Về quản lý môi trường
- Tương tác giữa đô thị hóa và sử dụng đất dự đoán ô nhiễm kháng sinh trong đất giữa các vùng nông thôn thành thị
- Khủng hoảng khí hậu và những phát triển gần đây trong việc phục hồi hệ sinh thái dựa trên sinh học
- Thách thức giảm ô nhiễm nhựa vĩ mô: Thử nghiệm hiệu quả của sự bùng nổ dòng sông trong điều kiện môi trường thực tế
- Đánh giá nguồn gốc, rủi ro môi trường, sinh thái và sức khỏe của các nguyên tố có khả năng gây độc hại trong bụi đô thị của siêu đô thị Moscow, Nga
- Công nghệ xử lý nước và nước thải dựa trên màng: Các vấn đề, xu hướng hiện tại, thách thức và vai trò trong việc đạt được các mục tiêu phát triển bền vững và nền kinh tế tuần hoàn
- Hiểu vai trò của chính phủ trong việc thúc đẩy các tiểu hệ thống bền vững khác nhau: Một phân tích dựa trên các mô hình phân tích bao bọc dữ liệu mạng chuỗi song song mới
- Chuyển đổi cấu trúc năng lượng trong bối cảnh trung hòa carbon: Phân tích trò chơi tiến hóa dựa trên sự phát triển toàn diện của than và năng lượng sạch
- Áp dụng lăng kính hệ sinh thái cho quá trình chuyển đổi năng lượng carbon thấp
- Ảnh hưởng sức khỏe con người của việc tái chế và tái sử dụng nhựa tiêu dùng trong lĩnh vực thực phẩm: Đánh giá có hệ thống và phân tích tổng hợp các đánh giá về vòng đời
Về môi trường đô thị
- Ước tính định lượng khả năng loại bỏ PM2.5 và các yếu tố ảnh hưởng của hạ tầng xanh đô thị'
- Một bước tiến mạnh mẽ hơn của hiện tượng thực vật mùa xuân đô thị thu hẹp sự khác biệt về năng suất thực vật giữa môi trường đô thị và môi trường tự nhiên
- Những hiểu biết mới về tắc nghẽn màng trong quá trình lọc nước thải đô thị trực tiếp bằng màng và kiểm soát tắc nghẽn bằng các chiến lược cơ học
- Hiệu quả của đồng thời quá trình oxy hóa nâng cao và hấp phụ để xử lý nước thải đô thị để tái sử dụng gián tiếp cho uống được
- Đồng xử lý đồng xử lý cô đặc tro bay và màng lọc nano của quá trình đốt chất thải rắn đô thị: Đặc tính của crom và khả năng lọc của nó
- Đồng xử lý tro bay đốt chất thải rắn đô thị (MSWI FA) và bùn đô thị: Một phương pháp cải tiến để cải thiện quá trình khử nước bùn bằng khử clo bằng tro bay
- Độ tin cậy vận hành của hệ thống thoát nước đô thị trong điều kiện không chắc chắn
- So sánh tải trọng mưa do gió tác động lên mặt tiền tòa nhà trong môi trường đô thị và ngoài trời: Nghiên cứu điển hình về hai tòa nhà ở Zurich, Thụy Sĩ
- Đi xe theo nhóm: Người đi xe đạp tiếp xúc với khí thải của phương tiện giao thông đường bộ trong môi trường đô thị
- Đảo nhiệt đô thị và căng thẳng nhiệt tương quan với động lực khí hậu và sự thay đổi ngân sách năng lượng trong nhiều môi trường đô thị
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Dấu vân tay hóa học và độ phân giải nguồn của các hạt mịn trong khí quyển trong một bến cảng công nghiệp dựa trên dữ liệu lấy mẫu hiện trường không liên tục trong một năm
- Xử lý đất ô nhiễm hydrocacbon dầu mỏ bằng sự kết hợp giữa electro-Fenton và quy trình nước xả sinh học có hỗ trợ hoạt động bề mặt sinh học
- Hồi quy từng bước để xác định các biến liên quan ảnh hưởng đến tác động môi trường của quá trình sản xuất clinker
- Tác động của số hóa đối với cường độ năng lượng trong các lĩnh vực sản xuất – Phân tích dữ liệu bảng cho Châu Âu
- Tính trung lập carbon và hiệu quả đổi mới công nghệ xanh trong ngành dệt may Trung Quốc
- Quy định về môi trường ảnh hưởng đến việc nâng cấp cơ cấu công nghiệp như thế nào? Bằng chứng từ các thành phố cấp tỉnh ở Trung Quốc
- Kích thích điện kích hoạt sự gia tăng các hiệp hội vi sinh vật xuyên hốc hướng tới việc tăng cường xử lý nước thải nitơ hữu cơ
- Chiến lược mới xử lý ô nhiễm Pb2+, Zn2+ bằng dẫn xuất phế thải công nghiệp Humin
- Phân bổ nguồn PM2.5 xung quanh trong một thành phố công nghiệp hóa bằng cách sử dụng phân tích hệ số phân giải đa thời gian, chuẩn hóa phân tán
- Kỹ thuật giao diện đối với pin nhôm-không khí kiềm ức chế tự ăn mòn thông qua hệ thống điện phân được tối ưu hóa
- Điều tra về cách áp suất ảnh hưởng đến hành vi phân hủy nhiệt của azodicarbonamide
- Phương pháp đánh giá rủi ro liên kết Natech sử dụng phương pháp ra quyết định đa tiêu chí tương quan
- Tái chế nhựa sử dụng một lần bằng lò vi sóng sử dụng chất xúc tác Zeolite
- Vai trò của nhiệt thải trong chuyển đổi ngành gang thép theo hướng sản xuất bền vững
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Urbanization–land-use interactions predict antibiotic contamination in soil across urban–rural gradients
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 867, 1 April 2023, 161493
Antibiotics ubiquitously occur in soils and pose a potential threat to ecosystem health. Concurrently, urbanization and land-use intensification have transformed soil ecosystems, but how they affect antibiotic contamination remain largely unknown. Therefore, we profiled a broad-scale pattern of antibiotics in soil from agricultural lands and green spaces across urbanization gradients, and explored the hypothetical models to verify the effects of urbanization and land-use intensity on antibiotic contamination. The results showed that antibiotic concentrations and seasonality were higher in agricultural soil than in green spaces, which respectively showed linear or hump-shaped declines along with the increasing distance to urban centers. However, the response of antibiotic pollution to land-use intensity depended strongly on the urbanization level. More importantly, interactions between urbanization and land-use explained, on average, 59.6 % of the variation in antibiotic concentrations in soil across urbanization gradients. The proposed interactions can predict the non-linear changes in soil vulnerability to antibiotic contamination. Our study revealed that the urbanization can modulate the effects of land-use intensity on antibiotic concentration and seasonality in the soil environment, and that there is high stress on peri-urban soil ecosystems due to ongoing land-use changes arising from rapid urbanization processes.
2. Climate crisis and recent developments in bio-based restoration of ecosystems
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 332, 15 April 2023, 117417
Over the years, due to the climate crisis, sustainable economic growth and biodiversity protection have been increasingly promoted. Scientists, researchers, and experts in the field of sustainable development highlighted that bio-based restoration of ecosystems and responsible management of existing resources are needed to meet the needs of future generations. This paper discusses some of the latest developments in three main areas of sustainability, i.e., energy, water and environment, that emerged from the "16th Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems Conference – SDEWES 2021”. The purpose of this introduction article is to briefly review the articles included in this Virtual Special Issue. As such, it acts as an editorial paper for the virtual special issue of the Journal of Environmental Management, dedicated to the SDEWES 2021 conference.
