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- Các rào cản áp dụng nền kinh tế tuần hoàn trong môi trường xây dựng- một trường hợp của nền kinh tế mới nổi
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- Thị trường hóa việc chuyển nhượng đất đô thị có thể cải thiện hiệu quả năng lượng?
Về môi trường đô thị
- Tương tác giữa các khía cạnh cấu hình không gian của tán cây đô thị ảnh hưởng đáng kể đến hiệu quả làm mát của nó
- Làm sáng tỏ ảnh hưởng của đèn đường LED đến cây xanh trong đô thị: Bạn hay thù?
- Thu hồi chất thải từ chất thải rắn đô thị để xử lý hiệu quả chi phí nước rò rỉ bãi rác bằng hệ thống lò phản ứng nhỏ giọt sinh học mới
- Đồng nhiệt phân tối ưu bùn thải đô thị và vi tảo Chlorella Vulgaris: Đặc tính sản phẩm, tác dụng hiệp đồng, cơ chế và đường phản ứng
- Khảo sát hiệu quả của điện cực MOF hỗn hợp kim loại hai chiều trong xử lý xúc tác quang điện đối với nước thải đô thị
- Ước tính thành phần hóa học của chất thải rắn đô thị bằng phương pháp nghịch đảo
- Tính chất cơ học và hành vi rửa trôi kim loại nặng của tro đáy lò đốt chất thải rắn đô thị làm vật liệu đắp nền đường
- Mô hình động học bậc nhất để mô phỏng quá trình phân hủy hiếu khí của chất thải rắn đô thị
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- Sự xuất hiện, phân bố không gian và rủi ro sinh thái của kháng sinh trong đất ở khu đô thị
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Một nghiên cứu so sánh hiệu suất về dự đoán PM2.5 tại các khu công nghiệp bằng cách sử dụng các thuật toán đào tạo khác nhau của mạng thần kinh truyền ngược-truyền ngược (FBNN)
- Ba con đường hướng tới loại bỏ khí thải CO2 từ các nhà máy công nghiệp sử dụng nhiên liệu hydrocarbon
- Tác động của đầu tư môi trường đến hiệu quả kinh tế của các nhà máy công nghiệp – Bằng chứng từ Phần Lan
- Tác động của giao dịch phát thải carbon đối với đổi mới xanh của ngành điện Trung Quốc
- Than sinh học có nguồn gốc từ tảo làm chất hấp phụ hiệu quả để loại bỏ Cr (VI) trong nước thải ngành dệt may: Các nghiên cứu về đường đẳng nhiệt, động học và ANN phi tuyến tính
- Thiết kế các gói chính sách cho ngành trung lập với khí hậu: Nghiên cứu trường hợp từ Hà Lan
- Nâng cấp chính sách, môi trường kinh doanh và đổi mới đô thị dựa trên địa điểm: Bằng chứng từ các khu công nghệ cao ở Trung Quốc
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Characteristics, sources and health risk assessment of atmospheric carbonyls during multiple ozone pollution episodes in urban Beijing: Insights into control strategies
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 863, 10 March 2023, 160769
Carbonyls have attracted continuous attention due to their critical roles in atmospheric chemistry and their potential hazards to the ecological environment and human health. In this study, atmospheric carbonyls were measured during several ground-level-ozone (O3) pollution episodes at three urban sites (CRAES, IEP and BJUT) in Beijing in 2019 and 2020. Comparative analysis revealed that the carbonyl concentrations were 20.25 ± 6.91 ppb and 13.43 ± 5.13 ppb in 2019 and 2020 in Beijing, respectively, with a significant spatial trend from north to south, and carbonyl levels in urban Beijing were in an upper-intermediate range in China, and higher than those in other countries reported in the literature. A particularly noteworthy phenomenon is the consistency of carbonyl concentrations with variations in O3 concentrations. On O3 polluted days, the carbonyl concentrations were 1.3–1.5 times higher than those on non-O3 polluted days. Secondary formation contributed more to formaldehyde (FA) and acetaldehyde (AA) on O3 polluted days, while the anthropogenic emissions were more significant for acetone (AC) on non-O3 polluted days. Vehicle exhaust and solvent utilization were the main primary contributors to carbonyls. Due to reduced anthropogenic emissions caused by the COVID-19 lockdown and the "Program for Controlling Volatile Organic Compounds in 2020” in China, the contributions of primary emissions to carbonyls decreased in 2020 in Beijing. Human cancer risks to exposed populations from FA and AA increased with elevated O3 levels, and the risks still remained on non-O3 polluted days. The residents around the BJUT site might experience relatively higher human cancer risks than those around the other two sites. The findings in this study confirmed that atmospheric carbonyl pollution and its potential human health hazards cannot be ignored in urban Beijing; therefore, more strict control strategies for atmospheric carbonyls are urgently needed to better protect human health in Beijing in the future.
2. Microplastics pollution in freshwater fishes in the South of Italy: Characterization, distribution, and correlation with environmental pollutants
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 161032
In this study, we investigated the presence, abundance, and chemical nature of microplastics (MPs) in the freshwater fish gastrointestinal tract in the South of Italy, and evaluated the possible correlation between MPs and environmental pollutants. Fifty specimens belonging to five species (Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Barbus barbus, Rutilus rubilio, Leuciscus cephalus, Salmo trutta), from twenty sites were collected. MPs chemical feature was identified by means of Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman microscopy. MPs were represented by 34.86 % fragments, film, and foam (all together MPs) and 65.14 % by fibers (MFs). The mean number of MPs/MFs per fish ranged from 6.25 ± 4.35 in R. rubilio and 2.26 ± 1.94 in B. barbus. The highest number of MPs/MFs per g of GIT was found in R. rubilio (9.07 ± 9.66), and the lowest in S. erythrophthalmus (0.75 ± 0.53). The highest number of MPs/MFs per fish species was found in L. cephalus (16), and the lowest in S. erythrophthalmus (4). Black predominated in every type of plastic debris identified, followed by blue and white, respectively for MFs and MPs. Polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP), were the main plastic polymers found. At fish sampling sites, comparing concentrations in soils of potentially toxic elements and persistent organic pollutants with the number of MPs/MFs in fish, a significant correlation was noted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in particular, with PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 156, PCB 157, and PCB 167. A strong correlation was also observed with all types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) particularly with benzo(ghi)perylene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene. The results of this study would be useful to draft management and action plans, promote intervention plans aiming at removing threats to species and habitats, and address ways of renaturalization.
