Về quản lý môi trường
- Ô nhiễm vi mô/nhựa nano hậu đại dịch: Hướng tới quản lý bền vững
- Các số liệu về chế độ xem phố và độ xanh truyền thống với thời gian ngồi của người lớn trong môi trường sống có mật độ cao ở Hồng Kông: So sánh các mối liên hệ, ô nhiễm không khí và vai trò của tiếng ồn cũng như sự không đồng nhất về dân số
- Belize Blue Carbon: Thiết lập ước tính trữ lượng carbon quốc gia cho hệ sinh thái rừng ngập mặn
- Thúc đẩy đánh giá dấu chân nước: Kết hợp các tác động của ô nhiễm và khan hiếm nước
- Những tiến bộ gần đây trong các phương pháp tiếp cận bền vững dựa trên vật liệu nano để giảm thiểu các chất ô nhiễm hữu cơ mới nổi
- Phát triển cơ sở hạ tầng nước bền vững: Nhận thức đúng đắn về sự cố đường ống nước
- Thu hồi phát thải CO2 từ các nhà máy nhiệt điện than dựa trên quan sát vệ tinh OCO-2/3 và mô hình chùm khói Gaussian
- Một cách tiếp cận cấu hình để giải thích hành vi trách nhiệm với môi trường của các công ty ở các nền kinh tế mới nổi trong ngành công nghiệp 4.0
- Đại dịch Covid-19 trong bối cảnh nhận thức về biến đổi khí hậu và hành vi tiết kiệm tài nguyên tại các quốc gia thuộc Liên minh Châu Âu
- An ninh lương thực và suy thoái môi trường: Chất lượng thể chế và nguồn nhân lực có tạo nên sự khác biệt?
Về môi trường đô thị
- Phân tích phân tầng chính để xác định lợi ích sức khỏe của việc giảm ô nhiễm không khí trong nhà trong một can thiệp môi trường ngẫu nhiên ở bệnh nhân COPD: Kết quả từ nghiên cứu Không khí sạch
- Phương pháp LCZ hiệu quả hơn phương pháp LUCC truyền thống trong việc giải thích mối quan hệ giữa cảnh quan đô thị và các hạt khí quyển
- Đặc tính của Hydrocacbon thơm đa vòng (PAH) liên quan đến sol khí mịn trong bầu không khí xung quanh của môi trường đô thị có độ cao lớn ở Sikkim Himalaya
- Một đánh giá không gian tạm thời về chất lượng môi trường trong quá trình đô thị hóa ở Ethiopia
- Quản lý nước mưa đô thị ở cấp độ trung bình: Đánh giá các xu hướng, thách thức và cách tiếp cận
- Quy hoạch phân vùng hiện đại so với cấu trúc cảnh quan truyền thống: Động lực và tương tác dịch vụ hệ sinh thái trong cảnh quan văn hóa đô thị hóa nhanh chóng
- Xả nước thải của nhà máy xử lý nước thải làm giảm sự đa dạng của cộng đồng vi khuẩn và sự phức tạp của mạng lưới trong trầm tích ven biển đô thị hóa
- Cộng đồng hình thái đô thị hỗn hợp tự thích ứng (HUMC): Môi trường chung và can thiệp mềm để quản trị đô thị bền vững
- Ăn mòn khí quyển của đồng T2 và đồng thau H62 tiếp xúc trong môi trường đô thị
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Ảnh hưởng của trách nhiệm xã hội bên trong và bên ngoài doanh nghiệp đối với sự hài lòng trong công việc của nhân viên trong thời kỳ đại dịch: Quan điểm của ngành thiết bị y tế
- Một nghiên cứu đánh giá về những thách thức và tiến độ của việc thử nghiệm chất ức chế ăn mòn trong các điều kiện khắc nghiệt trong ngành dầu khí
- Phân loại khối lượng công việc cho các ngành nguy hiểm: Mô hình ngữ nghĩa của dữ liệu sinh lý đa phương thức
- Tổng quan về xử lý nước thải ngành cao su: Những tiến bộ gần đây và triển vọng trong tương lai
- Bài toán lập kế hoạch cửa hàng việc làm linh hoạt trong Công nghiệp 5.0: Khảo sát về tái hòa nhập con người, xem xét môi trường và cải thiện khả năng phục hồi
- Vai trò của chất hoạt động bề mặt, polyme, hạt nano và sự kết hợp của chúng trong việc ức chế sự lắng đọng và kết tủa của sáp: Đánh giá
- Đặc tính của các mảnh xơ được giải phóng từ hàng dệt polyester trong quá trình phong hóa UV
- Hiệu quả sản xuất và tiềm năng giảm chi phí của các nhà máy nhiên liệu diesel sinh học sử dụng dầu ăn phế thải tại Nhật Bản
- Xanh hóa ngành công nghiệp: Cơ hội và thách thức trong tiếp cận điện năng cho các doanh nghiệp công nghiệp Na Uy
- Thiết kế lại trong ngành dệt may: Đề xuất phương pháp đưa tư duy tuần hoàn vào quy trình phát triển sản phẩm
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QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Post-pandemic micro/nanoplastic pollution: Toward a sustainable management
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 867, 1 April 2023, 161390
The global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive plastic pollution from the use of personal protection equipment (PPE), with polypropylene (PP) being a major component. Owing to the weathering of exposed PPEs, such contamination causes microplastic (MP) and nanoplastic (NP) pollution and is extremely likely to act as a vector for the transportation of COVID-19 from one area to another. Thus, a post-pandemic scenario can forecast with certainty that a significant amount of plastic garbage combined with MP/NP formation has an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Therefore, updating traditional waste management practices, such as landfilling and incineration, is essential for making plastic waste management sustainable to avert this looming catastrophe. This study investigates the post-pandemic scenario of MP/NP pollution and provides an outlook on an integrated approach to the recycling of PP-based plastic wastes. The recovery of crude oil, solid char, hydrocarbon gases, and construction materials by approximately 75, 33, 55, and 2 %, respectively, could be achieved in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the development of biodegradable and self-sanitizing smart PPEs has been identified as a promising alternative for drastically reducing plastic pollution.
2. PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of a megacity in eastern China: Source apportionment and cancer risk assessment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161792
Ninety-six fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples covering four seasons from October 2020 to August 2021 were collected at a ‘super’ site in Hangzhou, a megacity in eastern China. These samples were analyzed to determine the sources and potential cancer risks to humans of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average concentrations of the PAHs in PM2.5 in autumn, winter, spring, and summer were 8.35 ± 4.90, 27.9 ± 13.6, 8.3 ± 5.97, and 1.05 ± 0.50 ng/m3, respectively, and with an annual average of 11.9 ± 13.2 ng/m3. The source apportionment by positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that, based on the yearly average, the major sources of PAHs were traffic emissions (38.2 %), coal combustion (28.9 %), coke (21.7 %), and volatilization (11.1 %). Strong correlations between high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and high-molecular-weight PAHs in winter could be attributed to incomplete combustion. Long-range transport of air from the sea to the southeast resulted in low concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and low-molecular-weight PAHs in summer. Trajectory clustering and the potential source contribution function both indicated that the Yangtze River Delta was the main source region of PAHs for PM2.5 in Hangzhou in spring and summer. In autumn and winter, it was dominated by long-range transport from northern China. Lifetime lung cancer risk assessment revealed that the PAHs in PM2.5 impose moderate human health risks in Hangzhou due to traffic emissions. The results of this study provide important information for policymakers to establish abatement strategies to reduce PAH emissions in Hangzhou, and perhaps other urban centers across China.
3. Street-view and traditional greenness metrics with adults' sitting time in high-density living in Hong Kong: Comparing associations, air pollution and noise roles, and population heterogeneity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161778
Emerging evidence suggests neighborhood greenness is associated with physical activity; however, the sitting-specific associations with multi-source greenness metrics remain unclear, especially in high-density cities.
This cross-sectional study examined: 1) the associations of street-view greenness (SVG) and traditional greenness metrics (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetable Index (NDVI) and park density) with sitting time; 2) the potential moderating/mediating roles of objective/perceived air pollution and perceived roadside noise; and 3) how the associations vary by demographics and socioeconomic status.
Interview survey data of 1977 adults in Hong Kong from 2014 and 2015 was linked to environmental data. Using an object-based image classification algorithm, SVG was derived from Google Street View images, capturing human-viewed street-level greenery. NDVI was derived from Landsat 8 satellite images using the normalized difference between the near-infrared and red bands. Park density was calculated by point density. In the main analyses including regressions, parallel mediation, interaction, and stratified models, the environmental metrics were measured within a 1000-m Euclidean buffer of residence.
