic and inorganic compounds. Refractory polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) chemical compounds present in OPW which result from hydrocarbon sources and chemicals added during the oil recovery process, have become a source of global concern. Their continuous presence in the OPW requires suitable technology to remove them before their discharge to the environment. When the OPW contains harmful pollutants combined with oil in minute size, the treatment performance of various water technologies appears insufficient due to the generation of secondary by-products, which are also recalcitrant and toxic. To consolidate scattered knowledge of OPW in the field of water pollution control, this article critically reviews and evaluates the technical feasibility of heterogeneous photocatalysis for OPW treatment, their bottlenecks in applications, and the way forward for the removal of recalcitrant hydrocarbon compounds from OPW. This work also presents the nature, composition, and health implications of these compounds in the OPW. Pertinent factors for effective photodegradation were presented. It also critically evaluates and discusses a variety of pilot and commercial-scale applications of photocatalysis in water treatment and its limitations. It was conclusively evident from 239 published articles (1988–2022) that heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation is a powerful approach for the removal of the hydrocarbon compounds such as PAHs, BTEX, and phenol with an average of over 80% of degradation efficiency. The photocatalytic process can be scaled up to the commercial scale with the proper design of photocatalytic reactors and the synthesis of advanced photocatalysts.
7. Hydrogen production paths in China based on learning curve and discrete choice model
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137848
Hydrogen is a key technology that will enable China to achieve its carbon neutrality goal. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the future production paths of hydrogen. Here, we conducted learning curve and discrete choice model to estimate the future production costs and production paths of hydrogen under different scenarios and discuss their carbon emission paths and uncertainties. The results show that from 2040, green hydrogen will gradually become more economically advantageous than gray and blue hydrogen, and the cost of green hydrogen will be 18–25 CNY/kg H2 by 2060. Among the various hydrogen production technologies, wind- and solar-based electrolysis will gradually predominate, producing 35%–70% of all hydrogen by 2060. The carbon emissions from hydrogen production, currently dominated by gray hydrogen, can be reduced by more than 70% over the next 40 years. The transformation of the hydrogen production structure is the key driver of reducing hydrogen-related carbon emissions; and the more ambitious the transformation, the easier it will be to achieve greater emission reductions in the earlier stages. In addition, the uncertainty associated with hydrogen production is closely related to the hydrogen development stage. The uncertainty in the market share of fossil fuel-based hydrogen is more than four times higher than that of green hydrogen in the earlier stages, but in the middle and late stages, there is more uncertainty in green hydrogen. China should use policy tools carefully to enhance financial support for green hydrogen technology and projects, increase transformation efforts during earlier stages, and actively support the use of market-based tools.
8. Strategic analysis on development of simultaneous adsorption and catalytic biodegradation over advanced bio-carriers for zero-liquid discharge of industrial wastewater
Chemosphere, Volume 332, August 2023, 138871
With rapid industrial development, millions of tons of industrial wastewater are produced that contain highly toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic compounds. These compounds may consist of high concentration of refractory organics with plentiful carbon and nitrogen. To date, a substantial proportion of industrial wastewater is discharged directly to precious water bodies due to the high operational costs associated with selective treatment methods. For example, many existing treatment processes rely on activated sludge-based treatments that only target readily available carbon using conventional microbes, with limited capacity for nitrogen and other nutrient removal. Therefore, an additional set-up is often required in the treatment chain to address residual nitrogen, but even after treatment, refractory organics persist in the effluents due to their low biodegradability. With the advancements in nanotechnology and biotechnology, novel processes such as adsorption and biodegradation have been developed, and one promising approach is integration of adsorption and biodegradation over porous substrates (bio-carriers). Regardless of recent focus in a few applied researches, the process assessment and critical analysis of this approach is still missing, and it highlights the urgency and importance of this review. This review paper discussed the development of the simultaneous adsorption and catalytic biodegradation (SACB) over a bio-carrier for the sustainable treatment of refractory organics. It provides insights into the physico-chemical characteristics of the bio-carrier, the development mechanism of SACB, stabilization techniques, and process optimization strategies. Furthermore, the most efficient treatment chain is proposed, and its technical aspects are critically analysed based on updated research. It is anticipated that this review will contribute to the knowledge of academia and industrialist for sustainable upgradation of existing industrial wastewater treatment plants.
9. A simulation-based approach for assessing regional and industrial flood vulnerability using mixed-MRIO model: A case study of Hubei Province, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 339, 1 August 2023, 117845
Given the unstoppable forces behind regional economic integration trends, damages from a flood disaster in a specific area will influence correlative cities through industrial linkages and make economic systems more vulnerable. Assessing urban vulnerability is an essential part of flood prevention and mitigation, and also a hot topic of recent research. Therefore, this study (1) constructed a mixed multiregional input-output (mixed-MRIO) model to explore ripple effects on other regions and sectors when production in a flooded area is constrained, and (2) applied this model to characterize the economic vulnerability of cities and sectors in Hubei Province, China by simulation. First, various hypothetical flood disaster scenarios are simulated to reveal the ripple effects of different events. The composite vulnerability is assessed by analyzing economic-loss sensitivity rankings across scenarios. Then, the model is applied to the case of a 50-year return period flood that occurred in Enshi City, Hubei Province, on July 17, 2020 to empirically verify the usefulness of such a simulation-based approach in evaluating vulnerability. The results indicate vulnerability is higher in Wuhan City, Yichang City, and Xiangyang City and for three manufacturing sector types: livelihood-related manufacturing, raw materials manufacturing, and processing and assembly manufacturing. Such cities and industrial sectors with high vulnerability will significantly benefit from prioritization in flood management.