3. Identification of nitrate sources in tap water sources across South Korea using multiple stable isotopes: Implications for land use and water management
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 161026
Stable nitrate isotopes (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3) in conjunction with stable water isotopes (δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O) were used to identify nitrogen (N) sources and N-biogeochemical transformation in tap water sources sampled from 11 water purification plants across South Korea. The raw water sources are taken from rivers within the water supply basins, which indicates the quality of tap water is highly dependent on surrounding the land use type. We estimated the proportional contribution of the various N sources (AD: atmospheric deposition; SN: soil nitrogen; CF: chemical fertilizer; M&S: manure/sewage) using Bayesian Mixing Model. As a result, the contribution of N sources exhibited large seasonal and spatial differences, which were related to the type of land use in the water supply basins. Commonly, the M&S and SN were the dominant N source during the dry and wet seasons in almost regions, respectively. However, in the regions with high N loading ratios from urban and industrial sources, the M&S was the dominant N source during both the wet and dry seasons. In addition, the regions were characterized by high NO3− concentrations due to the decreased dilution effect of precipitation during the dry seasons. In contrast, the SN was the dominant N source in the regions with high N loading ratios from agricultural areas during both the wet and dry seasons. The NO3−-N concentration during the wet season was significantly higher than those during the dry season in these regions due to the input of non-point sources with high concentrations. Meanwhile, denitrification and nitrification were observed in the watersheds. It is important to understand the isotope fractionation due to N-biogeochemical transformation for considering the potential misinterpretations of the origin and fate NO3−. Collectively, our findings provide a basis on N source control strategies to ensure tap water quality in complex land use areas.
4. Long-term water quality monitoring in agricultural catchments in Sweden: Impact of climatic drivers on diffuse nutrient loads
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 160978
Water quality related to non-point source pollution continues to pose challenges in agricultural landscapes, despite two completed cycles of Water Framework Directive actions by farmers and landowners. Future climate projections will cause new challenges in landscape hydrology and subsequently, the potential responses in water quality. Investigating the nutrient trends in surface waters and studying the efficiency of mitigation measures revealed that loads and measures are highly variable both spatially and temporally in catchments with different agro-climatic and environmental conditions. In Sweden, nitrogen and phosphorus loads in eight agricultural catchments (470–3300 ha) have been intensively monitored for >20 years. This study investigated the relationship between precipitation, air temperature, and discharge patterns in relation to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads at catchment outlets. The time series data analysis was carried out by integrating Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt break-points, and Generalized Additive Model. The results showed that the nutrient loads highly depend on water discharge, which had large variation in annual average (158–441 mm yr−1). The annual average loads were also considerably different among the catchments with total N (TN) loads ranging from 6.76 to 35.73 kg ha−1, and total P (TP) loads ranging from 0.11 to 1.04 kg ha−1. The climatic drivers were highly significant indicators of nutrient loads but with varying degree of significance. Precipitation (28–962 mm yr−1) was a significant indicator of TN loads in five catchments (loamy sand/sandy loam) while annual average temperature (6.5–8.7 °C yr−1) was a significant driver of TN loads in six out of eight catchments. TP loads were associated with precipitation in two catchments and significantly correlated to water discharge in six catchments. Considering the more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events, it is necessary to tailor N and P mitigation measures to future climate-change features of precipitation, temperature, and discharge.
5. How does vehicle emission control policy affect air pollution emissions? Evidence from Hainan Province, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161244
Vehicular emissions have become important sources of air pollution in China. Regarding the environmental impacts of vehicle emission control policies (VECPs), changes in air pollutants and CO2 emissions have attracted more attention. Hainan is the first province in China declared to ban the sale of fuel-powered cars by 2030, aiming to accelerate cutting down the local air pollution emissions. However, there is no previous study examining how these VECPs would affect air pollutants in Hainan. Further, research on whether the controls would lead to a real carbon reduction is limited. Therefore, this paper quantitatively assesses the emission changes of primary air pollutants (including NOx, CO, VOCs, PM2.5, PM10, and PMTSP) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) in the transportation sector with regard to different VECPs in Hainan. The results reveal that (1) VECPs would lead to significant increases in vehicular population by 21 %–65 % in 2025–2050. Specifically, light-duty cars and buses with 4-stroke engines (LD4Cs) is the largest contributor and banning sales of fuel-powered vehicles would lead to a larger increase of 1914.6 thousand (64 %) in 2030; (2) for air pollutant emissions, the policy scenario would bring notable reduction effects, decreasing by 1.0 %–16.0 % and 16.7 %–38.7 % in 2030 and 2050 (PM excluding), respectively, suggesting VECPs play important roles in alleviating environmental pollution; (3) conversely, for CO2 emissions, the policy scenario would cause increases of 0.8 Mt. (17.8 %) and 0.3 Mt. (6.1 %) in 2035 and 2050, respectively, indicating promoting new energy vehicles (NEVs) would increase carbon emissions. Meanwhile, it suggests that CO2 emission in the transportation sector of Hainan peaked in 2020. This research highlights that VECPs would be a double-edged sword, leading to air pollutants reductions but not necessarily decline CO2 emissions. This fact would further accelerate mechanism and technological innovation in transport to alleviate air pollution and carbon emissions simultaneously.
6. Increasing resilience through nudges in the urban water cycle: An integrative conceptual framework to support policy decision-making
Chemosphere, Volume 317, March 2023, 137850
Relevant challenges associated with the urban water cycle must be overcome to meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and improve resilience. Unlike previous studies that focused only on the provision of drinking water, we propose a framework that extends the use of the theory of nudges to all stages of the overall urban water cycle (drinking water and wastewater services), and to agents of influence (citizens, organizations, and governments) at different levels of decision making. The framework integrates four main drivers (the fourth water revolution, digitalization, decentralization, and climate change), which influence how customers, water utilities and regulators approach the challenges posed by the urban water cycle. The proposed framework, based on the theory of nudges first advanced by the Nobel Prize in behavioral economics Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein (Thaler and Sunstein, 2009), serves as a reference for policymakers to define medium- and long-term strategies and policies for improving the sustainability and resilience of the urban water cycle. Finally, we provide new insights for further research on resilience approaches to the management of the urban water cycle as an element to support the more efficient formulation of policies.