SVG and park density were negatively associated with sitting time after adjusting for covariates including physical activity while NDVI was not significantly associated with sitting time, and results were robust with 800–1800 m Euclidean and 1400–1800 m network distance. Greenness-sitting associations were not moderated/mediated by perceived air pollution/roadside noise while SVG-sitting associations were moderated by objective NO2, O3, and PM2.5 and mediated by O3. SVG-sitting associations differed by age, having under-school-aged children, birthplace, education, and occupation type while associations between traditional greenness metrics and prolonged sitting showed no significant population heterogeneity.
SVG appears to be more accurate in estimating exposure than traditional metrics to reflect greenness-sitting associations, objective air pollution moderating and mediating roles, and population heterogeneity, which emphasizes the importance of street-level greenness planning for health promotion in terms of reducing sitting time.
4. Belize Blue Carbon: Establishing a national carbon stock estimate for mangrove ecosystems
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161829
Mangrove ecosystems are among the most economically and ecologically valuable marine environments in the world. Mangroves are effective at long-term carbon storage within their sediments and are estimated to hold 12 billion metric tons of carbon worldwide. These ecosystems are therefore vitally important for carbon sequestration and, by extension, climate change mitigation. As part of the Paris Agreement, participating countries agree to provide plans to reduce their carbon emissions, or nationally determined contributions (NDCs). However, despite mangroves being recognized as important nature-based solutions, many countries still lack national data on carbon stocks and must use global or regional averages, which may not be sufficiently accurate. Here, we present the national carbon stock estimate of mangrove ecosystems for the NDC of Belize, acquired through a collaborative approach involving government agencies and NGOs. We conducted a comprehensive sampling of mangroves across the country, including a range of mangrove ecotypes. The mean total ecosystem carbon stock (TECS) for the nation was 444.1 ± 21.0 Mg C ha−1, with 74.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha−1 in biomass stocks, and 369.7 ± 17.7 Mg C ha−1 in sediment stocks. Combining these data with a recent mapping effort, we provide the first national comprehensive mangrove carbon stock estimate of 25.7 Tg C. The national mean from this study varies from previous global analyses, which can under- or overestimate TECS by as much as 0.6 Tg C and 16.5 Tg C, respectively, depending on the study. These data supported the NDC update of Belize, and can be used to inform the country's mangrove protection and restoration commitments. The collaborative approach of this work should serve as a blueprint for other countries seeking to conserve natural blue carbon sinks as a strategy to achieve their climate targets.
5. Advancing water footprint assessments: Combining the impacts of water pollution and scarcity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161910
Several water footprint indicators have been developed to curb freshwater stress. Volumetric footprints support water allocation decisions and strive to increase water productivity in all sectors. In contrast, impact-oriented footprints are used to minimize the impacts of water use on human health, ecosystems, and freshwater resources. Efforts to combine both perspectives in a harmonized framework have been undertaken, but common challenges remain, such as pollution and ecosystems impacts modelling. To address these knowledge gaps, we build upon a water footprint assessment framework proposed at conceptual level to expand and operationalize relevant features. We propose two regionalized indicators, namely the water biodiversity footprint and the water resource footprint, that aggregate all impacts from toxic chemicals, nutrients, and water scarcity. The first impact indicator represents the impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The second one models the competition for freshwater resources and its consequences on freshwater availability. As part of the framework, we complement the two indicators with a sustainability assessment representing the levels above which ecological and human freshwater needs are no longer sustained. We test our approach assessing the sustainability of water use in the European Union in 2010. Water stress hampers 15 % of domestic, agricultural and industrial water demand, mainly due to irrigation and pesticide emissions in southern Europe. Moreover, damage to the freshwater ecosystems is widespread and mostly resulting from chemical emissions from industry. Approximately 5 % of the area is exceeding the regional sustainability limits for ecosystems and human water requirements altogether. Concerted efforts from all sectors are needed to reduce the impacts of emissions and water consumption under the sustainability limits. These advances are considered an important step toward the harmonization of volumetric and impact-oriented approaches to achieve consistent and holistic water footprinting as well as contributing to strengthen the policy relevance of water footprint assessments.
6. Recent advances in nanomaterials based sustainable approaches for mitigation of emerging organic pollutants
Chemosphere, Volume 321, April 2023, 138072
Emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) are a category of pollutants that are relatively new to the environment and recently garnered a lot of attention. The majority of EOPs includes endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), pesticides, dyes and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Exposure to contaminated water has been linked to an increase in incidences of malnutrition, intrauterine growth retardation, respiratory illnesses, liver malfunctions, eye and skin diseases, and fatalities. Consequently, there is a critical need for wastewater remediation technologies which are effective, reliable, and economical. Conventional wastewater treatment methods have several shortcomings that can be addressed with the help of nanotechnology. Unique characteristics of nanomaterials (NMs) make them intriguing and efficient alternative in wastewater treatment strategies. This review emphasis on the occurrence of divers emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) in water and their effective elimination via different NMs based methods with in-depth mechanisms. Furthermore, it also delves the toxicity assessment of NMs and critical challenges, which are crucial steps for practical implementations.
7. Development of sustainable water infrastructure: A proper understanding of water pipe failure
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136653
The need for sustainable water infrastructure systems continues to grow as clean water is essential for daily life. Despite efforts to sustain water distribution networks (WDNs), they often experience frequent failures, leading to several environmental, social, and economic consequences. Previous studies have investigated the causes of water pipe failure in different contexts. However, a comprehensive and holistic understanding of these causes is lacking in the literature. Therefore, this study contributes to the existing knowledge by presenting 1) a scientometric analysis of the previous literature, 2) a systematic discussion of the causes, 3) an Analytical Hierarchy Process model and fault tree logic to prioritize and map the causes, respectively, and 4) an overview of techniques used in developing failure prediction models. The scientometric analysis reveals that little attention has been paid generally to the operational causes of water pipe failure. The same trend was supported by the systematic review, which divides a total of 33 causes into three main categories: pipe-related, environment-related, and operation-related causes. This study gives insights to academics and practitioners working in this domain on the contributions of various factors to the failure of water pipes, which would be useful in designing a sustainable and resilient WDN.
8. Does carbon emission trading mitigate firm's default risk? Evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136627
Reducing greenhouse emissions and mitigating the existential threat of climate change for the environment and ecological well-being have become a global consensus. On one hand, facing certain pressure of carbon emission reduction, the default risk of firms may increase due to higher costs of environmental regulations. On the other hand, firms' default risk may decrease as firms' sustainable development could tradeoff the transition costs of firms. Under such uncertain conclusions, we investigate the impact of carbon emissions trading (CET) system in China on firms' default risk. Using panel data of Chinese listed firms during 2010–2019, the difference-in-differences method (DID) is adopted to study the influence of CET on firm's default risk. The results show that the CET significantly reduces the default risk of firms. Further analysis shows that this improvement of firms' financial stability is affected by industrial heterogeneity, external financing constraint heterogeneity and firms' own characteristics such as innovation capacity. Overall, our findings not only expand the economic consequences of environmental regulations, but also provide implications on how to improve the Chinses CET pilot policy and construct a national CET market.
9. Zoning technology for the management of ecological and clean small-watersheds via k-means clustering and entropy-weighted TOPSIS: A case study in Beijing
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136449
In the functional zoning and comprehensive management of ecological and clean small-watersheds (ECSWs), measures to increase the carrying capacity of the environment should be taken around water resources protection and ecological risk governance. An objective zoning technology for ECSWs was recommended in this paper to tackle problems such as soil erosion and water pollution efficiently. Taking eight typical ECSWs in Changping District of Beijing as a case study, the essential data, including the land use, digital elevation, administrative division, leaf area index and annual precipitation, can be initially accessed. Subsequently, two topographic features (i.e., elevation and slope) and seven ecosystem disservices (i.e., collapse risks, debris flow risks, nitrogen pollution, phosphorus pollution, sediment export, quick flow and surface runoff) were evaluated and quantified based on Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Geographic Information System (GIS). The quantitative attribute matrix was herein operated as a calculation object of k-means clustering and entropy-weighted TOPSIS for the classification and delineation. According to the analysis results, the category and hierarchical control zones of each ECSW were determined, deducing the preliminary management layout. Several practical measures that have been verified to be available were marked in the layout map based on the high-resolution remote sensing technology, contributing to guiding the high-efficiency construction of ECSWs in the future.