3. The effects of urban land use on energy-related CO2 emissions in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161873
Land use change caused by urbanization is widely believed to be the primary way human activities affect energy use and, thus, CO2 emissions (CEs) in China. However, there is a limited understanding of the role of land use with detailed categories in energy-related CEs is still absent. This paper aims to narrow the knowledge gap using multi-dimension metrics, including land use scale, mixture, and intensity. These metrics were derived from three years of sequential POI data. A GWR analysis was carried out to examine the associations between land use change and energy-related CEs. Our results show that (1) the scale of most land use types exerted a bidirectional effect on CEs, demonstrating apparent spatiotemporal heterogeneity; (2) land use mixture of mature city agglomerations had a significant suppressive effect on CEs, suggesting mixed land use be advocated in the urbanization process; (3) Land use intensity had a bi-directional association with CEs in most cities, but its adverse effect gradually spread from the west to the northeast. Therefore, systematically regulating land transaction to control land scale, appropriately interplanting biofuel plants, and utilizing renewable energy are encouraged to reduce energy footprints and mitigate CEs in China. The findings and conclusions of this paper enhance our knowledge on the relationship between land use and CEs and present the scientific basis for policy-making in building low-carbon cities in the context of rapidly urbanizing China.
4. The challenge of reducing macroplastic pollution: Testing the effectiveness of a river boom under real environmental conditions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161941
Improving collection technologies is crucial to develop effective and economically feasible solutions for catching plastic from riverine environments. However, floating booms are being constructed and deployed in river around the world without rigorously testing its effectiveness. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a boom under realistic conditions for several configurations and treatments (including "C-shape” and "Slash-shape” configurations). For this, we used the same macroplastics that leak out of waste management channels in order to be as realistic as possible. In total we used 52 plastic articles of 13 different polymers. The global effectiveness of the tested C-shape boom was lower than expected under such conditions (around 37 % of retention). The effectiveness of the Slash-shape boom was considerably worst (<10 %). However, the effectiveness varies greatly according to the particular characteristics of the plastic articles (i.e., shape and polymer composition), ranged from 0 to 100 %. For example, the boom could be 100 % effective retaining plastics such as Stylofoam trays and cups, 40–20 % for food-wrappers but 0 % for disposable plates and spoons, straws, monofilament fishing lines, packaging straps, hoses, pipes, elastic bands, etc.
It seems that to have a reasonable catch-effectiveness and be cost-efficient, boom designs need to be improved and tested under different environmental conditions before to reach the market. In addition, it is unrealistic to select only high buoyancy plastics for testing them.
5. Assessment of sources, environmental, ecological, and health risks of potentially toxic elements in urban dust of Moscow megacity, Russia
Chemosphere, Volume 321, April 2023, 138142
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in urban dust of Moscow megacity and related risks have been studied. 78 samples were collected in the Moscow downtown in sites with different anthropogenic load, namely, major highways, residential area, and recreation zones. The concentrations of PTEs in urban dust were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Then, environmental, ecological and health risks of PTEs in urban dust were assessed. In addition, potential sources of PTEs in dust were identified. It is shown that Moscow dust is mainly contaminated by Sb, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Sn, and Mo, which according to the data of principal component and correlation analyses can be attributed to anthropogenic sources (non-exhaust vehicle emissions). Potential ecological risk factor demonstrates that Cu, Mo, and Cd have moderate potential ecological risks in 13% of studied area, while Sb has this risk in 62% of area. Potential ecological risk indices indicate that 41% of studied territory is of moderate ecological risk. Concerning the human risks through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation pathways, PTEs in Moscow dust have no significant non-carcinogenic risks for adults. However, the value of total hazard index for children is 1.8 showing that non-carcinogenic risks may occur. Moreover, possible carcinogenic risks caused by Cr are evaluated. The finding of the present study can be used for ecological management in the megacity to reduce both ecological and human risks. A special attention should be given to periods of hot and dry weather and to traffic-related emissions.
6. Membrane-based water and wastewater treatment technologies: Issues, current trends, challenges, and role in achieving sustainable development goals, and circular economy
Chemosphere, Volume 320, April 2023, 137993
Membrane-based technologies are recently being considered as effective methods for conventional water and wastewater remediation processes to achieve the increasing demands for clean water and minimize the negative environmental effects. Although there are numerous merits of such technologies, some major challenges like high capital and operating costs . This study first focuses on reporting the current membrane-based technologies, i.e., nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and forward- and reverse-osmosis membranes. The second part of this study deeply discusses the contributions of membrane-based technologies in achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs) stated by the United Nations (UNs) in 2015 followed by their role in the circular economy. In brief, the membrane based processes directly impact 15 out of 17 SDGs which are SDG1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. However, the merits, challenges, efficiencies, operating conditions, and applications are considered as the basis for evaluating such technologies in sustainable development, circular economy, and future development.
7. Understanding the role of the government in promoting various sustainability sub-systems: An analysis based on new parallel-series network data envelopment analysis models
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136593
Sustainability has been a global consensus for the governments worldwide to address serious environmental issues. However, there is a lack of data envelopment analysis (DEA) studies evaluating the performance of government in promoting various sustainability sub-systems. To do this evaluation work, our study proposes new parallel-series network DEA models with alternative network structures of incorporating intermediate products. Particularly, this study develops a new methodological framework to evaluate various inefficiency sources. The framework contains an extended method of network meta/group frontier approach and a new concept of efficiency Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indicator. Empirically, this study considers the case of Chinese government-sustainability system from 2010 to 2017. Such work cannot be found in the existing studies. The main findings are summarized as follows. First, China has succeeded in realizing an overall improved efficiency during the examined periods. The importance of various divisions changes over time. Second, the occurrence of method heterogeneity and significant linkage inefficiency implies that the modelers should incorporate intermediate products in a well-suited way. Finally, inland provinces show higher technology gap inefficiency as for economy division. To improve the performance, inland provinces should promote their human capital and adopt advanced technology.
8. Energy structure transformation in the context of carbon neutralization: Evolutionary game analysis based on inclusive development of coal and clean energy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136626
Efficient utilization of the clean coal and adoption of clean energy are key points to promote energy structure transformation in the context of carbon neutrality. Considering the influence of decision makers' subjective preferences on energy structure transformation, we introduce prospect theory and psychological account theory into the evolutionary game analysis, construct an evolutionary game model with the participation of government regulators and energy consumers, and analyze the dynamic evolution of each game subject. The results of the study show that the share of coal and clean energy in energy consumption significantly affects the strategy choice of energy consumers and government regulators. The impact of the intensity of subsidies on coal and clean energy and the resulting positive externalities on the inclusive development of coal and clean energy is nonlinear. More interestingly, the strategy combination of green regulation by government regulators and integrated energy use by energy consumers is not optimal in practice due to subjective factors such as reference effects, risk preferences, and loss aversion. This study provides a new perspective on the energy mix transition based on the current situation in China.
9. Applying an ecosystem lens to low-carbon energy transitions: A conceptual framework
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136429
Business model innovations aiming at systemic change influence the speed and direction of low-carbon transitions, thus supporting public decarbonization policies. However, their potential is often limited by institutional settings or a lack of alignment with potential partners. Therefore, to exploit the potential for systemic change of business model innovations in socio-technical systems, it is necessary to consider their interactions with their wider environment. In this conceptual study, we explore the mechanisms through which business activities interact with public policy goals under low-carbon energy transitions. We take an ecosystem lens to analyze value creation at the levels of customers, business, inter-organizational networks and the public. Based on an integrative literature review, we build a conceptual meta-model specifying the constitutive elements, dynamics and environmental dimensions describing regional energy ecosystems under transition. The main constitutive element of the ecosystem is the value network, i.e. the interlinked business models of collaborating organizations exchanging money, goods, services, information or intangible benefits. The value network interacts dynamically with a pool of resources (assets, capabilities and intangible resources) that improves the ecosystem's ability to enact systemic change. Orchestration is a crucial process to steer the ecosystem's development towards creating value for customers as well as for the public. Finally, the relevant environmental dimensions include policy, culture, markets, industry structure as well as potential future members or resources. We illustrate our conceptual model with the case of the development of low-carbon district heating to decarbonize space heating in a Swiss city. This illustrative case study shows that the ecosystem perspective combined with public value theory is well suited to describe the dynamics of a low-carbon energy transition and provides valuable insights on the prospects of novel business models.