10. New dithiocarbamate-based polymer (DTCP) as an additive to improve microporous polysulfone membrane efficiency in lead and dye removal
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 339, 1 August 2023, 117925
For fabricating a membrane with hydrophilic and complexing agent groups, a new dithiocarbamate-based polymer (DTCP) containing dithiocarbamate, thioamide, and ethereal oxygen groups was synthesized and blended in polysulfone (PSF) matrix with 1, 2, 5, and 10 wt% proportion. The membranes were produced by the nonsolvent induced phase separation method. For DTCP characterization, NMR, FTIR, TGA and GPC techniques were used. SEM images show that no morphological change can be seen even in 10 wt% blended membranes. AFM surface images show that the roughness of 5 and 10 wt% membranes extremely increased. The performance of the DTCP/PSF membranes were investigated in the separation of lead ions and Reactive Yellow 39 dye from the contaminated water. The outcomes indicated that by increasing the amount of DTCP up to 10 wt%, the pure water ﬂux, bovine serum albumin flux, and the lead removal increased very efficiently compared to the bare one. Blending of more than 1 wt% DTCP, cause to removal of 99.6% lead ions. The water contact angle decreased by the adding of DTCP, caused to increase fouling resistance. The results of this research shows that the synthesized DTCP can be used as a good additive for improving membrane permeability, anti-fouling and especially heavy metal removal efficiency.
11. Removal of chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen from high salinity tungsten smelting wastewater by one-step electrochemical oxidation: From bench-scale test, pilot-scale test, to industrial test
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 340, 15 August 2023, 117983
In recent years, electrochemical oxidation (EO) shows the characteristics of green and high efficiency in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N) from wastewater, which has been favored by researchers. However, at present, most of current studies on EO remain in laboratory stage, reports about pilot-scale or even industrial tests with large treatment capacity are few, which slowing down the use of the advanced technology to practical application. In this study, bench-scale tests, pilot-scale tests (treatment capacity 200–500 L/h), and industrial tests (treatment capacity 100 m3/h) were carried out by EO technology in view of the characteristics of tungsten smelting wastewater (TSW) with high salinity (NaCl), COD, and NH3–N. Results showed that the removal of COD and NH3–N was a competitive reaction in the EO process, and COD could be removed more preferentially than NH3–N. When NH3–N content was low, the influent pH had a minimal effect on its removal, and when NH3–N content was high, increasing the influent pH was beneficial to its removal. Industrial tests showed that the one-step removal of COD and NH3–N in TSW met the standard, and the power consumption per cubic meter of wastewater was only 4.2 kW h, and the treatment cost was much lower than the two-step process of "breaking point chlorination to remove NH3–N and adding oxidant to remove COD”. This study has successfully realized industrial application of EO technology in TSW treatment for the first time and provided a successful case, which is helpful to accelerate the popularization and application of this technology in the field of high salinity organic ammonia nitrogen wastewater treatment.
12. The impact of green mergers and acquisitions on illegal pollution discharge of heavy polluting firms: Mechanism, heterogeneity and spillover effects
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 340, 15 August 2023, 117973
This paper is to discuss the impact of green mergers and acquisitions (GMA) on illegal pollution discharge (ILP). The diurnal difference pollution data of the nearest monitoring station around heavy polluting enterprises are used to measure ILP. Results show that: (1) Compared with polluting firms that have not conducted GMA, GMA can reduce ILP by 2.9%. (2) Large scale, strong industrial correlation and cash payment of GMA is more conducive to controlling ILP. GMA in the same city is easier to inhibit ILP. (3) Impact paths of GMA on ILP mainly include cost effect, technology effect and responsibility effect. GMA aggravates ILP by increasing management costs and risk control risks. GMA inhibits ILP by increasing green innovation, environmental protection investment, social responsibility performance and environmental information disclosure. (4) GMA has a greater inhibition effect on ILP in state-owned firms, technology-intensive firms and eastern firms. (5) The industrial spillover effect of GMA is more obvious than that of the same city. This paper provides implications for curbing ILP from the perspective of GMA.