10. CO2 emissions retrieval from coal-fired power plants based on OCO-2/3 satellite observations and a Gaussian plume model
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136525
The CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants are a major source of carbon emissions in China. However, the existing emission inventory does not accurately reflect current emissions because of a lag in the statistical data and the accuracy limit for emissions factor. This study aims to provide a method for estimating CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants based on an improved Gaussian plume model and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2/3 satellite. We quantified CO2 emissions from six coal-fired power plants (>3000 MW) in China using 14 plumes from the OCO-2 (2014.09.06–2021.10.01) and OCO-3 (2019.08.06–2021.10.01) datasets. Four of the plumes are in good agreement with those from co-located the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument measurements of co-emitted NO2. The estimated CO2 emissions ranged from 31.81 to 99.71 kt/d with correlation coefficient of 0.47–0.95. The uncertainty of individual plumes varied from 8% to 42% (1σ), with wind speed being the greatest source of uncertainty, and the average XCO2 enhancement of all power plants in this study is less than 1 ppm when the wind speed increases to about 10 m/s. After validation, our results show high agreement with the existing emission inventory. However, this study found that the Carbon Monitoring for Action may have underestimated the CO2 emissions from Tuoketuo due to the timing of the update, and carbon brief may have underestimated the emissions from Wujiaqu by ignoring the high emission factor of lignite. This study helps monitor and estimate important point source carbon emissions, which is not only a prerequisite for the power industry to carry out carbon reduction efforts, but also helps develop specific regional carbon reduction policies, which are important for reducing anthropogenic carbon emissions.
11. Spatial disequilibrium and influencing factors of carbon emission intensity of construction land in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 396, 10 April 2023, 136464
Revealing the spatial disequilibrium and influencing factors of carbon emission intensity of construction land (CEICL) is of great significance for improving the sustainable utilization of urban land, and helping to achieve global green and low-carbon development. This study estimates the CEICL of 285 cities in China from 2008 to 2019. Then, this paper analyzes the spatial disequilibrium of CEICL, and discusses the spatial heterogeneity of the influencing factors at different levels of CEICL. The results show that the CEICL has an inverted "U-shape”, increasing first and decreasing later, with most cities concentrating on 0.3 million tons/km2 and some cities breaking through 3 million tons/km2. Also, the results imply a relatively large gap in CEICL among cities, despite a gradually narrowing trend of this gap. Among regions, the average annual difference of CEICL is about 0.1–0.4 million tons/km2 for cities of the same scale. Within regions, CEICL decreases with increasing city scale, and the agglomeration characteristics of high-high and low-low values within regions are significant and stable, and the spatial lock-in effect is strong. Moreover, the results infer a negative spatial spillover effect in CEICL in China, and the significant spatial heterogeneity effect of the seven factors (i.e., population agglomeration intensity, industrial structure upgrading, land development intensity, land investment intensity, economic output level, technological R&D and innovation, and ecological resource endowment) on CEICL in cities of different regions and scales. This study provides a scientific basis and empirical support for developing differentiated and feasible carbon reduction policies based on cities' own characteristics.
12. Emphasizing egalitarianism in the allocation of China's provincial carbon emission allowances
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 395, 1 April 2023, 136403
China plans to allocate the provincial carbon emission allowances (CEA), but the CEA scheme has not been determined. Uncertain decisionmaker preferences lead to the uncertainty of the CEA scheme, hindering provinces from setting climate targets. Thus, we investigate different CEA schemes under various preferences from the fairness—efficiency perspective. We developed a CEA scheme set (consisting of 176851 CEA schemes) based on four criteria: egalitarianism, capacity, responsibility, and efficiency. By constructing a desirability evaluation index, we find the most desirable CEA schemes corresponding to various preferences from the CEA scheme set. The results show that egalitarianism can co-improve fairness and efficiency on top of the existing CEA scheme. Relying mainly on egalitarianism supplemented by efficiency is a desirable allocation mode for any decisionmaker. Regardless of the preferences, these situations generally exist: 1) Guangdong and Shandong will get the highest CEA; 2) Municipalities directly under the central government and less developed provinces will get the lowest CEA; 3) North, Northwest, and Northeast China will bear high emission reduction pressures before 2030. These findings will provide essential guidance for decisionmakers in formulating CEA schemes and provinces in formulating emission reduction policies.
13. A configuration approach to explain corporate environmental responsibility behavior of the emerging economies firms at industry 4.0
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 395, 1 April 2023, 136383
The fundamental integration of corporate environmental responsibility (CER) driven by the increasing irreversibility of climate change has been evolving but still is insufficient in emerging economies. Hence, our objectives are to know the combinational effect of the factors to determine a firm's high allocation of monetary resources to environmental issues and understand the role of the digital transformation process in the era of Industry 4.0 and its interaction with the internal-external variables proposed. In this sense, we conducted a comparative analysis of two representative emerging economies in Latin America, considering the external context of the companies (countries' competitiveness levels). We perform a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to focus on multiple conjectural causations that lead to the same outcome. The results show that small firms in a less competitive country carry out high environmental expenditures based on value creation rather than the regulatory environment. On the other hand, large firms in a highly competitive country carry out high environmental commitments to enhance legitimacy and improve external image. Finally, we found that the relationship between digitalization adoption and corporate environmental responsibility depends on a country's informality level. Thus, countries with high informality cannot successfully impact digitization and generate sustainable solutions.
14. The Covid-19 pandemic in context of climate change perception and resource-saving behavior in the European Union countries
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 395, 1 April 2023, 136433
The resource-saving behavior in the recent period is escalating particularly due to the energy and prices crises in all of the European Union (EU). The COVID-19 pandemic not only caused changes in health concerns but also in environmental awareness and behavior. Thus, this paper aims to reveal whether the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the resource-saving behavior, and how this pandemic changed the climate change perception and personal responsibility in the EU countries. Referring to two surveys conducted in all EU countries in 2019 and 2021, the results revealed that the level of climate change perception during this period significantly decreased in all EU. Meanwhile, the level of responsibility placed on the government to solve the climate change problem increased the most. A level of the personal responsibility increased negligibly. Considering resource-saving behaviors, only the lesser usage of disposable items from 2019 to 2021 increased statistically significantly. The results of an analysis of the main determinants of resource-saving behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic period revealed that personal responsibility and the climate change solution's benefit for health positively and significantly determined all the analyzed actions. The climate change perception and climate change solution's benefit for the economy statistically significantly influenced waste reduction, the purchase of efficient appliances, and the usage of pro-environmental transportation mode instead of personal cars. Health benefits instead of the economic benefits statistically significantly contributed to the resource-saving behaviors, except for actions that require more monetary investments. The satisfaction with the COVID-19 pandemic management had an insignificant negative impact on all resource-saving actions. Thus, the tools assigned to manage this pandemic did not motivate people to save natural resources.
15. Spatiotemporal evolution of land cover changes and landscape ecological risk assessment in the Yellow River Basin, 2015–2020
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 332, 15 April 2023, 117149
The Yellow River Basin (YRB), which has faced severe ecological issues since ancient times, is one of the largest and most difficult-to-govern basins in the world. Recently, all provincial governments within the basin have individually enacted a series of measures to protect the Yellow River; however, the lack of central governance has inhibited efforts. Since 2019, the government has comprehensively managed the YRB, improving the governance to unprecedented levels; however, evaluations of the YRB's overall ecological status remain lacking. Using high-resolution data from 2015 to 2020, this study illustrated major land cover transitions, evaluated the correlated overall ecological status of the YRB via the landscape ecological risk index, and analyzed the relationship between risk and landscape structure. The results showed that the (1) main land cover types in the YRB in 2020 are farmland (17.58%), forestland (31.96%), and grassland (41.42%), with urban land accounting for 4.21%. Some social factors were significantly related to changes in major land cover types (e.g., from 2015 to 2020, forest and urban lands have increased by 2.27% and 10.71%, grassland and farmland decreased by 2.58% and 0.63%, respectively). (2) Landscape ecological risk improved, albeit with fluctuations (high in the northwest, low in the southeast). (3) Ecological restoration and governance were imbalanced since no obvious changes were observed in the western source region of the Qinghai Province (Yellow River). (4) Finally, positive impacts of artificial re-greening showed slight lags as the detected improvements in NDVI were not recorded for approximately 2 years. These results can facilitate environmental protection and improve planning policies.