10. Performance evaluation of resource utilization with environmental externality: Evidence from Chinese agriculture
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136561
Agriculture is of crucial importance to the food security of each country. As the most populous country, China has to pay more attention to agriculture to ensure enough agricultural production. Most research focuses on efficiency or productivity change in agriculture, while capacity utilization and environmental externality may often be ignored. Based on the measurement of plant capacity utilization (PCU), this study investigated Chinese agriculture during the period 1997–2018. We extended the PCU model with undesirable outputs to a novel input- and output-oriented long-run PCU measurement with by-product technology. The novelty lies in the introduction of an environmental PCU measure to capture the possible capacity of economic growth and pollution control. The empirical result shows a significant disparity in capacity utilization in agriculture among provinces. For instance, the central provinces have the highest level of PCU, followed by the eastern region, and the western region performed worst. Furthermore, possible policy implications are derived to promote agricultural production with environmental restrictions.
11. Human health effects of recycling and reusing food sector consumer plastics: A systematic review and meta-analysis of life cycle assessments
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136567
Global transitions to circular economies of plastic could pose both risks and opportunities for human health. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can help to quantify possible health effects across plastic life cycles, syntheses of which could inform policy. This systematic review assessed LCA evidence for health effects of increased plastic recycling and reuse in the food sector. Scientific databases including Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, GreenFile and grey literature websites were searched for peer-reviewed LCA of consumer-level food sector plastics that compared virgin or single-use plastics with scenarios of increased recycling and reuse. Data on Human Health impacts and related midpoint impacts were extracted, converted to Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), and analysed using meta-regression. Forty-nine eligible LCAs were identified, only five of which related to low- and middle-income countries (China: n = 1 and Thailand: n = 4). Meta-regression showed strong evidence for a linear trend in reducing DALYs with increasing percentage recycled content compared to virgin plastic (Coefficient = −1.96E-5; 95% CI = −2.69E-5 to −1.24E-5; p < 0.0001) and increasing end-of-life recycling rate compared to landfill and/or incineration (Coefficient = −2.1E-5; 95% CI = −2.60E-5 to −1.63E-5; p < 0.0001), equating to almost a day of healthy life saved globally per tonne of plastic recycled. On average, reusable plastics reduced climate-related health impacts associated with single-use plastics after 30 uses. Global assessment was limited by data deficits, but meta-analyses suggested that health risks from linear economies of food sector plastics could be reduced by increasing recycling and reuse rates, though some reusable plastics would need to be used many more times than current norms. Encouraging greater geographical coverage in LCA, increasing uptake of health impact assessment methods, and incorporating emerging health data will strengthen future public health evaluations of circular economies.
12. Mapping the significance of green venture capital for sustainable development: A systematic review and future research agenda
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 396, 10 April 2023, 136489
Sustainable Development has become a key concern throughout the world after the United Nations set 2030 as the SDGs deadline. A lot of concerted efforts have already been taken and currently undergoing to combat the global menace of climate change, carbon dioxide removal, adoption of renewable energy, and many more. All of these cannot be achieved with the sole support of public funds or traditional sources of finance. This is where venture capital (VC) steps in and fulfill the gap. Over the past few years, VCs have also been channelizing their investment flows as per the ‘triple bottom line’ towards startups and businesses which comes under the aspect of cleantech, sustainable entrepreneurship, technological innovations, green innovation, and sustainability. These VCs which focus on environmental protection are the Green Venture Capital (GVC). This research study provides a holistic overview of the available literature to highlight the significance of GVCs for attaining sustainable development. The present study has summarized 179 research articles from the time period 2002 to 2022 through a systematic literature review. The research articles gave four major thematic clusters, namely- Transition towards GVC, GVC and Cleantech, GVC and Sustainability, and Policy-Push for GVC. The present study provides a brief summary of these themes and the future research directions which can be explored.
13. Does provincial green governance promote enterprise green investment? Based on the perspective of government vertical management
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 396, 10 April 2023, 136519
China's environmental policy is managed vertically, that is, it is formulated by the central government and implemented by local governments. Therefore, green governance measures by provincial governments are the key to promoting enterprise green investment. This study investigates the effects of provincial green governance on enterprise green investment and the mediating role of government subsidies. From the perspective of enterprise green investment, this study complements and deepens the existing research results, which were conducted mainly from the viewpoint of green innovation. Based on data for the total green investments included in the corporate social responsibility report of high-polluting enterprises listed in Stock Exchanges from 2012 to 2017, this study analyzes the impact of provincial green governance on enterprise green investment after obtaining government subsidies. By sub-dividing provincial green governance into three indicators, this study finds that it plays a significant role in promoting enterprise green investment. Further analysis shows that government subsidies can strengthen the role of green governance in promoting enterprise green investment. This study includes significant insights for promoting and forming the collaborative governance system of the government, enterprises and the public, and realizing the balanced development of economy and environment.
14. Emerging environmental contaminants: A global perspective on policies and regulations
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 332, 15 April 2023, 117344
Emerging contaminants include many synthetic or natural substances, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones, and flame retardants that are not often controlled or monitored in the environment. The consumption or use of these substances is on an ever-rising trend, which dangerously increases their prevalence in practically all environmental matrices. These contaminants are present in low environmental concentrations and cause severe effects on human health and the biota. The present review analyzed 2012–2022 years papers via PubChem, science direct, National Center for Biotechnology Information, web of science on the legislations and policies of emerging contaminants globally. A state-of-the-art review of several studies in the literature focus on examining and evaluating the emerging contaminants and the frameworks adopted by developed and developing countries to combat the release of emerging contaminants and form footprints towards water sustainability which includes water availability, usage patterns, generation and pollution management, the health of aquatic systems, and societal vulnerability. The paper aims to provide a comprehensive view of current global policies and framework regarding evaluating and assessing the chemicals, in light of being a threat to the environment and biota. The review also highlights the future global prospects, including current governmental activities and emerging contaminant policy measures. The review concludes with suggestions and way forward to control the inventory and disposal of emerging contaminants in the environment.
15. Concerned or Apathetic? Exploring online public opinions on climate change from 2008 to 2019: A Comparative study between China and other G20 countries
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 332, 15 April 2023, 117376
G20 countries, account for the majority of global carbon emissions, need to take the lead in mitigating climate change. However, there are differences in economic, political and sociocultural backgrounds amongst G20 countries, especially between China and other G20 countries. Since the implementation of climate policies largely require domestic public support, it is vital to explore similarities and differences of public opinions on climate issues between China and other G20 countries. However, little research has investigated the micro-level climate concerns from the perspective of cross-country differences. Therefore, based on big data and text mining analysis, this study crawled user-generated data on Sina Weibo (N = 271,487) and Twitter (N = 4,874,546) from 2008 to 2019 to comprehensively catalog and compare climate opinions. Results show that climate change has become a salient issue in China and other G20 countries, with climate-related surges in public opinions always occurring after major natural, social and political events. Moreover, in China, there has been a significant shift in public attention from climate impacts to climate mitigation strategies, but in other G20 countries, people are more radical by emphasizing the climate movement and calling for authoritative actions. This study provides "snapshots” of climate communication and offers a quantification-based reference for promoting climate actions and collaborative governance.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Quantitative estimation of the PM2.5 removal capacity and influencing factors of urban green infrastructure'
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 867, 1 April 2023, 161476
Long-term exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) could cause great harm to human health and sustainable development. It remains a challenge to estimate the long-term PM2.5 removal capacity of nature-based green infrastructure in urban areas. In this paper, the annual PM2.5 removal capacity of urban green infrastructure (UGI) from 2000 to 2019 in Shenyang was estimated based on the PM2.5 dry deposition model. The spatial heterogeneity of annual PM2.5 removal capacity were detected Sen-MK test and local spatial autocorrelations analysis. Then the effects of landscape patterns and socioeconomic variables on PM2.5 removal capacity were explored based on linear regression model. The results illustrated that the PM2.5 removal capacity of UGI increased significantly from 2000 to 2019 in Shenyang, with the amount of PM2.5 removal, PM2.5 removal flux and removal rate increasing by 20.64 Mg/a, 0.0258 g/m2/a, and 0.377 %/a, respectively. The PM2.5 removal capacity of UGI exhibited spatial heterogeneity in the study area. Specifically, the regions experiencing the increase in PM2.5 removal capacity of UGI accounted for majority of the old urban area of Shenyang City during the study period; the lower PM2.5 removal capacity clustered in the center urban area, in which high density impervious surfaces distributed, while the higher PM2.5 removal capacity mainly gathered in the area with large scale green space; PM2.5 removal capacity were significantly higher in urban functional zones with a high proportion of green spaces. The landscape metrics representing fragmentation and shape complexity positively affected the annual PM2.5 removal flux and removal rate, while the aggregation metrics had significantly negative correlations with the PM2.5 removal flux and removal rate. Moreover, it was also found that population density and GDP negatively affected the PM2.5 removal capacity of UGI. This study provides a methodological reference and some new insights for future urban landscape planning and air pollution purification.