13. Environmental contamination and health risk assessment of potentially toxic trace metal elements in soils near gold mines – A global meta-analysis
Environmental Pollution, Volume 330, 1 August 2023, 121803
Gold mining is the most important anthropogenic source of heavy metal emissions into the environment. Researchers have been aware of the environmental impacts of gold mining activities and have conducted studies in recent years, but they have only selected one gold mining site and collected soil samples in its vicinity for analysis, which does not reflect the combined impact of all gold mining activities on the concentration of potentially toxic trace elements (PTES) in nearby soils at a global scale. In this study, 77 research papers from 24 countries were collected from 2001 to 2022, and a new dataset was developed to provide a comprehensive study of the distribution characteristics, contamination characteristics, and risk assessment of 10 PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils near the deposits. The results show that the average levels of all 10 elements are higher than the global background values and are at different levels of contamination, with As, Cd, and Hg at strong contamination levels and serious ecological risks. As and Hg contribute to a greater non-carcinogenic risk to both children and adults in the vicinity of the gold mine, and the carcinogenic risks of As, Cd, and Cu are beyond the acceptable range. Gold mining on a global scale has already caused serious impacts on nearby soils and should be given adequate attention. Timely heavy metal treatment and landscape restoration of extracted gold mines and environmentally friendly approaches such as bio-mining of unexplored gold mines where adequate protection is available are of great significance.
14. Investigation on the effects of desulfurization gypsum on the engineering properties of ternary geopolymers: Improving the utilization of industrial wastes
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137638
Geopolymer as a low-carbon binder can effectively reduce carbon emissions and improve industrial waste utilization. To optimize the performance of GGBS-FA binary geopolymer, a ternary geopolymer was designed by the addition of desulfurization gypsum (DG). The engineering properties of GGBS-FA-DG ternary geopolymers were investigated by laboratory tests. Moreover, microstructure tests were performed to reveal the improvement mechanism of the engineering properties of the ternary geopolymers. Results show that the compressive strength of ternary geopolymer with 60% GGBS was higher than that with 70% GGBS. With the increase in addition amount of DG, the strength first increased and then decreased, and the optimal DG content was 6%. However, the strength of ternary geopolymers with 50% GGBS was barely improved and remained the lowest. Initial and final setting times were prolonged with the increase in DG content, and the initial setting time reached 34 min for the optimal ternary geopolymers (i.e., 60% GGBS, 6% DG). Drying shrinkage was reduced by 15.8% as the DG content increased to 8%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that gel products and needle-like ettringite (AFt) crystals were generated in the ternary geopolymers. AFt can fill the pores and further improve the strength based on the gel strength. AFt wrapped on the surface of early-formed aluminosilicate can prevent it from further polycondensation into three-dimensional network gels, thus retarding the setting at the early curing stage. In addition, the beneficial expansion of AFt can inhibit the drying shrinkage for the ternary geopolymers with the optimal DG content.
15. Optimal government subsidy scheme for lean-oriented innovation in the textile industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137505
The increasing environmental burden posed by the textile industry has placed pressure on firms to shift to sustainability through lean-oriented innovation (LOI). However, firms' LOI incentives may be weakened by high investment costs. Recognizing firms' predicaments, governments are developing subsidy policies to promote LOI. This study builds a two-period game model to explore optimal government's subsidy decisions for LOI in an evolving textile industry, incorporating government subsidies, LOI investment, and firms' production decisions. The study reveals that the social welfare in period two exceed those in period one, implying that competition in the industry improves social welfare. Furthermore, we derive government subsidy decisions for maximal environmental protection and social welfare and find that the former does not necessarily lead to a superior environmental performance to the latter. Moreover, we find that under some conditions, a "win-win-win” situation can be reached when the government pursues social welfare optimum.
16. Ascertaining priority control pollution sources and target pollutants in toxic metal risk management of a medium-sized industrial city
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164022
Re-suspended surface dust (RSD) often poses higher environmental risks due to its specific physical characteristics. To ascertain the priority pollution sources and pollutants for the risk control of toxic metals (TMs) in RSD of medium-sized industrial cities, this study took Baotou City, a representative medium-sized industrial city in North China, as an example to systematically study TMs pollution in RSD. The levels of Cr (242.6 mg kg−1), Pb (65.7 mg kg−1), Co (54.0 mg kg−1), Ba (1032.4 mg kg−1), Cu (31.8 mg kg−1), Zn (81.7 mg kg−1), and Mn (593.8 mg kg−1) in Baotou RSD exceeded their soil background values. Co and Cr exhibited significant enrichment in 94.0 % and 49.4 % of samples, respectively. The comprehensive pollution of TMs in Baotou RSD was very high, mainly caused by Co and Cr. The main sources of TMs in the study area were industrial emissions, construction, and traffic activities, accounting for 32.5, 25.9, and 41.6 % of the total TMs respectively. The overall ecological risk in the study area was low, but 21.5 % of samples exhibited moderate or higher risk. The carcinogenic risks of TMs in the RSD to local residents and their non-carcinogenic risks to children cannot be ignored. Industrial and construction sources were priority pollution sources for eco-health risks, with Cr and Co being the target TMs. The south, north and west of the study area were the priority control areas for TMs pollution. The probabilistic risk assessment method combining of Monte Carlo simulation and source analysis can effectively identify the priority pollution sources and pollutants. These findings provide scientific basis for TMs pollution control in Baotou and constitute a reference for environmental management and protection of residents' health in other similar medium-sized industrial cities.
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