16. Food security and environmental degradation: Do institutional quality and human capital make a difference?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117330
The nexus between food security institutional quality human capital and environmental deterioration has important implications for ecological sustainability. Yet, environmental deterioration resulting from food security activities is a widely ignored topic, particularly in countries. To address this gap, we examined the influence of food security, human capital and institutional quality on the environmental deterioration of countries from 1984 to 2019. Furthermore, it investigates the moderating effect of institutional quality and human capital on The empirical findings revealed that food security increases The research also revealed that and lower the Furthermore, food security promotes ecological sustainability through the channel. Additionally, institutional quality decreases the negative environmental implications of food security. Based on these results, nations should enhance ecological sustainability by investing in and using food resources efficiently.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Using buffer analysis to determine urban park cooling intensity: Five estimation methods for Nanjing, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 868, 10 April 2023, 161463
Urban parks are part of the blue-green infrastructure of urban ecosystems. Although the cooling effect of urban parks has been widely recognized, the understanding of park cooling intensity (PCI) and its mechanisms remains incomplete. Applicable and accurate quantification could facilitate better design and management of urban parks. We used five methods (equal area method [EAM], equal radius method [ERM], fixed radius method [FRM], turning point method-maximum perspective [TPM-M], and turning point method-accumulation perspective [TPM-A]) to estimate PCI, and established the method selection mechanism, which we evaluated in terms of PCI amplitudes, spatial heterogeneity, and interactions with park landscape features. Using Nanjing as a case study, we employed spatial and statistical analyses to further assess the autocorrelation of PCI and its relationship with park landscape features. The results indicate the following: (1) 62.38 % of Nanjing's urban parks are located above the 90 % confidence level in cold spot areas. (2) Different methods had significant effects on the estimated PCI, were positively correlated, and had similar spatial heterogeneity. (3) All methods revealed that park area (PA), water area proportion (WAP), and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the vegetated area (NDVIveg) were the three dominant factors that influenced PCI; WAP and NDVIveg that achieved more effective cooling. (4) The quantification of PCI using the ERM and TPM is recommended over other methods. These findings are essential for landscape planners to understand the formation of PCI and design cooler parks to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect more systematically.
2. Principal stratification analysis to determine health benefit of indoor air pollution reduction in a randomized environmental intervention in COPD: Results from the CLEAN AIR study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 868, 10 April 2023, 161573
Indoor air quality represents a modifiable exposure to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) health. In a randomized controlled trial (CLEAN AIR study), air cleaner assignment had causal effect in improving COPD outcomes. It is unclear, however, what is the treatment effect among those for whom intervention reduced air pollution and whether it was reduction in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) that contributed to such improvement. Because pollution is a posttreatment variable, treatment effect cannot be assessed while controlling for pollution using intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis.
Using principal stratification method, we assess indoor pollutants as the intermediate variable, and determine the causal effect of reducing indoor air pollution on COPD health.
In randomized controlled trial, former smokers with COPD received either active or placebo HEPA air cleaners and were followed for 6 months. Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was the primary outcome and secondary measures included SGRQ subscales, COPD assessment test (CAT), dyspnea (mMRC), and breathlessness, cough, and sputum scale (BCSS). Indoor PM2.5 and NO2 were measured. Principal stratification analysis was performed to assess the treatment effect while controlling for pollution reduction.
Among those showing at least 40 % PM2.5 reduction through air cleaners, the intervention showed improvement in respiratory symptoms for the active (vs. placebo), and the size of treatment effect shown for this subgroup was larger than that for the overall sample. In this subgroup, those with active air cleaners (vs. placebo) showed 7.7 points better SGRQ (95%CI: −14.3, −1.1), better CAT (β = −5.5; 95%CI: −9.8, −1.2), mMRC (β = −0.6; 95%CI: −1.1, −0.1), and BCSS (β = −1.8; 95%CI: −3.0, −0.5). Among those showing at least 40 % NO2 reduction through air cleaners, there was no intervention difference in outcomes.
Air cleaners caused clinically significant improvement in respiratory health for individuals with COPD through reduction in indoor PM2.5.
3. LCZ method is more effective than traditional LUCC method in interpreting the relationship between urban landscape and atmospheric particles
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161677
Landscape classification methods significantly impact the exploration of the mechanism of the relationship between landscapes and atmospheric particulate matter. This study compared the local climate zones (LCZs) and traditional land use/cover change (LUCC) landscape classification methods in explaining spatial differences in concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and explored the mechanisms involved in how landscape elements affect atmospheric particulate matter. This was done by establishing a PM2.5 and PM10 land use regression (LUR) model of LCZ and LUCC landscapes under low, typical, and high particle concentration gradients in urban and suburban areas. The results show that under an LCZ classification system, the number of patches in the urban area of Shanghai was 548 times higher than that of a LUCC system. Moreover, LCZs were successfully established for LUR models in 12 scenarios, while only five models were established for LUCC, all of which were suburban models. The R2 of the LUR model based on the LCZ landscape and atmospheric particulate matter was mostly higher than that of the LUCC. For unnatural landscapes, the LUCC demonstrated that an urbanized environment positively affects the concentration of atmospheric particles. However, the LCZ analysis found that areas with high-density buildings have a positive effect on atmospheric particles, while most areas with low-density buildings significantly reduced the number of atmospheric particles present. Generally, compared with the traditional LUCC landscape classification method, LCZ integrates Shanghai's physical structure and classifies the urban landscape more accurately, which is closely related to the urban atmospheric particulate matter, especially in the urban area. Because the low-density building area has the same effect on the particulate matter as the natural landscape, the use of low-density buildings is recommended when planning new towns.
4. Regional characteristics and spatial correlation of haze pollution: Interpretative system analysis in cities of Fenwei Plain in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161779
Urban agglomeration is an important model for promoting global economic development and has made important contributions to global economic integration. However, as the core area of urbanization and industrialization, urban agglomerations also contribute to air pollutant emissions primarily due to the agglomeration of population and industry. The mutual influence of air pollution between different cities in urban agglomerations has brought significant challenges to global environmental governance. The Fenwei Plain is one of the most severely polluted areas in China. We collected daily average PM2.5 concentration data of 11 cities in the Fenwei Plain, China in 2019. We then developed an interpretive structural model to statistically analyze the spatial correlation and hierarchical transmission of haze pollution between the 11 cities. The results showed that haze pollution has a strong systematic correlation between the 11 cities, and a regional haze pollution community has formed throughout the region. Haze pollution also exhibits evident transmission and spatial correlations between the cities. The transmission starts from Baoji and ends at Sanmenxia, with mutual interactions between the cities of Xi'an, Xianyang, Weinan, Tongchuan, Jinzhong, Lvliang, Linfen, Yuncheng, and Luoyang. Thus, air pollution prevention and control in the Fenwei Plain should consider the spatial correlation of haze pollution between different cities, especially in autumn and winter, and should rationally be implemented in key urban cluster areas. We recommend building a coordinated governance between cities to improve the overall air quality. Our findings shed a light for coordinated pollution management in urban agglomerations worldwide.
5. Do objective and subjective traffic-related pollution, physical activity and nature exposure affect mental wellbeing? Evidence from Shenzhen, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161819
Urban environment (e.g. greenspaces, air pollution and traffic noise) and individuals' behaviours (e.g. physical activity) have all been associated with mental wellbeing. The large majority of studies on the influence of nature exposure on mental wellbeing assumed that multiple pathways act independently, ignoring the interactions among potential correlated pathways that engage simultaneously. The parallel mediation approach fails to explore the complex associations of combined exposure to air pollution, traffic noise and nature exposure with physical activity, which in turn affect mental wellbeing. Hence, the interest of understanding the sophisticated interactions among different pathways is warranted. We utilized structural equation modelling to simultaneously evaluate whether actual and perceived traffic-related pollution and physical activity mediate the associations between mental wellbeing and nature exposure, which was assessed by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), green view index (GVI), green space density and park accessibility. In summer 2022, we conducted questionnaires from 1772 adults residing in 117 neighbourhoods in Shenzhen, China. Nature exposure was positively and directly associated with mental wellbeing in the single mediator model that considered physical activity only. The indirect effects of nature exposure on mental wellbeing were observed through all pathways in all models, except through the perceived acoustic quality pathway in the serial mediation model. In addition, the percentage mediated by perceived air quality was higher than that of perceived acoustic quality. The influence of nature exposure on mental wellbeing was only for a small proportion mediated by the physical activity pathway. The associations between nature exposure and mental wellbeing were modified by individual characteristics, such as gender, age, income level and alcohol usage, but not employment status and smoking behaviour. These findings point out the importance of both objective and subjective environmental features and human behaviours on mental wellbeing, as well as the necessity of considering multiple pathways simultaneously.
6. Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine aerosols in ambient atmosphere of high-altitude urban environment in Sikkim Himalaya
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 870, 20 April 2023, 161987
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds are ubiquitous in ambient air due to their persistence, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity. Gangtok being one of the cleanest cities in India located in Eastern Himalayan region, witnesses high developmental activities with enhanced urbanization affecting the ambient air quality. The present study aims to measure PM2.5 and PAHs in the ambient atmosphere of the Sikkim Himalaya to understand the influence of natural and anthropogenic activities on aerosol loading and their chemical characteristics. The PM2.5 samples were collected and analysed for the duration from Jan 2020 to Feb 2021.The seasonal mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs were observed to be high during autumn and low during summer season. Overall, the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 was found higher than the prescribed limit of World Health Organization and National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The concentration of the 16 individual PAHs were found to be highest during autumn season (55.26 ± 37.15 ng/m3). Among the different PAHs, the annual mean concentration of fluorene (3.29 ± 4.07 ng/m3) and naphthalene (1.15 ± 3.76 ng/m3) were found to be the highest and lowest, respectively. The Molecular Diagnostic Ratio (MDR) test reveals higher contribution from heavy traffic activities throughout the winter and autumn seasons. The other possible sources identified over the region are fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning. The multivariate statistical analysis (Multifactor Principal Component Analysis) also indicates a strong association between PM2.5 /PAHs and meteorological variables across the region in different seasons. The precipitation and wind pattern during the study period suggests that major contribution of the PM2.5 and PAHs were from local sources, with minimal contribution from long-range transport. The findings are important for comprehending the trends of PAH accumulation over a high-altitude urban area, and for developing sustainable air quality control methods in the Himalayan region.
7. Tracking the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipal solid waste incineration power plant: A case study in Shanghai
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136635
Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has become the predominant waste-to-energy technology in China. The present work addresses an onsite greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting approach for MSWI plants. A comprehensive life-cycle GHG emissions assessment model was developed and applied to a case study in Shanghai. Different methods (Method 1: CO2 concentration measurement-based method; Method 2: O2 concentration measurement-based method; and Method 3: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines-based method) were compared for calculating the fossil CO2 emissions (FCO2E) originating from waste incineration. The results indicate that the deviations of FCO2E among different methods could be effectively reduced by modifying the dry matter (DM) content since the waste in China is commonly featured by high moisture content. Moreover, the life-cycle GHG emissions of MSWI in each month ranged from 11.2 to 622.4 kg CO2-eq/t MSW, in which FCO2E yielded the most significant impact. The seasonal characteristics of GHG emissions were directly related to variations in the waste components. In particular, a high plastics fraction in the waste streams after source separation contributed to high levels of GHG emissions originating from Chinese MSWI plants. It was demonstrated that GHG emissions increased by approximately 12.1 kg CO2-eq/t MSW with a 1% increase in the plastics fraction. Therefore, properly increasing the recycling rate of plastics and improving the power generation efficiency could effectively reduce the GHG emissions associated with MSWI.
8. A temporospatial assessment of environmental quality in urbanizing Ethiopia
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 332, 15 April 2023, 117431
Global environmental quality has been negatively affected by urbanization, particularly vulnerable in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanism and driving forces for the change of environmental quality with urbanization process is essential to improve the environmental sustainability. In this study, the compounded night light index (CNLI) and remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) were used respectively to evaluate the urbanization level and environmental quality in Ethiopia from 2010 to 2020. On this basis, a temporospatial assessment framework was proposed, followed by methods of coupling coordination degree, spatial autocorrelation, elasticity, and decomposition. The results showed that 63 out of 690 woredas experienced environmental deterioration. Socioeconomic effect, carbon intensity, and climate change were decomposed as drivers to environmental quality, with socioeconomic effects contributing >68% of environmental improvement, while carbon intensity and climate change were responsible for >51% and >58% of environmental deterioration from 2010 values. Continuous increase in impervious surfaces resulted in a six-fold increase in surface runoff, which raised the flooding risk in sub areas and rural landscapes. This demands reforms of climate strategies and proper livestock management.
9. Urban stormwater management at the meso-level: A review of trends, challenges and approaches
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117255
Cities worldwide are facing a significant threat of stormwater hazards caused by the increase in extreme downpours and urbanization. Meso-level urban stormwater management focuses on alleviating the detrimental impacts of urban flooding and enhancing water resource utilization at the block or community scale, typically through 1) specific policies and management rules; 2) catchment-scale scenario simulation, optimization and evaluation; 3) the group of stormwater control measures implementation. It may effectively coordinate macro-level urban stormwater management planning and micro-level distributed stormwater control facilities. This study conducts a review of Urban Stormwater Management at Meso-level (USM-M) with a view to research publication trends, citation analysis, geographic spread and subject category, as well as content analysis, including temporal progression and research gaps. The Web of Science database and CiteSpace are used for the bibliometric analysis of 66 articles from 2006 to 2021. The results show that the number of USM-M topic articles generally has an upward trend over the years. Whilst the United States and China are leading research on this topic, the European countries have diverse local research and dense cooperation. Research foci have generally shifted from theoretical frameworks to multi-element subdivided topics and specific technical roadmaps. Moreover, the spatial layout optimization and multi-functional integration are, or will be, potential research directions in terms of enhancing stormwater utilization and co-benefits of USM-M. This systematic review concludes trends, challenges and potential approaches of USM-M, and aims to provide recommendations for researchers and policymakers on the development of a more advanced and comprehensive USM-M.
10. Modern zoning plans versus traditional landscape structures: Ecosystem service dynamics and interactions in rapidly urbanizing cultural landscapes
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117315
Cultural landscapes provide abundant and diverse ecosystem services (ES) for human-wellbeing. However, many traditional cultural landscapes worldwide are currently undergoing rapid urbanization. In decision-making concerning sustainable urbanization, tradeoffs frequently occur between different objectives (i.e., between multiple ES) and between different pathways or urbanization strategies (e.g., following modern zoning principles or traditional landscape structures). This study aims to examine the dynamics and interactions between multiple ES under different strategies for the urbanization of cultural landscapes. A case study was conducted in Nansha, China. Three scenarios—business-as-usual, zoning plan-based, and traditional landscape structure-based—were developed to reflect the most common urbanization strategies, each parameterized with identical land-use quantities. Land-use change from 2020 to 2035 under different scenarios was simulated using the PLUS model (integrated Random Forest and Cellular Automata models). The traditional landscape structure-based scenario used the settlement pattern before urbanization to predict the chances of future urban areas’ occurrence. Eleven ES indicators were used to examine ES dynamics and interactions in the simulation outcomes. The results showed that the amount of ES provided by the landscape declined and significant tradeoffs occurred between cultural and non-cultural ES. The business-as-usual scenario resulted in the greatest decrease in ES. The zoning plan-based scenario did not offer a significant improvement over the business-as-usual scenario. The traditional landscape structure-based scenario was the most effective in limiting ES decline, which also mitigated the tradeoff between urban development and flood regulation and fostered synergy between urban efficiency and ecotourism opportunity. Based on these findings, we recommend that traditional landscape structures should be emphasized in the development of cultural landscapes.
11. Wastewater treatment plant effluent discharge decreases bacterial community diversity and network complexity in urbanized coastal sediment
Environmental Pollution, Volume 322, 1 April 2023, 121122
The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharge affects the microorganisms in the receiving water bodies. Despite the ecological significance of microbial communities in pollutant degradation and element cycling, how the community diversity is affected by effluent remains obscure. Here, we compared the sediment bacterial communities exposed to different intensities of WWTP effluent discharge in Hangzhou Bay, China: i) a severely polluted area that receives effluent from an industrial WWTP, ii) a moderately polluted area that receives effluent from a municipal WWTP, and iii) less affected area that inner the bay. We found that the sediment bacterial diversity decreased dramatically with pollution levels of inorganic nutrients, heavy metals, and organic halogens. Microbial community assembly model analysis revealed increased environmental selection and decreased species migration rate in the severely polluted area, resulting in high phylogenetic clustering of the bacterial communities. The ecological networks were less complex in the two WWTP effluent receiving areas than in the inner bay area, as suggested by the smaller network size and lower modularity. Fewer negative network associations were detected in the severely (6.7%) and moderately (8.3%) polluted areas than in the less affected area (16.7%), indicating more collaborative inter-species behaviors are required under stressful environmental conditions. Overall, our results reveal the fundamental impacts of WWTP effluents on the ecological processes shaping coastal microbial communities and point to the potential adverse effects of diversity loss on ecosystem functions.