7. NEXTGEN: A serious game showcasing circular economy in the urban water cycle
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 391, 10 March 2023, 136000
Understanding the Circular Economy for water is challenging. It requires being acquainted with the individual components involved in the urban water cycle such as stormwater, water conveyance, groundwater, water drainage, wastewater treatment and discharge. In addition, to appreciate benefits and tradeoffs in the context of Circular Economy, one also needs to factor the interrelations between water and other factors such as material recovery, energy use, expenses, and environmental impacts. On top of it, the fact that each catchment has a different geography, hydrology and urban setup can lead to difficulties in transferring gathered knowledge to other situations. In response to this challenge of developing a holistic understanding of applying Circular Economy to the urban water cycle, the NextGen Serious Game has been created. It is a simulation based online educational tool with a digital user interface that allows participants to explore the implications of applying circular economy strategies such as "Reduce” (for waste), Reuse (for materials), and Recovery (of energy though biogas generation) to the water urban cycle in different virtual catchments representing different settings. Several physical and online game-playing events took place where participants were able to take the appropriate measures to maximise Circular Economy for water when a virtual catchment was exposed to challenging scenarios, e.g., lower rainfalls and population growth. The players included students, environmental scientists, engineers, policy makers, and members of the public. The serious game was successfully used as a teaching tool in student classrooms (leading to an average improvement of about 26% in the number of correct answers). Furthermore, it made an effective debate facilitation tool contributing to the discussion of a multi-disciplinary expert panel by bringing new insights to the discussion. Finally, the Serious Game was used to organize the first e-sport competitive tournament between water professionals at an industry conference, paving the way for a novel form of engagement. This is a considerable contribution to public understanding at a time where the water industry struggles to sensitize a wider audience to the problems and reality of water in the context of climate change, growing resources scarcity, and environmental decline.
8. Simulation of urban transport carbon dioxide emission reduction environment economic policy in China: An integrated approach using agent-based modelling and system dynamics
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136221
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions has become a hot topic in the 21st century. As the main source of urban carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, reducing transportation CO2 emission has also attracted great attention worldwide. To reduce traffic CO2 emissions, we propose a complex model that combines multiagent-based models and system dynamics models. From the perspective of the job-housing balance, we explore the interaction among urban socioeconomic development, low-carbon transportation, environmental economic policies (prices, charging policies, etc.), and other factors, simulate the urban traffic CO2 emissions system and policies, investigate the impact of different strategies on traffic CO2 emissions reduction and the economic advantages to the environment, and then select an optimal policy scheme. The analysis results indicate that if we want to achieve the goals of Beijing's future development planning through comprehensive industrial structure adjustment and policy adjustment, then Beijing should accelerate the implementation of the policy of collecting traffic congestion charges. The pricing of traffic congestion charges should be 40 CNY, the parking fees should be increased to 13 CNY, the starting fares of buses and subways should be increased to 2.6 CNY and 4 CNY, respectively, and taxi starting prices should be raised to 17 CNY. At the same time, through the simulation results of the coupling model, the CO2 emissions reduction effect of each scenario in 2050 is better than that of business as usual scenario (BAU). Compared with BAU, C8 scheme has the largest emission reduction, with emission reduction of 19.5975 million tons in 2050, and CO2 emissions reduction intensity of more than 50%. As a result, given a comprehensive scenario, C8 is the optimal long-term development route. Our findings serve as a foundation for key Beijing administrative departments to enhance the jobs-housing link, as well as a guide for the development and execution of environmental and economic policies to reduce traffic CO2 emissions.
9. Energy, environmental, and socioeconomic potential benefit of straw resources utilization under water availability limit condition
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136274
Lots of straw resources are abandoned or burned in the open in China. It not only discharges harmful gas and carbon dioxide into the air, but also wastes huge energy. Irrigation water availability is a key factor that influences the crop yield and corresponding straw resources which is facing a severe crisis in most regions around the world. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct research about the potential benefit of utilizing straw resources from future water availability limit perspective. Xi'an City is taken as an example which is the most developed city in the west of China. This study predicts the future crop yield, and assesses the potential energy, environmental, and socioeconomic benefit of two major straw resources including winter wheat and summer maize under 6 water availability scenarios. Sensitivity analysis is further carried out for the impact of feed-in-tariff and material cost on the biomass power plant revenue and critical value determination. Key results include (1) the straw resources could generate about 5.65 × 108 kWh electricity, save about 24.33 × 104 ton raw coal, and reduce 48.12 × 104 ton carbon dioxide emission; (2) Farmers could gain about 1.35 × 108 CNY; (3) Conversion from thermal to biomass power plant could generate net benefit about 1.89 × 108 CNY considering the electricity selling benefit increase about 2.24 × 108 CNY, carbon dioxide emission cost reduction about 0.72 × 108 CNY, material purchase cost increase 0.69 × 108 CNY, and other input cost increase 0.38 × 108 CNY; (4) Higher water availability leads to more energy, environmental, and socioeconomic benefit; (5) Feed-in-tariff has to increase about 0.012 CNY/kWh for every 10 CNY/ton material cost increase to ensure the positive benefit of biomass power plant. In general, effective utilization of straw resources can not only increase farmers' income and power plant benefit, but also reduce fossil energy use and protect the environment.