2. A stronger advance of urban spring vegetation phenology narrows vegetation productivity difference between urban settings and natural environments
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 868, 10 April 2023, 161649
Climate change is posing dramatic effects on terrestrial vegetation dynamics. The links between vegetation phenology or vegetation activity (growth) and climate change have been widely reported, yet, less is known about the impacts of phenological shifts on vegetation growth. Urban settings characterized by urban heat island and CO2 dome are often used as ideal natural laboratories to understand how vegetation responds to global climate change. Here we assessed the impacts of phenology changes on vegetation growth in China using satellite phenology metrics and gross primary production (GPP) data from 2003 to 2018 and urban-natural contrast analysis. Compared with natural environments, phenological metrics (e.g., start/end of growing season (SOS/EOS), and the length of growing season (GSL), etc.) were observed to change more dramatically in urban environments. Furthermore, we found that GPP in both settings increased over time but with a higher increment in the urban environments, and the urban-natural vegetation productivity gap had been diminishing at a rate of 16.9 ± 6.76 g C m−2 y−1. The narrowing of the urban-natural GPP difference over time can be attributed to a more advanced SOS and extended GSL in urban settings than their natural counterparts, particularly SOS shift. These findings suggested that the distinct urban phenological shifts would become increasingly important in offsetting the loss of vegetation productivity induced by urbanization.
3. New insights into membrane fouling during direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater and fouling control with mechanical strategies
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161775
Direct membrane filtration (DMF) technology achieves energy self-sufficiency through carbon recovery and utilization from municipal wastewater. To control its severe membrane fouling and improve DMF technology, targeted research on fouling behaviour and mechanisms is essential. In this study, a DMF reactor equipped with a flat-sheet ceramic membrane was conducted under three scenarios: without control, with intermittent aeration, and with periodic backwash. This system achieved efficient carbon concentration with chemical oxygen demand below 50 mg/L in permeate. Membrane fouling was dominated by intermediate blocking and cake filtration. And reversible external resistance accounted for over 85 % of total resistance. Predominant membrane foulants were free proteins, whose deposition underlies the attachment of cells and biopolymers. Backwash decreased the fouling rate and increased fouling layer porosity by indiscriminately detaching foulants from the membrane surface. While aeration enhanced the back transport of large particles and microbial activity, causing a relatively thin and dense fouling layer containing more microorganisms and β-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides, which implies a higher biofouling potential during long-term operation. In addition, aeration combined with backwash enhanced fouling control fivefold over either one alone. Therefore, simultaneous operation of backwash and other mechanical methods that can provide shear without stimulating aerobic microbial activity is a preferred strategy for minimizing membrane fouling during DMF of municipal wastewater.
4. Atmospheric microplastics at a southern China metropolis: Occurrence, deposition flux, exposure risk and washout effect of rainfall
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161839
Atmospheric microplastics (AMPs) have raised much concern for public health due to their potential for exposure. In this study, temporal distribution, characteristics and exposure risk of AMPs were studied in the urban area of Guangzhou, a metropolis in Southern China, and the washout effect of rainfall on AMPs was investigated. It was found that AMP abundances in Guangzhou were in a range of 0.01–0.44 items/m3, with higher abundance in the wet season (0.19 ± 0.01 items/m3) than in the dry season (0.15 ± 0.02 items/m3). The distribution of AMPs did not correspond to that of common air pollutants (e.g., PM2.5 and PM10), implying that their pollution sources might be distinct. In Guangzhou, a total of 1.26 × 1011 items AMPs are in the air every year, and annual inhalation exposure of adults was estimated to be in the range of 79.65–3.50 × 103 items. The annual deposition flux of AMPs is 65.94 ± 7.53 items/m2/d, and the deposition flux in the wet season (84.00 ± 6.95 items/m2/d) was much greater than that in the dry season (47.88 ± 8.35 items/m2/d). Furthermore, rainfall has an effective mechanism for removing AMPs from the atmosphere, with an average washout ratio of (19.39 ± 6.48) × 104 for rainfall washing AMPs out. Compared to moderate rain (2.5–10 mm/h) and heavy rain (10–50 mm/h), light rain (rainfall intensity <2.5 mm/h) had a better washout effect. This study contributes to the evaluation of AMP exposure risk and understanding of AMP environmental behavior and fate by providing long-term monitoring data on AMPs and quantifying the washout effect of rainfall on AMPs for the first time.
5. Linking downstream river water quality to urbanization signatures in subtropical climate
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161902
Urbanization has several hydro-ecological effects on receiving waters. Hence, understanding how urbanization influences river water quality is essential for proper river management. However, an inappropriate approach that correlates urbanization signatures with water quality may result in spurious correlations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of urbanization signatures with two key pollutants of stream flows: nutrients and pathogens. In contrast to the commonly used approaches that are based on economic or demographic metrics, our approach represents urbanization signatures using related anthropogenic activities and evaluates the effect of such activities on water quality parameters. The approach was also applied to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on nutrient and pathogen trends in the river waters of Hong Kong. The data were collected for the period of 1986–2020 from the Environmental Protection Department and monthly measurements were performed. Total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Escherichia. coli (E. coli), and fecal coliforms (FC) showed consistently decreasing trends. However, the long-term seasonality of nutrients differed from that of pathogens. TP and TN exhibited homogenous seasonality with an approximately sinusoidal relationship from January to December, whereas the seasonality of pathogens was more complex and not dependent on river flow dilution effects. Additionally, urbanization impacts on station nutrients and pathogen characteristics were found to be unevenly distributed; under high water temperatures, nutrient concentrations were found to be decreased because of the rainfall dilution effect on river flows. Both urban point and diffuse sources of pollution significantly contributed to nutrient pollution in rivers. Furthermore, the concentrations of FC were not highly influenced by suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen was negatively correlated with all pathogens. Furthermore, the river flow rate was found to improve the water quality in terms of both nutrients and pathogens; urban point source pollution and river temperature alteration were shown to mainly contribute to seasonal variations in both nutrients and pathogens.
6. Efficacy of simultaneous advanced oxidation and adsorption for treating municipal wastewater for indirect potable reuse
Chemosphere, Volume 321, April 2023, 138115
The main scope of this study was to compare the efficacy of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) combined with adsorption for treating secondary treated effluent of municipal wastewater in a continuous-lab-scale reactor. The results revealed enhanced removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD: C0: 14.1 and Ct: 0 mg L−1 (100%)), chemical oxygen demand (COD: C0: 40.5 and Ct: 4 mg L−1 (≤90%)), and total organic carbon (TOC: C0: 15.2 and Ct: 3.02–3.63 mg L−1 (∼80%)) by UV/PMS, O3/PMS, UV/O3/H2O2, and UV/O3/MnO2 processes followed by glass packed bed reactor (GPBR). Complete inactivation of the bacterial count was observed for all the studied processes. The GPBR showed the additional advantage of termination in the regrowth of bacterial count on the filtering medium. The gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that AOP followed by adsorption reduced the concentrations of the by-products in the treated effluent. Overall, the synergy between AOP and adsorption improved the effluent quality to meet various indirect potable reuse (IPR) applications.
7. Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and nanofiltration membrane concentrate co-processing: Speciation of chromium and its leachability
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136619
The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the world is expected to reach 2.2 billion tons annually by 2025 (Moya et al., 2017), and 228 million tons annually in China (Zhu et al., 2021). Landfill and incineration are the two primary MSW treatment and disposal approaches but due to excessive heavy metals and the limited number of landfills, incineration is gaining in use, with more than 50% of MSW being disposed (Zhan and Kirkelund, 2021) because of its effective weight and volume decrease and significant hazardous matter removal that includes organics and pathogenic microorganisms (Bie et al., 2016). During the incineration of MSW, MSW incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) is typically generated in the flue gas cleaning devices as a secondary pollutant (Zhao et al., 2022), accounting for approximately 3–5% of the original MSW volume put into incineration (Ji et al., 2022; Lan et al., 2022; Shi and Kan, 2009). For high contents of heavy metals (such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn) (Jiao et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2022; Zhao et al., 2022) Cl, and hypertoxic organic matter (such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)) (Zhang et al., 2020), MSWI FA is classified as a typical hazardous waste that attracts public concern (Shi and Kan, 2009). Municipal solid waste leachate (MSWL) is another by-product pollutant that accumulates during the process of MSW landfill/disposal and has a high concentration of refractory organic matter and poor biodegradability (Gao et al., 2020). The nanofiltration membrane concentrate (NF-MC) accounts more than half of the total production of MSWL in China because nanofiltration separation can effectively remove organics and nitrogen from MSWL (Zhu et al., 2021). However, NF-MC is difficult to dispose of using traditional advanced oxidations and common technologies since its chemical oxygen demand (COD) is too high. Thus, it is urgent to develop efficient and proper methods to deal with NF-MC and MSWI FA.
8. Co-treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) and municipal sludge: A innovative method to improve sludge dewatering with fly ash dechlorination
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 332, 15 April 2023, 117403
The complexity of municipal sludge dewatering is a bottleneck problem limiting resource utilization. In this paper, adding municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) to municipal sludge for enhanced dewatering was applied, while the chlorine salt in MSWI FA was simultaneously removed using water in municipal sludge. The effects of different dosages and chemical components of MSWI FA on municipal sludge dewatering, and the removal effect of municipal sludge washing on Cl element were investigated. The results showed that the municipal sludge's specific resistance to filtration after co-treatment was significantly reduced, and more hydrophobic channels were formed in the vacuum suction filtration of the treated municipal sludge, conducive to efficient water removal. The moisture content of municipal sludge was reduced from 96.0% to 48.3%, and the moisture reduction rate increased from 17.7% to 32.1%. The chemical composition of MSWI FA could effectively promote the dewatering of municipal sludge, among which CaO was the best, followed by CaCl2 and NaCl, and KCl was the worst. Simultaneously, the municipal sludge showed a good effect on removing Cl from MSWI FA. The minimum Cl content in the mixture after Co-treatment is 1.5%. These results could provide a new way to dispose of MSWI FA and municipal sludge.
9. Operational reliability of urban drainage systems under uncertainties
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117241
Water quality risks from overflows have attracted significant research attention, and the reliability of urban drainage systems (UDS) is in urgent need of assessment and improvement. The overflow volume and concentration of critical pollutants are generally used as assessment indicators, which is quite time consuming and cumbersome especially under continuous rainfall. Simplifying the water quality risk assessment indicators for the UDS reliability is intractable. For this purpose, this study proposes the detention tank emptying time as a new reliability evaluation indicator, which greatly reduces the calculation burden by converting water quality risk into hydraulic risk. On this basis, the effects of rainfall, dry weather flow (DWF), actuators and their interactions on reliability are quantified by massive scenarios. It shows that the DWF affects the emptying process via weekly and daily seasonality and its interaction with rainfall is mainly responsible for unreliability. Further, the engineering facility linkage controlled by the actuator to cope with the interaction is the key. Particularly, the Prophet algorithm is innovatively applied to mine the patterns and generate the DWF series for the challenge of sparse DWF data. In conclusion, the indicator proposed expands the connotation of UDS reliability assessment, prompting a small investment in replacing actuators with better controllability and greatly improving reliability. It guides the engineering planning and enhancement from a new perspective of whole-chain optimization from the global to the detailed level.
10. Classification and sources of extremely severe sandstorms mixed with haze pollution in Beijing
Environmental Pollution, Volume 322, 1 April 2023, 121154
Air quality has significantly improved in China; however, new challenges emerge when dust weather is combined with haze pollution during spring in northern China. On March 15, 2021, an extremely severe sandstorm occurred in Beijing, with hourly maximum PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reaching 5267.7 μg m−3 and 963.9 μg m−3, respectively. Continuous sandstorm events usually lead to complicated pollution status in spring. Three pollution types were identified disregarding the time sequence throughout March. The secondary formation type was dominant, with high ratios of PM2.5/PM10 (mean 74%) and PM1/PM2.5 (mean 52%). This suggests that secondary transformations are the primary cause of heavy pollution, even during the dry seasons. Sandstorm type resulted in dramatic PM10 levels, with a noticeable decrease in PM2.5/PM10 levels (27%), although PM2.5 levels remain high. The transitional pollution type was distinguished by an independent increase in PM10 levels, although PM2.5 and PM1 levels differed from the PM10 levels. Throughout March, the sulfur oxidation rate varied considerably, with high levels during most periods (mean 0.52). A strong correlation indicated that relative humidity was the primary variable promoting the formation of secondary sulfate. Sandstorms promote heterogeneous reactions by providing abundant reaction surfaces from mineral particles, therefore aggravating secondary pollution. The sandstorm air mass from the northwest passing through the sand sources of Mongolia carried not only crustal matter but also organic components, such as bioaerosols, resulting in a sharp increase in the organic carbon in PM2.5.
11. Comparison of wind-driven rain load on building facades in the urban environment and open field: A case study on two buildings in Zurich, Switzerland
Building and Environment, Volume 233, 1 April 2023, 110038
Wind-driven rain (WDR) is one of the largest moisture sources affecting the hygrothermal performance and durability of building envelopes. Accurate estimation of WDR loads on building facades as boundary condition is important for the hygrothermal analysis of building envelopes. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and semi-empirical models are used to compare WDR load on building facades in the urban environment and open field. The research focuses on two historical buildings in the city center of Zurich, Switzerland. There is a very large difference in terms of the local wind-flow fields around buildings in the urban environment and open field. Raindrop trajectories in the open field are more horizontal due to higher wind speeds around the building. In the urban environment, the wind speed is lower yielding droplets following trajectories that are more parallel to the facades. The building overhang is more effective at rain protection in the urban environment compared to the building in the open field due to a larger rain sheltering effect, since the rain trajectories are more parallel to the facades. There is a very large difference in WDR load and distribution on the facade of buildings in the urban environment and open field. WDR loads on buildings in the urban environment are much smaller than in the open field. When semi-empirical models are used for this case study, there is large uncertainty in the prediction and the predicted WDR load can be many times larger compared to the load predicted by CFD.
12. Group riding: Cyclists exposure to road vehicle emissions in urban environments
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Volume 235, April 2023, 105333
A series of wind tunnel experiments were conducted in the University of Surrey’s Environmental Flow wind tunnel with a 1:50 scale of a typical London street canyon to assess the exposure of cyclists riding in a group to the emissions of polluting vehicles. A propane source emitted from an Ahmed body was used to model a car exhaust and a fast flame ionisation detector was used to measure pollutant concentration around four cyclists for multiple configurations of the source, cyclists, and wind directions. Two cases were investigated with a vehicle driving in front of a line of cyclists and adjacent to them (as if it were overtaking them).
In the first case, for small wind incidence, findings confirm that the cyclists exposure decreases exponentially with their distance from the source with a small dependence on wind direction but largely independently of the riders position within the group. For large wind incidences, typical of urban canyons, the rider position within the group becomes more important.
For the second set of experiments, with the vehicle positioned adjacent to the riders, it was found to be preferable for a rider to be in front of the group regardless of the distance from the source, as this results in lower exposure to pollutants. This is likely linked with the complex aerodynamic field generated by the group of riders that can trap the vehicle exhaust fumes amongst the cyclists, hence increasing the exposure.
This research suggests that group riding should be considered when designing mitigation strategies to minimise cyclists exposure to road traffic pollution within urban environments, where busy and narrow cycle lanes often results in cyclists riding in line.