12. Influence of built environment on outdoor thermal comfort: A comparative study of new and old urban blocks in Guangzhou
Building and Environment, Volume 234, 15 April 2023, 110133
Urban populations face increasing heat stress in cities. However, the influence of the built environment of new and old urban blocks on pedestrian thermal comfort remains unclear. This study selected typical old (Yongqingfang) and new urban areas (Knowledge City) in Guangzhou, China, as our research sites. Through field monitoring and surveys, we used physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) to evaluate outdoor thermal comfort by thermal walk experiments. We analyzed the relationships between built environment variables, meteorological variables, and pedestrian thermal comfort at the two sites. Our analysis revealed significant differences in the built environment and meteorological conditions between the new and old urban blocks within the 60-m buffer zone. PET and TCV showed noticeable spatiotemporal variations in both sites, and their correlation was stronger in the morning (r = 0.87–0.89) than late afternoon (r = 0.60–0.70). Our stepwise regression model indicated that sky view factor and building coverage ratio significantly affected outdoor thermal comfort in old and new urban blocks. Built environment variables explained a higher percentage of the variance in PET (Yongqingfang R2: 0.59–0.82, Knowledge City R2: 0.32–0.81) than TCV (Yongqingfang R2: 0.45–0.57, Knowledge City R2: 0.48–0.69). In short, built environment variables affected thermal indices more than thermal perception. The impact of built environment variables on TCV is also greater in new urban areas than in old urban blocks. Our findings provide insights into the complex relationship between built environments and outdoor thermal comfort in different urban landscapes, which informs climate-resilient urban design.
13. Self-adaptive hybrid urban morphologies community (HUMC): Its shared environment and soft intervention for sustainable urban governance
Building and Environment, Available online 1 April 2023, 110251
Cities and humans face a series of shocks and challenges, ranging from urban-rural imbalance, loss of local culture and identity, degeneration of urban adaptability, increasing energy consumption and carbon emissions, to threat of pandemics [1,2]. In response, urban and architectural professionals have been exploring and adapting "ideal paradigms” to enable urban governance to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The process is, however, non-linear, and it is a struggle to select urban forms and planning models to respond to the emerging crises and strengthen urban resilience [, , , ]. A recent report by IEA (2022) illustrates that the built environment has accounted for around 40% of global carbon emissions , indicating the urgency of reflecting current development modes and seeking regeneration-oriented approaches.
14. Spatial distribution and concentrations of salt fogs in a coastal urban environment: A case study in Zhuhai city
Building and Environment, Volume 234, 15 April 2023, 110156
Coastal buildings are threatened by corrosive damage secondary to salt fogs. However, the unclearly salt-fog concentrations and their spatial distribution pattern, particularly in an urban environment, severely hinder targeted salt-fog-resistant designs for coastal buildings. Against this background, this study adopted the salt-fog sampling device and the spectrophotometric method to undertake simultaneous, multi-site field investigations on salt-fog concentrations in a coastal urban area in Zhuhai city in China, and then analyzed factors affecting such concentrations: meteorological conditions, offshore distances, and building barriers. Our results demonstrated that salt-fog concentrations in coastal urban spaces have similarities and differences with previous empirical studies in the marine environment. Firstly, salt-fog concentrations were directly affected by sea winds and tides, especially the wind direction, which is not present in the empirical studies in the marine environment. Then, it decreased monotonically with offshore distances in open coastal spaces. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of salt fog in the built environment depended critically on the degree to which the building was shielded from sea winds. Specifically, the single-building barrier was found to moderately reduce salt-fog concentrations on its leeward side (by up to 121.49 μg/m3), while the enclosed-building barriers could block the intrusion of sea winds into the enclosed area, promoting consistently low concentrations (below 36.79 μg/m3) there. Finally, adaptable salt-fog-resistant measures are recommended based on the spatial distribution investigation of salt-fog concentrations in the built environment.
15. Atmospheric corrosion of T2 copper and H62 brass exposed in an urban environment
Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 299, 15 April 2023, 127487
In this paper, corrosion behavior and mechanism of H62 brass and T2 copper in an urban atmosphere were studied using weight loss, SEM/EDS, electrochemical measurements, XRD and XPS. The results show that the main corrosion products of the copper are Cu2O and CuO, with a small quantity of Cu2Cl(OH)3 in it, while additional Zn-containing compounds, such as ZnCl, ZnO and ZnS, appear in the corrosion product of the brass. The corrosion rate of the brass decreases with time, while that of the copper increases during the first 12 month, and then decreases. The corrosion resistance of the brass is better than the copper in the urban atmosphere. The results of the study provides scientific data support for material selection and life prediction of the equipment used in urban environments.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Mobile samplers of particulate matter – Flying omnivorous insects in detection of industrial contaminationAbstract
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 867, 1 April 2023, 161511
Flying insects are potential mobile samplers of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, current knowledge on their susceptibility to PM is limited to pollinators. Insects' capacity for particle surface accumulation depends on the lifestyle, structure of the body integuments, and behavioral patterns. Here, we investigate how two species of flying omnivorous insects from the genus Vespula, possessing direct interactions with air, soil, plants, and herbivores, indicate industrial pollution by accumulating coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles on their bodies. The internal accumulation of particles in wasps' gut tissues is assessed considering heavy metals exposure to reveal and discuss the potential magnitude of ecotoxicological risks. Female individuals of Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica were sampled with a hand-netting near to Harjavalta Cu-Ni smelter and in the control areas in southwestern Finland. They were analyzed with light microscopy (LM), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) methods. Near to the smelter, wasps trapped significantly more particles, which were of bigger size and their surface optical density was higher. Vespula vulgaris accumulated larger particles than V. germanica, but that wasn't associated with morphological characteristics such as body size or hairiness. In both areas, accumulated surface PM carried clays and silicates. Only in polluted environments PM consistently contained metallic and nonmetallic particles (from high to moderate weight %) of Fe, Ni, Cu, and S – major pollutants emitted from the smelter. Wasps from industrially polluted areas carried significantly more granules in the columnar epithelial midgut cells. TEM-EDX analyses identified those structures were associated with metal ions such as Cr, Cu, Ni, and Fe. As epithelial gut cells accumulated metal particles, midgut confirmed as a barrier for metal exposure in wasps. External PM contamination in wasps is suggested as a qualitative, yet a natural and simple descriptor of local industrial emissions.
2. Treatment of industrial ferric sludge through a facile acid-assisted hydrothermal reaction: Focusing on dry mass reduction and hydrochar recyclability performance
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 869, 15 April 2023, 161879
Large amounts of Fenton sludge and waste activated sludge (WAS) are mixed as ferric sludge (FS) in most industrial wastewater treatment plants. The treatment of such waste represents a challenge and quantity-dependent cost, so that a reliable way for FS waste reduction is required. In this study, we develop a facile acid-assisted hydrothermal treatment (HT) for the cost-efficient treatment of hazardous FS waste. Sulfuric acid was dosed at 0.25 mL/g dry solid (DS) to the HT process, which significantly increased the total solid mass reduction (TMR) by 25.1 % and dry mass reduction (DMR) by 104.4 %. The participation of sulfuric acid during the HT process changed the HT reaction pathway from dehydration to demethylation based on the analysis of the derivative thermogravimetric and Van Krevelen diagram. The addition of sulfuric acid improved the release of Fe from FS by 52.9 %, which contributed to the DMR. During the acid-assisted HT, Fe(III) was effectively reduced to Fe(II) within the produced hydrochar, which can be recycled for the Fenton reaction during the degradation of actual industrial wastewater such as pharmaceutical wastewater. Moreover, Sulfuric acid facilitated the generation of sulfonated hydrochar, which was efficient as an adsorbent for the complete removal of some metals such as Cu(II) - cation metal (98.8 %) and Cr(VI) - anion metal (99.9 %). This study firstly provides a novel and reliable approach for hazardous FS reduction and pointed out the recycling of hydrochar as the supplement for the Fenton reaction and adsorbents for some hazardous heavy metals.