10. Circular economy adoption barriers in built environment- a case of emerging economy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136201
Built environment consumes vast volumes of natural resources and also poses several environmental threats owing to mining, construction emissions, and waste disposal processes. Thus, it is imperative that the principles of circular economy (CE) be adopted to enable the recirculation of resources back to the construction system. However, in the emerging economies, owing to numerous barriers, the momentum for achieving accountable progress towards CE adoption in the construction sector has not been adequate. This research article aims to understand & examine the factors that obstruct the incorporation of CE in the built environment or the construction sector in India. A total of sixteen barriers hampering the adoption of CE in built environment are identified and categorised under six categories of economic, environmental, technical, societal, governmental, and behavioral barriers. The research uses Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method to analyse the barriers and develop a cause-effect relationship among them. This study reveals that the most predominant barrier to adopting CE in the Indian construction sector is an environmental barrier. The lack of environmentally safe material recovery processes and high operating costs for running a circular supply chain are other significant barriers. Authors further stress on the interdependence of factors and propose appropriate enablers to facilitate CE in built environment. The study's findings are intended to enable policy and decision-makers of the built environment to implement CE effectively.
11. Impact of transportation and carbon emissions on reverse channel selection in closed-loop supply chain management
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136370
Remanufacturing has gained significant attention as a way to combat global warming and natural resource depletion due to its potential environmental and economic benefits. However, transportation and logistics activities in the reverse supply chain, a critical component of the closed-loop supply chains (CLSC), have been largely overlooked by both academics and businesses. This work aims to bridge the gap by mapping the impacts of transportation distances and costs on the environmental and economic performance of CLSC management. We develop a hybrid manufacturing–remanufacturing model under different reverse-channel structures and examine the relationships between transportation distances and costs, the remanufacturing rate, the optimal reverse channel, and the net emissions of the system. The results show that the optimal remanufacturing rate decreases with an increase in transportation distances of the reverse supply chain only, and forward distance has no impact on the remanufacturing rate. However, increasing market demand reduces the impacts of long reverse distances. Furthermore, the cost of transportation also affects the remanufacturing rate. We also found that increasing remanufacturing rate increases total emissions due to higher reverse transportation distances.
12. Spatially heterogeneous relationships of PM2.5 concentrations with natural and land use factors in the Niger River Watershed, West Africa
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136406
Identifying the main factors influencing PM2.5 concentrations is critical for the control and management of elevated atmospheric pollution. Although the impact of natural and land use factors on PM2.5 concentration has previously been quantified, in this paper we show that multiple environmental factors exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity at a range of scales. A more comprehensive analysis of PM2.5 variations require the potential effects of seasonal variations in meteorological conditions, interactions between natural and land use factors, and possible multi-scale spatial effects to be accounted for. Based on the global remote sensing inversion dataset, the aim of this study is to elucidate the spatially heterogeneous relationships of PM2.5 concentrations with natural and land use factors, and their multi–scale effects. This is achieved through combining geographical detector (GD), random forest (RF) and multiscale geographically weighted regression modelling (MGWR) to reveal the underlying mechanisms of spatial variation of PM2.5 concentrations in the Niger River Watershed (NRW). The results show that natural factors, represented by meteorological and topography variables, are most prominent. Human activities, represented by land use, have significant indirect effects through interactions with meteorological factors. Elevation (ELE) and annual minimum temperature (TMIN) emerge as the most important interaction centers among natural factors. In addition, the interaction between natural and land use factors are crucial in considering PM2.5 transmission and dispersion in the NRW. The topography and meteorological factors underlie the basic spatial pattern PM2.5 concentrations in the NRW, among which seasonal meteorological parameters have a more prominent impact on PM2.5 concentration. Both natural and land use factors exhibit strong non–stationarity in respect of spatial variations in PM2.5, and the effect of environmental factors in general on PM2.5 is scale–dependent. Transport and dispersion are important constraints in terms of aerosol loading regionally. The study suggests that coupling processes between meteorological conditions, land use and PM2.5 concentrations, based on the scale effects of each factor, should be accounted for in developing aerosol pollution regulations and cooperative management strategies in the region.
13. Can the marketization of urban land transfer improve energy efficiency?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117126
Local government intervention in land resource allocation can lead to the misallocation of land resources and serious pollutant emissions. As an important market-oriented economic reform in China, the marketization of urban land transfer (MULT) might have the potential to contribute to improving resource allocation efficiency by curbing local government intervention. Therefore, this study aims to provide empirical evidence on the impact of MULT on energy efficiency. We improve the MULT evaluation method to test the mechanism through which MULT affects energy efficiency. The results show that, first, the proportion of land sold by allocation and listing methods, which is characterized by a low degree of marketization, has rapidly increased in recent years, lowering the overall level of MULT. Second, MULT has a direct and significant positive impact on improving energy efficiency. Third, the mechanism analysis indicates that MULT helps enhance energy efficiency by advancing industrial structure optimization and technological progress. Moreover, the heterogeneity analysis demonstrates that the impact of MULT on improving energy efficiency differs significantly in different reform stages and between central and peripheral cities. This study sheds light on the importance of land resource allocation in improving energy efficiency and thus has practical policy implications for promoting low-carbon energy transition in emerging countries.
14. A PES framework coupling socioeconomic and ecosystem dynamics from a sustainable development perspective
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117043
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are becoming a global ecological protection strategy used to promote sustainable social and economic development. However, the current PES research and applications are often local and one-sided. The lack of a unified framework for PES results in a high policy cost and low ecological and social benefits. A large number of local PES experiences need to be comprehensively analyzed to construct a unified PES framework, which can provide support for the implementation and optimization of nature conservation policy in different regions of the world. Here, we combined natural language processing methods to analyze 1919 global studies on PES. We obtained the topics and spatiotemporal distributions of PES, as well as the compensation modes of hotspot ecosystem services in 114 countries worldwide. PES have been studied in 80% of the world (excluding Antarctica), but the research topics and distributions are very uneven. We found a disconnection between PES socioeconomic strategies and knowledge of natural ecosystem dynamics. Therefore, the knowledge and experience of PES must be exchanged globally, and PES need to be further integrated with the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. We propose a PES framework that couples socioeconomic and ecosystem dynamics and be oriented toward sustainable development to make comprehensive management decisions. On this basis, a consistent PES solution may be provided for future theoretical research and implementation strategies of conservation.