13. The urban heat island and thermal heat stress correlate with climate dynamics and energy budget variations in multiple urban environments
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 91, April 2023, 104422
Rising temperatures that occur in cities resulted in the urban heat island (UHI) which could also amplify the thermal heat stress, leading to climate-related human mortality. Our study investigated the UHI effect and thermal heat stress of heat index (HI) in the U.S. cities of arid, continental, temperate, and tropical climate zones. A long-term simulation of the UHI and HI was conducted using Community Land Model version 5.0 from 1990 to 2014. The relationship between UHI and HI with climate and energy flux variables are analyzed with divided study periods (1990–2000 and 2001–2014) for the urban impact assessment. Higher sensible heat was reported, particularly in the arid and tropical cities. Further, temperate climate showed increasing annual trends for UHI and ΔHI (urban-rural difference of HIs). The later period (2001–2014) demonstrated greater UHI and ΔHI trends, implying a notable change in climate and urban expansion. The UHI, ranging from 0.73 °C to 2.07 °C, was more intense compared with ΔHI, at 0.14 °C to 1.23 °C. The UHI was positively correlated with temperatures in hot cities, while precipitation is the main driver in the continental city. For ΔHI, the relationship with temperatures were dominant in all climate zones.
14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in PM10 and bulk deposition using Mosspheres: A pilot study in an urban environment
Environmental Research, Volume 223, 15 April 2023, 115406
Study air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) capturing the spatial variability of their concentrations is not economically feasible with conventional methods. In the present work we tested, for the first time and under real conditions, the suitability for intensive monitoring and mapping these contaminants of innovative, cost-effective passive air samplers known as "Mosspheres”. The Mosspheres, filled with a devitalised Sphagnum palustre L. moss clone, were placed in a 575 m. grid in a medium-sized European city for three months. Concentrations in the moss tissues of 15 priority PAHs, including benzo(a)pyrene, were determined and converted into PM10 and bulk deposition with the equations proposed in a recent study. Low concentrations of PAHs were detected, with only a few enriched points never exceeding the legal thresholds, near industrial areas and busy roads. Despite these low PAH concentrations, Mosspheres were able to detect spatial structure for several PAHs and high-resolution pollution maps were constructed for these compounds. The results prove the high sensitivity and suitability of Mosspheres for mapping PAH levels and for quantitative (i.e. PAHs with 4 or more rings) and qualitative (3-ring PAHs) monitoring. Thus, this study supports their widespread application and its potential inclusion in European Directives on air quality control.
15. A quasi-experimental analysis on the causal effects of COVID-19 on urban park visits: The role of park features and the surrounding built environment
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 82, April 2023, 127898
Although many studies have explored the correlations between mobility intervention policies and park use during COVID-19, only a few have used causal inference approaches to assessing the policy’s treatment effects and how such effects vary across park features and surrounding built environments. In this study, we develop an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design based on three-month mobile phone big data to infer the causal effects of mobility intervention policies on park visits in Shenzhen, including the first-level response (FLR) and return-to-work (RTW) order. The results show that the FLR caused an abrupt decline of 2.21 daily visits per park, with a gradual reduction rate of 0.54 per day, whereas the RTW order helped recover park visits with an immediate increase of 2.20 daily visits and a gradual growth rate of 0.94 visits per day. The results also show that the impact of COVID-19 on park visits exhibited social and spatial heterogeneities: the mobility-reduction effect was smaller in low-level parks (e.g., community-level parks) with small sizes but without sports facilities and water scenes, whereas parks surrounded by compact neighborhoods and land use were more impacted by the pandemic. These findings provide planners with important insights into resilient green space and sustainable neighborhood planning for the post-COVID era.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Chemical fingerprints and source resolution of atmospheric fine particles in an industrial harbor based on one-year intermittent field sampling data
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 868, 10 April 2023, 161335
This study investigated the spatiotemporal variation, chemical characteristics, and source resolution of PM2.5 in an East Asian seaport adjacent to industrial complex and urban area. Three representative harbor sites were selected to simultaneously sample 24-h PM2.5 once every 13 days in four seasons. A significant seasonal variation was observed with the highest and the lowest PM2.5 concentration in February (winter) and May (summer), respectively. High contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs) showed that SO2 and NOx emitted from neighboring combustion sources burning coal and heavy fuel oil (HFO) were the major precursors forming secondary inorganic PM2.5. High ratios of V/Ni and V/Cu were observed in summer (June~August) since the prevailing west and southwest winds from outer port carried ship emissions to inter port. The correlation of chemical fingerprints (V, Ni, V/Ni, Zn, nss-SO42−, OC) and the number of ships were high at the Zhung-He Site and moderate at the Qi-Ho Site. The Cl−, Na+, V, Ni, nss-SO42−, OC, and V/Ni of PM2.5 were co-influenced by ship missions and oceanic spray in the Kaohsiung Harbor. The influences were relatively higher for winds blown from the harbor areas than those blown from the industrial areas. Oppositely, the Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ca, Zn, and Al in PM2.5 were higher for winds blown from the industrial areas than those from the harbor areas. The CMB receptor modelling resolved that the major sources of PM2.5 were industrial missions, secondary aerosols, mobile sources, ship emissions, oceanic spray, fugitive dust, biomass burning, and organic carbon. Similar to Busan (South Korea), Brindisi (Italy), Lampedusa (Italy), and Barcelona (Spain), the contributions of ship emissions in the Kaohsiung Harbor were in the range of 7.4–7.8 %. Meanwhile, Kaohsiung Harbor was highly influenced by emissions from industrial areas and urban areas.
2. Relationships between soil and badger elemental concentrations across a heterogeneously contaminated landscape
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161684
Understanding the links between environmental and wildlife elemental concentrations is key to help assess ecosystem functions and the potential effects of legacy pollutants. In this study, livers from 448 European badgers (Meles meles) collected across the English Midlands were used to investigate the relationship between elemental concentrations in topsoils and wildlife. Mean soil sample concentrations within 2 km of each badger, determined using data from the British Geological Survey's ‘Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment’, were compared to badger liver elemental concentrations, focusing primarily on Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn. Generally, the badgers appeared to have elemental concentrations comparable with those published for other related animals, though Cu concentrations tended to be lower than expected. While there was no relationship between soil and badger liver concentrations for most biologically essential elements, biologically non-essential elements, specifically Pb, Cd, As, and Ag, were positively correlated between soil and badger livers. Lead and Cd, the elements with the strongest relationships between soils and badger livers, were primarily elevated in badgers collected in Derbyshire, a county with a millennia-long history of Pb mining and significant Pb and Cd soil pollution. Cadmium concentrations in badgers were also, on average, almost nine times higher than the local soil concentrations, likely due to Cd biomagnification in earthworms, a dietary staple of badgers. While badgers are good models for studying associations between soil and wildlife elemental concentrations, due to their diet, burrowing behaviours, and site fidelity, all flora and fauna local to human-modified environments could be exposed to and impacted by legacy pollutants.
3. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by combination of electro-Fenton and biosurfactant-assisted bioslurry process
Chemosphere, Volume 319, April 2023, 138013
Removing petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from polluted soil is challenging due to their low bioavailability and degradability. In this study, an experiment was carried out to treat soil polluted with petroleum hydrocarbon using a hybrid electro-Fenton (with BDD anode electrode) and biological processes stimulated with long-chain rhamnolipids (biosurfactants). Electro-Fenton treatment was applied as a pretreatment before the biological process to enhance PHC biodegradability, which would benefit the subsequent biological process. The effects of initial pH, hydroxide concentration, soil organic matter composition, PHCs intermediates during the electro-Fenton process, and total numbers of bacteria in the biological process were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. The results showed that the optimized electrolysis time for the electro-Fenton was 12 h. The change induced during pretreatment at a specified time was found suitable for the biological process stage and led to 93.6% PHC degradation in combination with the electro-Fenton-and-biological process after 72 h. The combined system's performance was almost 40% higher than individual electro-Fenton and biological treatments. GC-MS analysis confirms the formation of 9-octadecen-1-ol (Z), 2-heptadecene, 1-nonadecene, 1-heneicosene, and pentacosane as fragmentation during the PHCs degradation process. Thus, the electro-Fenton process as pretreatment combined with a biological process stimulated with rhamnolipids (biosurfactants) could be effectively applied to remediate soil polluted with PHCs. However, the system needs further research and investigation to optimize electrolysis time and biosurfactant dose to advance this approach in the soil remediation process.