3. Evaluating the use of rice residue ash in cement-based industries in the Philippines – Greenhouse gas reduction, transportation, and cost assessment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136623
In the Philippines, biomass-fueled cogeneration plants use sugarcane bagasse, rice husk, or a mix of agricultural residues as feedstock. Burning these residues results in the continuous generation of ash, accumulating over time and needing appropriate disposal. As a preliminary, the annual potential amount of rice husk and rice straw generation, the available energy that could be recovered, and potential ash generation in the Philippines were estimated in this study. More specifically, the contribution of generated ashes toward reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when used to displace part of the required cement in cement-based industries was assessed and evaluated. Residues from paddy rice could provide up to ∼10,444 GWh of electrical energy when used as fuel. Utilization of the generated fly ashes (∼634 kt rice straw fly ash and ∼267 kt rice husk fly ash) alone could, on average, reduce ∼681 kt CO2_eq annually. The transportation of the ashes before their utilization entails significant GHG emissions. However, transporting the ash within the critical distance of 2,995 km would ensure a positive net reduction. In addition, the handling and transportation cost of coal, rice, and sugarcane ashes within the archipelago was also evaluated and compared. The resulting costs (0.94–6.8 USD/40-kg bag) of different ashes are competitive with the current cement retail price (4.00–7.45 USD/40-kg bag). Potential applications, impacts, limitations, and foreseen challenges in using rice residue ashes are also discussed.
4. Biogenic synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles for degradation of synthetic dyes: A sustainable environmental cleaner approach
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 398, 20 April 2023, 136616
Agro-wastes including leaves, manure, plant parts, and vegetables, etc. are usually unusable, therefore discarded in agricultural activities which may lead to different environmental and health issues. This study is focused on the use of agro-waste to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles which are applied for the degradation of two synthetic dyes. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are synthesized from the fruit peel extract of Citrus limetta (C. limetta). The optimized conditions to synthesize ZnO-NPs were 80 °C temperature, 9 pH, 1:4 reactant ratio and 80 min contact time. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy showing a λmax at 350 nm. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the shape and size of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, size varied from 40 to 42 nm. ZnO-NPs were then applied for the remediation of two dyes Basic Brilliant Flavine Y-40 (dye A), and Direct Fast Rose FR Red 227 (dye B) following the optimization of experimental factors like dye concentration, nanoparticles concentration, pH, H2O2 level and temperature. The synthetic dyes were decolorized 30% at 0.02%, and 49% at 0.04% with dye concentration, 43% at 5 mg and 56% at 4% NPs, 58% and 63% at 7 pH, 71% at 0.4 M, and 76% at 0.5 M H2O2 and 85% and 89% at 50 °C for dye A and dye B. The experimental results exhibited that COD, TOC and toxicity assessments were 74.56 & 73.24% and 92 & 91% for dye A and dye B, respectively. The UV–Visible and FTIR studies also confirmed the degradation of the targeted dyes. The current study suggested a greener approach towards environmental remediation for a neat and clean environment.
5. Redesign in the textile industry: Proposal of a methodology for the insertion of circular thinking in product development processes
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 397, 15 April 2023, 136588
Despite the growing attention toward negative environmental impacts generated by the textile industry, companies face challenges in achieving sustainable and circular economy (CE) transition. The literature has so far lacked a systematic effort to analyze how textile companies can insert CE elements in their new product development process (NPD), especially regarding the proposition of methodologies that can better assist the companies in this regard. This study aims to identify good green innovation and CE practices in NPD adopted by textile companies and propose a methodology from Design Thinking (DT) to insert circular thinking in NPD. To that end, we conducted the research in two steps: (i) narrative bibliographic review and (ii) field research. The bibliographic review was conducted in the "Web of Science”, "Scopus”, and "Scielo” databases. The field research was executed with four textile companies. Our results show that companies tend to consider socio-environmental aspects at different stages of the development of new products. However, there is opportunities for improvement, especially through the use of ideas from DT. The proposed methodology is composed of two main cycles: the design cycle (DT stages) and the consumption cycle (subsequent stages). It encompasses the five main stages of the DT and the three macro phases of NPD of the textile industry. The ideas coming from the DT, especially creativity, focus on the user and stakeholder integration, assist in the development of innovative and circular solutions. The methodology presents how companies can work on reuse, recycling, and manufacturing issues, so that CE occurs. In the end, we evaluated, together with experts, the applicability of the proposed use of ideas of DT in practical cases. The research advances the discussions on NPD in the textile sector, especially on its potential to contribute to the transition to CE. It explores how DT assists in inserting circular thinking into the NPD and presents alternatives for companies to develop circular products and insert green innovations in their NPD.
6. Greening industry: Opportunities and challenges in electricity access for Norwegian industry firms
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 396, 10 April 2023, 136534
Access to clean electricity is fundamental for reducing the carbon footprint of industry, both for existing industrial operations and for producing new climate- and environmentally friendly goods and services. But the allocation of electricity as a limited resource hinges on institutional rules. In this article we examine how the process of electricity allocation impacts the establishment, growth and geographical location of new green industry firms. We examine how process impacts electricity access for green industrial firms in the context of Norway, a country with a seemingly well-functioning electricity grid sourced from renewable energy and clear political climate goals for greening industry. Through an exploratory study based on an extensive document review and in-depth qualitative interviews with key informants, we find that the management of the electrical grid, from the quantity of available electricity to the process by which firms access electricity, hinders green industry firms in accessing power. This is for three reasons: 1) regional variation in the absolute amount of available electricity; 2) unclear rules and queue systems for accessing the grid; and 3) a lengthy and potentially costly process for gaining access. These findings indicate that formal and informal rules determine the establishment of green industry firms in industrialized countries, and could hinder progress on climate goals.
7. Embodied industrial PM2.5-related health impact flows and economic benefits of the Belt and Road Initiative towards China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 395, 1 April 2023, 136365
The "Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) proposed by China in 2013 aims to create more opportunities for common development and cooperation in accordance with infrastructure development and trade activities worldwide. Previous studies have evaluated the impacts of BRI countries on the economy or PM2.5 emissions and the EPHI between BRI countries and China. China imported embodied PM2.5 emissions from BRI countries (2,584,400 kg), but exported EPHI to them (132,864 disability-adjusted life year losses (DALY)). Second, it was revealed that the BRI countries as a whole were net EPHI importers (51,426.83 DALY) but net embodied value added exporters (gaining US$773,570,000). Finally, it was indicated that when considering EPHI intensity, there was a significant difference among BRI countries in gaining equal economic benefits from China (ranging from 0.12 DALY/104 US$ for Singapore to 2110.24 DALY/104 US$ for Ukraine). This study may promote policies regarding trade structure optimization in BRI countries and PHI mitigation, while maximizing economic benefits.
8. Production efficiency and cost reduction potential of biodiesel fuel plants using waste cooking oil in Japan
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 331, 1 April 2023, 117284
Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is a potentially carbon-neutral fuel that could play a potentially important role in preventing global warming. However, its high production cost poses a challenge for many BDF producers. To establish an efficient method for BDF production and increase its cost competitiveness, the production efficiencies of 35 BDF plants in Japan, which produce BDF from waste cooking oil, were evaluated. Moreover, the cost reduction potential associated with improved efficiency was estimated. The empirical analysis revealed that (1) approximately 92% of the BDF plants have inefficient production; (2) they exhibit two predominant types of inefficiencies, technical and scale inefficiencies, and (3) improvement of production inefficiency can lead to an average production cost reduction of 3.52 yen per liter of BDF. To increase the production efficiency, it is important to improve the quality of the waste cooking oil used and increase the production scale. It is recommended that operators of inefficient BDF plants learn the production activities of the most efficient plants identified in this study. Furthermore, government policies focused on efficient BDF plants are essential to increase BDF production with limited resources.