15. The optimal choice of environmental tax revenue usage: Incentives for cleaner production or end-of-pipe treatment?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117106
The environmental tax system is effective in pollution abatement. However, levying an environmental tax may be detrimental to economic growth. Reasonable use of environmental tax revenue may achieve both environmental protection and economic growth. This study proposes to earmark environmental tax revenue for pollution treatment. Taking fiscal expenditure theory into consideration, environmental tax revenue usage is divided into transfer expenditure and purchase expenditure. An environmental computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is established to evaluate the effects of environmental tax revenue usage. The optimal choice is to increase the environmental tax rate and simultaneously use tax revenue for cleaner production subsidies and end-of-pipe treatment expenditures. Under the optimal scenario, pollutant retention decreases by 21.45%, and GDP increases by 0.006%. For most regions in China, it is better to raise the environmental tax rate to the middle level of a specified range. Moreover, the government should distribute environmental tax revenue evenly across the expenditure of different environmental protection projects.
16. Establishing the planetary boundaries framework in the sustainability reporting of ICT companies – A proposal for proxy indicators
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117032
The Planetary Boundaries framework provides a holistic view of Earth's resilience by defining boundaries of a safe operating space for humanity and measurable control variables that describe the state of the Earth-system processes. Humanity is altering these processes, which has resulted in the transgression of several Planetary Boundaries. Researchers have downscaled the Planetary Boundaries framework onto smaller settings, yet its implementation on a company scale is rare and even more so when considering corporate sustainability reporting. In an attempt to assist ICT companies in identifying their negative impact on the Earth-system processes, this paper explores how the Planetary Boundaries framework can be integrated to complement current Information and Communication Technology (ICT) corporate sustainability indicators. The purpose is to define reportable company-scale proxy indicators (hereinafter ‘proxies’) based on the Planetary Boundary control variables, to assist companies in monitoring how impacts related to the Earth-system processes change over time. Based on data collected through an extensive literature review and interviews, sixteen reportable proxies are defined. The applicability of these proxies is also tested using one ICT company as a test case. The test case concludes that the current reporting practices of the studied ICT company are sufficient for two of the proxies but require minor or major refinements for the remaining ones. The deliverables of this study can assist in establishing corporate policies and aid companies to measure and follow up on the environmental impacts associated with the Planetary Boundaries framework over time. Moreover, this study does not address the downscaling of the safe operating space associated with the different boundaries, since defining such spaces for a specific company is not possible at this point. Therefore, applying the suggested proxies would not determine whether a company is operating within a fair and reasonable share of the safe operating space but rather indicate how its impacts develop over time.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Occurrence, characteristics, and removal of microplastics in wastewater treatment plants located on the Moroccan Atlantic: The case of Agadir metropolis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 862, 1 March 2023, 160815
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are some of the main sources of microplastics (MPs) in the environment. However, studies on the occurrence and removal efficiency of MPs in WWTPs are still scarce, especially in African countries. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the abundance of MPs in the influent and effluent of two WWTPs (Aourir and M'zar) from the Agadir metropolis (Moroccan Atlantic). The two WWTPs receive different wastewater inputs (domestic and industrial). In addition, the impacts of seasonality on the fate and removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the MPs abundance in the wastewater decreased from 188 MPs/L in the influent to 50 MPs/L in the effluent for Aourir WWTP (domestic inputs); while the abundance was greater in the M'zar WWTP (urban and industrial inputs) recording a mean value of 519 MPs/L and 86 MPs/L in the influent and effluent, respectively. MPs collected in the Aourir WWTP ranged from 290 to 3200 μm, while MPs from the M'zar WWTP, ranged from 330 to 4200 μm. Overall, the size range of 100–500 μm was the most abundant for both WWTPs. Fibers were the highest MPs morphotype found, followed by fragments. MP colors were mainly red, black, blue, and transparent for both treatment plants. Additionally, FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of eight different polymers, mainly polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Seasonal variation analysis showed that MPs abundance in summer was significantly higher compared to other seasons. However, the comparison of the removal efficiency (RE) between the different seasons indicated that the winter season (74 %) recorded the highest RE for Aourir WWTP. Conversely, spring (87 %) recorded the highest RE for M'zar WWTP. SEM/EDX micrographs showed different degrees of weathering and chemical elements adhering to the surface of the MPs. The findings of the current study will serve as a baseline for future considerations about management strategies, wastewater reuse, as well as the understanding of the occurrence of microplastic pollution along the marine ecosystems of Morocco.
2. Which soil microbiome? Bacteria, fungi, and protozoa communities show different relationships with urban green space type and use-intensity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 863, 10 March 2023, 160468
Exposure to diverse microbial communities early in life can help support healthy human immune function. Soil microbiomes in public and private urban green spaces are potentially important sources of contact with diverse microbiomes for much of the global population. However, we lack understanding of how soil microbial communities vary across and within urban green spaces, and whether these patterns vary across microbial kingdoms; closing this knowledge gap may help us optimise green spaces' capacities to provide this ecosystem service. Here we explore the diversity and community compositions of soil microbiomes across urban green space types in Tasmania, Australia. Specifically, we analysed soil bacterial, fungal, and protozoan diversity and composition across private backyards and public parks. Within parks, we conducted separate sampling for areas of high and low intensity use. We found that: (i) bacteria, fungi, and protozoa showed different patterns of variation, (ii) bacterial alpha-diversity was lowest in low-intensity use areas of parks, (iii) there was relatively little variation in the community composition across backyards, and high and low intensity-use park areas and (iv) neither human-associated bacteria, nor potential microbial community function of bacteria and fungi differed significantly across green space types. To our knowledge, this is the first urban soil microbiome analysis which analyses these three soil microbial kingdoms simultaneously across public and private green space types and within public spaces according to intensity of use. These findings demonstrate how green space type and use intensity may impact on soil microbial diversity and composition, and thus may influence our opportunity to gain healthy exposure to diverse environmental microbiomes.