4. A stepwise regression to identify relevant variables affecting the environmental impacts of clinker production
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136564
The construction sector contributes to 8% of carbon dioxide emissions, most of them caused by clinker production: in recent years, the efforts to reduce environmental impacts are growing. This paper investigates the environmental performances of clinker production and the factors driving emissions. For this purpose, the environmental impacts of 41 different grey clinkers produced in Italy from 2016 to 2021 certified by a third party according to the European standard EN 15804 have been assessed. Three input datasets (i.e., energy consumption, raw materials, and transport) have been investigated to identify the most significant variables that affected the environmental impact categories in the period 2016–2020: a stepwise regression allowed the identification of the optimal predictors to be included in the multiple regression models. The most significant variables are pet coke, fossil fuels, natural raw materials, and lorry transport. The identified models have been validated having regard to 2021 data. Therefore, for each impact category, multiple positive and negative dependencies which bear an effect on the environmental results have been quantified. The output provides proven quantitative results that can support cement producers to develop low-impacting clinker recipes.
5. The impact of digitalization on energy intensity in manufacturing sectors – A panel data analysis for Europe
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136598
Digitalization of industrial production, also known as Industry 4.0, may have profound environmental impacts, raising both hopes and fears with regards to the environmental friendliness of manufacturing. We investigate the relationship between Industry 4.0 and manufacturing energy intensity using panel data covering 15 countries and 8 manufacturing sectors or clusters for the years 2012–2020, providing insights for three different variables related to Industry 4.0. Firstly, we find a significant negative association (−0.059 in the preferred specification) between robot density and energy intensity. Secondly, we find a significant positive association (+0.025 in the preferred specification) between digital capital intensity and energy intensity. Lastly, the relationship between the share of companies employing ICT specialists and energy intensity is insignificant in our data sample. We thus highlight the potentially varying effects of Industry 4.0 on manufacturing energy intensity, encouraging further investigations to provide a more nuanced view of the environmental impacts of digital technology utilization in industry.
6. Preparation and Physio–Chemical characterisation of activated carbon derived from prosopis juliflora stem for the removal of methylene blue dye and heavy metal containing textile industry effluent
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136579
An experimental work endeavoured and presented in this article focuses on the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye and Heavy Metals (HM) such as lead and copper from textile industry effluent by the adsorption process with ZnCl2-activated carbon. Initially, carbon was prepared using the cheapest and environmentally hazardous precursor of Prosopis Juliflora plant (Stem) and called Prosopis Juliflora Stem Carbon (PJSC). Then the PJSC was chemically activated by impregnating ZnCl2 with a ratio of 1:0.5 at a temperature of 800 °C in muffle furnace about 1 h and named as ZnCl2-activated Prosopis Juliflora Stem Carbon (ZAPJSC). The physio–chemical characteristics such as yield, pH, conductivity, bulk density, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon content, as well as solubility in acid and water were calculated. Surface textures of PJSC and ZAPJSC were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); functional group characterisation was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR); elements in the adsorbents were identified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX); and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis was carried out to find the surface area, pore volume, and pore radius of the adsorbents. Surface area was found to be 252.730 m2/g which showed that ZAPJSC was having enormous bores meanwhile surface area of PJSC was 85.508 m2/g. In this context, the central composite design (CCD) approach-based response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to investigate and optimise the effects of process parameters on the adsorption of MB by ZAPJSC. The optimum level of process parameters such as contact time of 5.4 min and dosage of 85 mg were achieved with MB adsorption efficiency of 99.05%. Further, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to fit the present experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was perfectly fit to provide a realistic description of adsorption kinetics. Equilibrium isotherms were investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Langmuir equation was found to best represent the equilibrium data for MB-ZAPJSC system. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of MB on ZAPJSC (with a more negative Gibbs free energy value) was more favoured. Next, batch adsorption experiments for methylene blue dye and heavy metals (lead, copper, manganese, iron, cobalt) were carried out as parameters of effect of contact time and adsorbent dosage. Lastly, ZAPJSC adsorbent showed a reuse efficiency of 73.34% after four consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles in MB removal. These results indicate that the ZAPJSC could provide base for more low-cost activated carbon to be used as adsorbents for MB dye removal and heavy metals.
7. Carbon neutrality and green technology innovation efficiency in Chinese textile industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 395, 1 April 2023, 136453
The present trend of rapid expansion in the textile industry is highly polluting and energy intensive, and the government intervention is necessitated. This study develops a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, examines the green technology innovation of listed textile enterprises, and explores its determining factors in order to address the issue of carbon emission reduction in the textile sector. The research sample for this study is obtained from 42 listed textile enterprises from 2017 to 2020. The research demonstrates: (1) the green technology innovation efficiency of domestic listed textile enterprises remains marginal; (2) from 2017 to 2020, the mean value of total factor productivity (TFP) and its decomposition index of listed enterprises in China's textile industry exhibit a downward trend, primarily as a consequence of the slowdown of technological progress; (3) the green technology of the entire industry is in recession from 2017 to 2020; (4) green technology innovation efficiency is inversely correlated with government subsidies, but positively correlated with net profit and asset size of enterprises. In light of the above information, enterprises should boost their ability to innovate with green technologies and implement a research and development (R&D) management development strategy that gives equal consideration to both economic and environmental benefits.
8. How does environmental regulation affect industrial structure upgrading? Evidence from prefecture-level cities in China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117267
This study examines whether and how environmental regulation affects industrial structure upgrading with a panel data of 270 cities between 2006 and 2019. We first adopt two indicators—rationalization and advancement—to quantify industrial structure upgrading and then use kernel density estimation as well as trend surface analysis to investigate these indicators’ spatial-temporal pattern. With a spatial Durbin model, we find that environmental regulation has inverted U-shaped and U-shaped direct impacts on rationalization and advancement, and inverted U-shaped indirect impacts on both rationalization and advancement in neighboring regions. Moreover, our subsample tests demonstrate that environmental regulation has various impacts on industrial structure upgrading in different regions. Last, a mediating effect analysis shows that technological innovation is an important path for environmental regulation to promote advancement. Our study provides new evidence for the Porter hypothesis, and offers suggestions for the authorities to formulate and optimize environmental regulation intensity.
9. Electrostimulation triggers an increase in cross-niche microbial associations toward enhancing organic nitrogen wastewater treatment
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117301
As an efficient wastewater pretreatment biotechnology, electrostimulated hydrolysis acidification (eHA) has been used to accelerate the removal of refractory pollutants, which is closely related to the effects of electrostimulation on microbial interspecies associations. However, the ecological processes underpinning such linkages remain unresolved, especially for the microbial communities derived from different niches, such as the electrode surface and plankton. Herein, the principles of cross-niche microbial associations and community assembly were investigated using molecular ecological network and phylogenetic bin-based null model analysis (iCAMP) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The electrostimulated planktonic sludge and electrode biofilm displayed significantly (P < 0.05) 1.67 and 1.53 times higher organic nitrogen pollutant (azo dye Alizarin Yellow R) degradation efficiency than non-electrostimulation group, and the corresponding microbial community composition and structure were significantly (P < 0.05) changed. Electroactive bacteria and functional degraders were enriched in the electrode biofilm and planktonic sludge, respectively. Notably, electrostimulation strengthened the synergistic microbial associations (1.8 times more links) between sludge and biofilm members. Additionally, both electrostimulation and cross-niche microbial associations induced greater importance of deterministic assembly. Overall, this study highlights the specificity of cross-electrode surface microbial associations and ecological processes with electrostimulation and advances our understanding of the manipulation of sludge microbiomes in engineered wastewater treatment systems.