9. Characterization of fiber fragments released from polyester textiles during UV weathering
Environmental Pollution, Volume 322, 1 April 2023, 121012
Synthetic textiles are considered a prime source of microplastics fibers which are a prevalent shape of microplastic pollution. Whilst the release mechanisms and formation of such microplastic fibers have been so far mainly studied in connection with laundry washing, there are some studies emerging that describe also other release pathways for microplastic fibers such as abrasion during wearing. The aim of this study was to consider weathering as another process contributing to the formation of microplastic fibers and their presence in the environment. Four types of polyester fabrics were selected and exposed to artificial weathering by UV-light for two months. The fabrics were extracted every 15 days to quantify and characterize the formed microplastics. Microplastic fibers with the diameter matching the size of the fibers in the textiles were observed. However, additional microplastic fibers of different shapes were also formed. These included partially broken fibers, thin fibers with a diameter below the size of the fiber in the fabrics, fibers flattened into a ribbon, and non-fibrous microplastics. The released microplastics evinced physical alterations on their surface in the form of pits and cracks. The released microplastics exhibited a steep increase in number with progressing weathering; from hundreds of fibers per gram of textile from unaged fabrics, to hundred thousands fibers (150,000-450,000 MPF/g) after 2 months of weathering. Additional 10,000-52,000 unfibrous microplastics/g were released from the weathered fabrics. While plain fabrics showed higher releases than interlock and fleece, further research is needed to evaluate the importance of the textile architecture on the weathering process in comparison with the production history of the fabrics. Based on a comparison with washing studies with the same textiles, we can estimate that the potential of weathered fabrics to be a source of microplastic fibers can be 20-40 times larger than washing only.
10. Role of surfactants, polymer, nanoparticles, and its combination in inhibition of wax deposition and precipitation: A review
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Available online 12 April 2023, 102904
Oil wax deposition is becoming a major problem during oil production, transportation, and refining. Deposition mitigation by chemical additives, like polymer and surfactants, are commonly used in the oil industry. Because there is no clarity in wax inhibition mechanisms of the additive with crude type and conditions, chemical wax inhibitors are still used in a trial-and-error manner in the oil fields, which is an expensive and inefficient methodology. Understanding the wax inhibition mechanism is important for the design of new inhibitors. This review aims to give an overview of the understanding and development of nanoparticle technology, surfactants, polymer, and their combination in the inhibition of wax deposition. The review looks into lab and pilot plant experiments reported from 2000 to 2022, with more focus on the fundamentals of nanohybridization approaches in wax deposition control, testing methodologies (i.e., thermal, rheological, and morphological analysis), inhibition performance assessment, and mechanisms. The review begins with an overview of bibliometric analysis to shed light on the emerging areas in that field and explore and analyze the large volumes of scientific data reported in this field. The performance parameters used for assessing the wax inhibitors in the laboratory are also summarized and addressed. Finally, the challenges and future remarks of the reported chemical inhibitors are reported in this paper. This review provides insights into the integration of nanomaterials into the existing technologies to overcome the existing challenges.
11. Flexible job shop scheduling problem under Industry 5.0: A survey on human reintegration, environmental consideration and resilience improvement
Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Volume 67, April 2023, Pages 155-173
The Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) has been widely studied in recent decades. Various approaches have been proposed to support scheduling decisions according to the evolving production environment. The emergence of technological advancements in the context of Industry 4.0 has brought many changes and made production scheduling more and more efficient. Today’s Industry 5.0 environment pays much attention to human considerations, sustainability, and resilience. These modern production environments can be accurately represented by the flexible shop floor scheduling problem in which various coordinating machines (with many alternative routing possibilities) and different operators are challenging. Recent literature on JSSP, which considers the human in the loop, has shown that the well-being and skills of workers significantly affect scheduling performance. In addition, knowing that industries are responsible for a significant part of the world’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, new studies in scheduling focus on environmental factors. This paper introduces the Sustainable Flexible Scheduling Problem (SFJSSP) as a human and energy-efficiency-centered scheduling problem. First, we review the last decade’s literature on Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems (FJSSP) with human and/or environmental considerations. Next, we analyze the development trends in manufacturing scheduling problems. Finally, we discuss future research challenges to move towards scheduling 5.0 and suggest a mathematical model that considers human and environmental factors (in addition to the factors considered by the Classical Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (CFJSSP)).
12. Treatment of rubber industry wastewater review: Recent advances and future prospects
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 52, April 2023, 103559
With rapid industrialization, enormous amounts of wastewater have been released from the rubber industry into the environment from different industrial processes such as latex concentrate and standard block rubber. The rubber industry wastewater must be treated before discharge into common water bodies. This review paper presents the recent advances in treatment methods for rubber industry wastewater, particularly in biological processes, membrane processes, coagulation-flocculation, and advanced oxidation processes. Besides, this review paper discovers more about the potential of integrated methods which apply the synergetic effectiveness of processes to achieve the recycling of treated wastewater and the sustainable development of water resources. Special emphasis has been laid upon the type of rubber industry wastewater, operating condition, and performance of the treatment methods along with their pros and cons. Selection of appropriate treatment strategy lies on the feedwater conditions, site restriction, water requirement, stability of treatment process, cost-effectiveness, energy efficiency, and environmental friendliness. Despite many treatment methods presenting superior performance, many of them possess limitations and have not progressed to the industrial scale. Lastly, challenges and future perspectives in developing treatment technology for rubber industry wastewater are proposed to achieve sustainable and integrated water management.
13. Workload categorization for hazardous industries: The semantic modelling of multi-modal physiological data
Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 141, April 2023, Pages 369-381
The forestry industry is one of the most hazardous industries in New Zealand, and the physical and cognitive fatigue of forestry workers has been shown to contribute to this. Physical and cognitive fatigue can be exacerbated by prolonged physical and cognitive workload. As such, we propose that the identification and mitigation of fatigue factors could reduce the risk of incident and injury in hazardous work environments. This paper introduces a semantic model for workload categorization. The model takes as input, a set of multi-modal physiological measurements, and uses parallel processing, complex event processing, and rule-based modelling to categorize a series of workloads (resting, cognitive workload, and physical workload). The model has undergone a set of evaluations, including categorization accuracy, and performance. The model has been tested under three scenarios: when a participant is resting and refraining from any physically or mentally demanding tasks; when a participant is undertaking a cognitively intensive task; and when a participant is walking, jogging, and running. The study has been conducted with participants between the ages of 22 and 39 and has shown an average accuracy of 89% for resting workload, 76% for cognitive workload, and 97% for physical workload. Finally, in this paper we discuss the application and extension of this model to predict fatigue in hazardous industries. The work described in this paper contributes to a larger research project centered on investigating technology uses in hazardous work environments.
14. A review study on the challenges and progress of corrosion inhibitor testing under extreme conditions in the oil and gas industries
Geoenergy Science and Engineering, Available online 9 April 2023, 211762
High-temperature CO2 (sweet) corrosion is a key problem in the oil and gas industries as it leads to frequent failures and high maintenance costs due to the replacements of pipeline materials. One of the major challenges in studying corrosion inhibitors under harsher conditions of oil and gas industries (greater than 100 oC) is developing reliable testing methods that replicate the oil and gas environments adequately. As the theme is extensive and highly pertinent, the testing methodologies and characterization techniques used for evaluating sweet corrosion inhibitors under extreme conditions are reviewed in this paper. The challenges, existing knowledge gaps, and future perspectives related to high-temperature sweet corrosion testing methods are described. Of the different configurations of autoclaves, the rotating cage autoclave was found to be the most effective testing equipment in simulating the general and local (pitting) corrosion attack of metallic parts by the extreme conditions of oil and gas industries.
15. Effects of internal and external corporate social responsibility on employee job satisfaction during a pandemic: A medical device industry perspective
European Management Journal, Available online 8 April 2023
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed human lifestyles and contributed to the creation of a new normal in the business environment. This study examines the direct and indirect impacts of internal and external corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices on employee job satisfaction through organisational identification, conditional on employee age. A total of 236 valid responses were received from eight multinational medical device manufacturers in Malaysia. Partial least squares and PROCESS algorithms were employed to assess the hypothesised interactions between the predictors and criterion variables. The empirical results showed that internal CSR (i.e., CSR to employee) could significantly drive a greater sense of belonging and work satisfaction. Surprisingly, however, external CSR (i.e., CSR to community) negatively affects job fulfilment in the medical devices industry during the pandemic. Nevertheless, the findings also showed that ongoing CSR activities in the community could build organisational identification and subsequently improve job satisfaction. Conversely, CSR to environment did not statistically influence job satisfaction, either directly or indirectly. The mediating effects of organisational identification were not associated with employee age. This study provides a practical framework for effective CSR strategies amid the pandemic that can help organisations align with social responsibility, enhance their reputation, and contribute to society.
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