3. Interactions among spatial configuration aspects of urban tree canopy significantly affect its cooling effects
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 160929
Increasing urban tree canopy (UTC) has been widely recognized as an effective means for urban heat mitigation and adaptation. While numerous studies have shown that both percent cover of UTC and its spatial configuration can significantly affect urban temperature, the pathways governing these relationships are largely unexplored. Here we present a cross-city comparison aiming to fill this gap by explicitly quantifying the pathways on which percent cover of UTC and its spatial configuration affect land surface temperature (LST) using structural equation modeling (SEM), based on UTC mapped from high resolution imagery and LST derived from Landsat thermal bands. We found: 1) Although both the direct and indirect pathways significantly affected LST regardless of scales and cities, the direct pathway played a more important role in affecting LST in Baltimore, Beijing, and Shenzhen. In contrast, an opposite result was found in Sacramento, likely due to the effects of buildings and their interactions with UTC. 2) Similarly, the direct pathway of mean patch size (MPS) and mean shape index (MSI) played a more important role in affecting LST than their indirect effects via altering edge density (ED). Our results highlighted the necessity for discomposing the effects of different spatial configuration variables on LST. Understanding the pathways through which UTC affects LST can provide insights into urban heat mitigation and adaptation.
4. Shedding light on the effects of LED streetlamps on trees in urban areas: Friends or foes?
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 865, 20 March 2023, 161200
Streetlamp illumination disturbs the natural physiological processes and circadian rhythms of living organisms, including photosynthesizing "citizens”. The light-emitting diode (LED) technology has replaced high-pressure sodium lamps. Therefore, the effects of LED streetlamps on urban trees need to be elucidated as these new lamps have a different light spectrum (with a peak in the blue and red regions of the spectrum, i.e., highly efficient wavebands for photosynthesis) compared to older technologies. To address the above-mentioned issue, two widely utilised tree species in the urban environment, including Platanus × acerifolia (P) and Tilia platyphyllos (T), were grown with or without the effect of LED streetlamps using two realistic illumination intensities (300 and 700 μmol m−2 s−1). Gas exchanges and biochemical features (starch, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll content) of illuminated vs non-illuminated trees were compared during the whole vegetative season. Our results showed that both tree species were strongly influenced by LED streetlamps at physiological and biochemical levels. Specifically, the mature leaves of P and T streetlamp-illuminated trees had a lower CO2 assimilation rate at dawn and had higher chlorophyll content, with lower starch content than controls. Our results showed that the differences between the effects of the two selected light intensities on the physiochemical attributes of P and T trees were not statistically significant, suggesting the absence of a dose-dependent effect. The most significant difference between T and P trees concerning the LED-triggered species-specific effect was that the delay in winter dormancy occurred only in P individuals. This study provided insights into the extent of LED streetlamp disturbance on trees. Our findings might raise awareness of the necessity to provide less impacting solutions to improve the wellness of trees in the urban environment.
5. Waste reclamation from municipal solid waste for the cost-efficient treatment of landfill leachate with a novel biological trickle reactor system
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 865, 20 March 2023, 161129
Mature landfill leachate (MLL) would be a tough nut to crack, how to realize waste reclamation while deal with the intractable by-products deserves for more considerations. In this study, a novel system, equipped with two biological trickle reactors developed by inert wastes and a connected organic feeder using waste-recycling rotten banana powder, was established for treating MLL. Results indicated that superior pollutant removal performance and long-term stability were achieved by this system, with only COD and TN concentrations slightly higher than the relevant standard limits. But the shortage about poor resistance to shock pollution loads, was underlined by the fluctuation of water quality. Anaerobic condition and carbon source supplementation contributed to more microbial similarities but less community richness and diversity among inert fillings, and the selective enrichment of denitrification and organic-degrading strains simultaneously occurred. The comparisons with common processes demonstrated that this system was a cost-efficient choice for MLL treatment.
6. Urban CO2 imprints on carbon isotope and growth of Chinese pine in the Beijing metropolitan region
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161389
Rapid urbanization has occurred globally and resulted in increasing CO2 emissions from urban areas. Compared to natural forests, urban forests are subject to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations in view of strong urban-periurbanrural gradients of CO2 emissions. However, relevant insights in the CO2-associated urban imprints on the physiology and growth of regional forests remain lacking. By sampling foliage and tree rings of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) in the Beijing metropolitan region, China, we explored whether and how urban CO2 emissions affect stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and tree growth spatially and/or temporally. The results indicate a significant decrease in foliar δ13C values towards the urban center and this pattern was mainly explained by the urban-periurban-rural gradients of CO2 emissions as surrogated by trunk road density. Tree-ring δ13C values showed a significant decrease over last four decades and this trend was mainly explained by rising levels of CO2 and secondarily mediated by the variations of aridity index during growing season. Moreover, annual basal area increment of Chinese pine was significantly accelerated during last two decades, being mainly driven by increasing CO2 emissions and secondarily mediated by climate variations. These findings reveal significant CO2-associated imprints of urbanization on plant growth and provide empirical evidences of significant CO2-induced alteration of carbon cycles in urban forests.
7. Optimal Co-pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge and microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris: Products characterization, synergistic effects, mechanism, and reaction pathways
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 390, 1 March 2023, 135991
Co-pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris (MCV) was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the effect of feedstocks interaction on pyrolysis products and synergistic effects. Based on previous authors' research, the optimum values of reaction parameters were T = 520 °C, mixing ratio (MCV/MSS) = 0.82, and an inert gas flow rate of 0.55 L/min. For the investigation of synergetic effects at optimum point, theoretical values anticipated from each characteristic were computed as an arithmetic sum of the single pyrolysis values obtained. For the first time, by using GC analysis, changes in gas components (H2, CO, CO2, CH4) at different temperatures (220–520 °C) and reaction times (0–30 min) have been investigated. Referring to GC-MS results the percentages of oxygen-containing species, alkanes, alkenes, aliphatic, aromatic, and total hydrocarbons were changed from the theoretical value of (41.719%), (6.004%), (11.215%), (17.219%), (4.317%), and (21.536%) to experimental value (39.292%), (3.693%), (12.103%), (15.796%), (0%), and (15.796%) respectively. Fatty acids and N&O-containing compounds (amides) were increased from (12.297%) to (26.009%) and (6.989%) to (16.217%), respectively. Co-pyrolysis bio-oil was rich in fatty acids and amides compounds. So, co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and Chlorella Vulgaris provides a new orientation for high value-added utilization of biomass. It was observed that the nitrogen and oxygen content of biochar was reduced (0.29% and 1.01% respectively) compared to the theoretical condition. In the end, a comprehensive mechanism, synergistic, and reaction pathways of co-pyrolysis of MCV and MSS were presented.