10. A new strategy for treating Pb2+ and Zn2+ pollution with industrial waste derivatives Humin
Environmental Pollution, Volume 322, 1 April 2023, 121236
Metal pollution caused by industrial waste accumulation is a long-term and far-reaching problem. Humin (HM), as a highly condensed organic component insoluble in alkaline or water solution, is often discarded as humic acid industrial waste. However, the abundant active functional groups in HM reported by some researches make it possible for HM to remove metals. In this study, a waste reuse strategy was proposed to reduce the pressure of industrial metal pollution on the environment. HM was obtained from lignite waste residue. Scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum and Fourier infrared spectroscopy, combined with the adsorption models were employed to reveal the mechanism of HM adsorption. The results showed that HM had multiple adsorption mechanism and high biological stability. The adsorption capacity of HM to Zn2+ and Pb2+ were 194.88 mg/g and 289.59 mg/g respectively. HM adsorbed Zn2+ mainly by physical multilayer adsorption. And the adsorption of Pb2+ by HM was mainly a monolayer chemical reaction, which depended on its active functional groups and the exchange of valence electrons. Notably, HM could simultaneously remove Pb2+ and Zn2+ and almost did not affect its original adsorption capacity to single ions. These results will provide a new strategy for the treatment of metal pollution in the future and alleviate the pressure of multiple metal pollution of the environment.
11. Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in an industrialized city using dispersion-normalized, multi-time resolution factor analyses
Environmental Pollution, Volume 323, 15 April 2023, 121281
Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data were collected in the lower City of Hamilton, Ontario to apportion the sources of this pollutant over an 18-month period. Hamilton has complex topographical features that may result in worsened air pollution within the lower city, thus, dispersion-normalized, multi-time resolution factor analysis (DN-MT-FA) was used to identify and quantify contributions of factors in a manner that reduced the influence of local meteorology. These factors were secondary organic aerosols type 1 (SOA_1), particulate nitrate (pNO3), particulate sulphate (pSO4), primary traffic organic matter (PTOM), Steel/metal processing and vehicular road dust emissions (Steel & Mobile) and, secondary organic aerosols type 2 (SOA_2) with origins ranging from mainly regional to mainly local. Factors that were mainly local (PTOM, Steel & Mobile, SOA_2) contributed up to 17% of the average PM2.5 mass while mixed local/regional factors (pNO3, pSO4) made up 43% on average, indicating the potential for further reduction of harmful PM concentrations locally. Of particular interest from a health protection perspective, was the composition of PM2.5 on days when an exceedance of the 24-hr WHO air quality guideline for this pollutant was observed. In general, SOA_1 was found to drive summer exceedances while pNO3 dominated in the winter. During the summer period, SOA_1 was attributable to wildfires in the northern parts of Canada while local traffic sources in winter contributed to the high levels of pNO3. While local, industrial factors only had minor relative mass contributions during exceedances, they are high in highly oxidized organic species (SOA_2) and toxic metals (Steel & Mobile). Thus, they are likely to have more impacts on human health. The methods and results described in this work will be useful in understanding prevalent sources of particulate matter pollution in the ambient air in the presence of complex topography and meteorological effects.
12. Interface engineering toward self-corrosion inhibited alkaline aluminum-air battery via optimized electrolyte system
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Available online 12 April 2023, 170108
In this manuscript, an introduced ionic liquids-ethylene glycol-KOH electrolyte system is proposed. Theoretical calculations and experiments show that ionic liquids with stronger hydrophobicity provide better corrosion inhibition for their spontaneous adsorption behavior and water molecule segregation. In this process, the imidazole ring cations play a major role. The electrolyte system reconstructs the Al/electrolyte interface with poor H2O, thus has lower self-corrosion rate for [BMIM]PF6 and contributes to the uniform dissolution of Al anode. Additionally, discharge performance of the full-cell feature same trend, endowing an outstanding capacity of 1971 mAh g-1 and anode utilization of 66.2% in alkaline [BMIM]PF6-ethylene glycol electrolyte. In terms of maintaining the activity of the Al-6061 anode whilst keeping low corrosion rate level, the proposed electrolyte system seems to be potential alternative.
13. Investigation of how pressure influences the thermal decomposition behavior of azodicarbonamide
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Available online 12 April 2023, 105062
Azodicarbonamide (ADC) is a type of azo compound with outstanding application performance, it is always used as a blowing agent in the production of foamed plastics. Based on previous studies, it has been considered harmless in its practical application process. Nevertheless, our research has overturned this standpoint and denoted the special exothermic behavior of ADC under specific use processes, especially when it was placed in a high-pressure system. In this study, a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer (STA) was employed to preliminarily evaluate the thermal stability of ADC under atmospheric pressure. Followed with calorimetric experiments by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP DSC), the exothermic behaviors of ADC under different initial furnace pressures were investigated. The obtained results revealed that the thermal decomposition rate of ADC linearly increases along with increasing testing pressure, which shows a highly autocatalytic characteristic. The peak power of DSC curve breathtakingly reached 73 W/g when the initial testing pressure was set at 4 MPa, and the overall decomposition heat reached 1261 J/g with the scanning rate at 4 °C/min. Furthermore, the decomposition mechanism, thermal hazards, and explosion potential were comprehensively evaluated in this study for the first time.
14. Methodology for Natech coupling risk assessment using correlative multi-criteria decision-making method
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Available online 12 April 2023, 105060
When a natural disaster occurs, it may damage multiple industrial facilities in a certain area at the same time, and the resulting Natech events may have an impact on the surrounding industrial facilities, generating coupling risk. In this study, the assessment of Natech events coupling risk is conducted using the method of correlated multi-criteria decision-making, and the knowledge of fuzzy measures is introduced to solve the uncertainty problem in Natech coupling risk. Natech Coupling Risk Index is constructed to involve physical and functional facilities. The concept of equivalent population is proposed to compare the risks generated by physical facilities and functional facilities. And economic indicators are added to calculate the comprehensive risk value. The purpose of this contribution is to enable local government managers to use their expertise and resources and the existing risk assessment of the plants themselves and rely on the scoring of experts limitedly to quickly and easily identify potential high Natech risk areas. In the calculation process of coupling risk, the government can also take the lead to promote information communication between different plants and other industrial subjects. The proposed method was applied in a realistic chemical industry area in Guangzhou, China and in a hypothetical town. The result shows that the physical risk may be transferred to the population and economy through the coupling between industrial facilities and the functional link between functional facilities and population and economy.
15. Microwave-Driven Upcycling of Single-Use Plastics using Zeolite Catalyst
Chemical Engineering Journal, Available online 12 April 2023, 142918
The chemical upcycling of plastic represents an attractive approach of using plastic waste as feedstock in promoting the circular economy and decarbonizing the chemical industry. Here we report a one-step microwave-assisted heterogeneous catalysis approach for the deconstruction of plastic into valuable monomers. A high BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylene) yield of 44.7 % was achieved using ZSM-5 catalyst at a low temperature of 300 °C under atmospheric pressure. The very nature of microwave initiation enhances the transformation of intermediates via the desirable cyclization/ aromatization routes whilst preventing the random thermal cracking of plastic. This proof-of-concept heralds an exciting new era of applications for the responsible and sustainable recycling of waste plastic, in which plastic are efficiently converted back to high-value petrochemical products.
16. The role of calorific waste in transformation of iron and steel industry towards sustainable productionResources, Conservation and Recycling
Volume 191, April 2023, 106899, Resources, Conservation and Recycling
The iron and steel industry, due to its economic potential and importance for the economy, is classified in most countries in the world as an industry of strategic importance. Steel and steel products are the basic material in engineering applications, used by most sectors of the world's economies. The role of this material is therefore of particular importance. On the other hand, the iron and steel industry is one of the most energy-intensive and carbon-intensive industries in the world. It is worth noting, however, that in the face of energy and environmental pressure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality, the iron and steel industry has great potential and opportunities to increase its energy efficiency, reduce carbon dioxide emissions and, as a result, promote sustainable development. Nevertheless, numerous scientific works indicate that the transition in the metallurgical industry to sustainable production towards low-emission production processes is unfortunately, costly and difficult as it requires the implementation of new technological procedures as well as adaptation works and extensive tests. Nonetheless, it is necessary to incur these costs in the near future.
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