8. Investigating the effectiveness of bifacial mixed metal MOF electrodes for the photoelectro-catalytic treatment of municipal wastewater
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136165
The effectiveness of bifacial mixed metal-metal organic framework (MOF) anodes for municipal wastewater's photoelectro-catalytic (PEC) treatment has been rarely explored. Herein, pollutants removal efficiency from the municipal wastewater and the effect of operational parameters is verified under a visible range of light in a PEC system using TiO2–Bi(mixed metal)-MOF and TiO2–Sb(mixed metal)-MOF anodes, respectively. The comparable efficiency of pollutant removal from municipal wastewater in the PEC system with TiO2–Bi(mixed metal)-MOF anodes is high. At optimum operation parameters, TiO2–Bi(mixed metal)-MOF anodes in the PEC system play a positive role in the removal of micropollutants and the disinfection of municipal wastewater. This study reveals that PEC treatment of municipal wastewater contributes (35% of relative luminescence inhibition) to toxic biproducts.
9. Estimating the chemical composition of municipal solid waste using the inverse method
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 393, 20 March 2023, 136156
This research aims to perform and implement an inverse solution method in waste-to-energy power plants for carrying out solid waste analysis without sampling. For this purpose, a simple simulated experiment is defined to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the method, which is investigated by adding random errors to the results of the direct problem conducted by the Monte Carlo method. The inverse problem solution procedure is solved by obtaining data categories for measuring parameters. In addition, the coefficient matrix is created and the linearization method is employed. By assuming a 0.5 percent nitrogen content in municipal solid waste, the number of unknown parameters is reduced, and the problem is solvable. The regularization method is applied to obtain the stability of the answer. The procedure is done for a municipal solid waste analysis with different regularization parameters. The mean value error and variance of the obtained solution from each analysis are evaluated and the acceptable range for regularization parameters is determined. Also, the identified matrix parameters between 1 and 100 are examined in the constant regularization parameter, and the acceptable parameters are determined. The error in validation by simulated experiment for carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, moisture, and ash content of municipal solid waste is 1.47, 3.81, 0.91, 0.22, 7.32, and 1.57 percent, respectively. In the next step, the developed procedure is applied to the Aradkooh waste-to-energy power plant in Tehran, Iran. The operating data are gathered from the power plant, and the municipal solid waste composition is estimated. Results indicate the feasibility of the proposed method, and the municipal solid waste composition and mass flow rate can be predicted indirectly by the flue gas analysis and some other measurements without needing to sample the municipal solid waste. According to the results, the carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, moisture, and ash content of municipal solid waste in the Aradkooh power plant is 21.13, 41.96, 5.70, 0.01, 25.06, and 5.63 percent, respectively. Further, the mass flow rate of municipal solid waste and air are 0.53 and 2.5 kg per second. Finally, the sensitivity of the estimated municipal solid waste composition to errors is evaluated by error analysis.
10. Mechanical properties and heavy metal leaching behaviors of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as road embankment fillings
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136355
With the development of economy and urbanization, the natural gravels and sands for new road construction materials encountered severe shortage issues in recent decades. In the meantime, the municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) is regarded as a feasible alternative of mined nature aggregates due to its similar mineralogical, physical and chemical characteristics. However, the uncertainties of long-term service performance and potential environmental pollution risk of MSWIBA prevent its widespread applications in road constructions. For these reasons, this paper investigates the resilient modulus and permanent deformation properties by the repeated load triaxial test at different moisture contents, and examines the long-term environment influence using leaching tests on the samples after subjecting to 5 freeze-thaw cycles and samples after one year weathering. Besides, the existing resilient modulus and permanent deformation prediction models of unbounded granular materials are evaluated for their applicability on MSWIBA. The test results indicate that the MSWIBA shows obvious stress-dependence and moisture-dependence in resilient modulus and permanent deformation behaviors. Moreover, the existing resilient modulus and permanent deformation prediction models with stress and moisture dependence are feasible for MSWIBA as well. Additionally, heavy metal leaching concentrations obtained from column test can meet the standard of surface water quality class V in China. This work is expected to benefit the design work and provide the insight of performance of MSWIBA as road embankment material, and promote its further widespread application in road construction.
11. A first-order kinetic model for simulating the aerobic degradation of municipal solid waste
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117093
Aerobic degradation models are important tools for investigating the aerobic degradation behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW). In this paper, a first-order kinetic model for aerobic degradation of MSW was developed. The model comprehensively considers the aerobic degradation of five substrates, i.e., holocellulose, non-cellulosic sugars, proteins, lipids and lignin. The proportion ranges of the five substrates are summarized with the recommended values given. The effects of temperature, moisture content, oxygen concentration and free air space (FAS) on the reaction rates are considered, and the effect of settlement is accounted for in the FAS correction function. The reliability of the model was verified by comparing simulations of the aerobic degradation of low food waste content (LFWC-) and high food waste content (HFWC-) MSWs to the literature. Afterwards, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to establish the relative importance of aeration rate (AR), volumetric moisture content (VMC), and temperature. VMC had the greatest influence on the aerobic degradation of LFWC-MSW, followed by temperature and then AR; for HFWC-MSW, temperature was the most important factor, then VMC and last was AR. The degradation ratio of LFWC-MSW can reach 98.0% after 100 days degradation under its optimal conditions (i.e., temperature: 55 °C, VMC: 40%, AR: 0.16 L min−1 kg−1 DM), while it is slightly higher as 99.5% for HFWC-MSW under its optimal conditions (i.e., temperature: 55 °C, VMC: 40%, AR: 0.20 L min−1 kg−1 DM).
12. Heterogeneous effects of other-regarding interventions on household recycling: A field experimental study
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117102
Behavioral interventions that address other-regarding motivations (i.e., other-regarding interventions) are gaining momentum as promising tools to stimulate household recycling. However, previous studies have shown considerable variability in the impact of such strategies, and the factors that moderate treatment effects remain poorly studied. Using a field experiment with 7195 households in Quzhou, China, this study investigated treatment effect heterogeneity systematically based on intervention types, treatment durations, personal motivations, and social networks. Three strategies were examined, including biospheric and altruistic appeals and personalized normative feedback. We found that normative feedback outperformed other strategies in inducing household participation in recycling, that the influences of all strategies attenuated over time, and that the feedback effect was greater among recipients with weaker biospheric or altruistic concerns and those embedded within stronger neighbor networks. However, no significant treatment effects were found on the amount of waste recycled. These findings improve the understanding of the heterogeneous impact of other-regarding interventions, with important implications for the design of recycling policies. Future studies need to explore additional moderators and the effects of treatment combinations.
13. Abundance and cultivable bioaerosol transport from a municipal solid waste landfill area and its risks
Environmental Pollution, Volume 320, 1 March 2023, 121038
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, constituting the third largest anthropogenic sources of bioaerosols, are suspected to be one of the major contributors to adverse health outcomes. A regional modeling of aerosol trajectories based on wind-tunnel observations and on-site monitoring was newly-developed to uncover the impacts of a typical MSW landfill on ambient bioaerosol pollution. Results showed that the horizontal diffusion velocity of bioaerosols reached 4.33 times higher than the vertical velocity under surface calm winds. On-site monitoring revealed that the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm were 3.05 times higher than those of PM1.0 in the 2.8-km downwind residential regions near the MSW landfill. With the increase in PM concentration, higher-abundance microorganisms were detected. A number of cultivable bacterial species (Micrococcus endophyticus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Salmonella enterica serovar typhi, Rhodococcus hoagie, Blastococcups) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium, Microascus cirrosus, Cochliobolus, Stemphylium vesicarium) were identified in these bioaerosols. Furthermore, distinguished by transmission electron microscopy, a longer-range transported microorganism (E. coli) clinging onto suspended PM was observed, signifying higher exposure risks. Human health risk assessments demonstrate that the residents and occupational workers in the vicinity of MSW landfill endured atmospheric diffusion-induced bioaerosol exposure risks due to open dumping activities in MSW landfill. This study clearly indicates bioaerosol pollution from landfills, and people particularly living nearby the MSW facilities, must decrease outdoor activities during dusty days.
14. Impacts of pollution heterogeneity on population exposure in dense urban areas using ultra-fine resolution air quality data
Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 125, March 2023, Pages 513-523
Traditional air quality data have a spatial resolution of 1 km or above, making it challenging to resolve detailed air pollution exposure in complex urban areas. Combining urban morphology, dynamic traffic emission, regional and local meteorology, physicochemical transformations in air quality models using big data fusion technology, an ultra-fine resolution modeling system was developed to provide air quality data down to street level. Based on one-year ultra-fine resolution data, this study investigated the effects of pollution heterogeneity on the individual and population exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in Hong Kong, one of the most densely populated and urbanized cities. Sharp fine-scale variabilities in air pollution were revealed within individual city blocks. Using traditional 1 km average to represent individual exposure resulted in a positively skewed deviation of up to 200% for high-end exposure individuals. Citizens were disproportionally affected by air pollution, with annual pollutant concentrations varied by factors of 2 to 5 among 452 District Council Constituency Areas (DCCAs) in Hong Kong, indicating great environmental inequities among the population. Unfavorable city planning resulted in a positive spatial coincidence between pollution and population, which increased public exposure to air pollutants by as large as 46% among districts in Hong Kong. Our results highlight the importance of ultra-fine pollutant data in quantifying the heterogeneity in pollution exposure in the dense urban area and the critical role of smart urban planning in reducing exposure inequities.
15. Occurrence, spatial distribution and ecological risks of antibiotics in soil in urban agglomeration
Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 125, March 2023, Pages 678-690
Antibiotics in soil environment are regarded as emerging pollutants and have introduced increasing risks to soil ecosystem and human health in rapid urbanization areas. Identifying the occurrence and spatial variability of antibiotics in soils is an urgent issue in sustaining soil security. In this study, antibiotics in soils were investigated and analyzed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. The occurrence, spatial distribution, and related affecting factors of antibiotics in soils were identified and ecological risks of antibiotics in soil environment were assessed. Results showed that (1) The mean concentration of soil antibiotics in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration was 21.79 µg/kg. Land use substantially affected the occurrence and concentration of antibiotics in soils. Concentrations of antibiotics in cropland and orchard soils were 2-3 times higher than the other land use types. (2) The concentrations of antibiotics in soils in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration presented a spatial pattern of high values in southeast, and low values in northwest. Spatial variability of antibiotics in soils was closely related to the application of organic fertilizer and wastewater irrigation as well as topographical features. Furthermore, soil properties and land management policy had substantial influences on soil antibiotics, and soil heavy metals may aggravate the accumulation of antibiotics in soils. (3) Ecological risks assessment of antibiotics in soils demonstrated that erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and doxycycline (DOX) may introduce high risks to soil ecosystem health, and more attention should be paid to the areas with intensive human activities that had potential high risk to soil ecosystem health. This study suggests that scientific land and soil management should be considered to prevent soil antibiotic pollution and sustain soil security in urban agglomeration.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Water footprint and wastewater quality assessment of yeast single cell oil production: Gate to gate approach for industrial water sustainability
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161127
Effective water resource utilization and sustainability for industrial operations is a growing concern. With increased industrial water demand, Abstraction and water quality changes are rising. In India, distilleries generate more than 40.4 billion litres of effluent daily within the fermentation industry. Water, a public good with market and opportunity costs, needs effective mapping and management. Emerging distillery processes such as yeast lipid fermentation, if developed along with water sustainability, could aid in advancing water resource management. In the scope of this idea, the present study focuses on assessing the water footprint and water quality mapping for Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 lipid production using crude glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry. The assessment was based on primary data generated during the 500 L plant scale operation. The process's blue water footprint was assessed by applying a chain-summation approach, and the grey water requirement was determined by measuring water quality parameters for the effluent streams. The process's net blue and grey water footprint were estimated to be 3.87 and 23.66 m3 water/kg of lipid, respectively. Water quality index ratings were identified for all the respective water streams within the processing system, and human risk factors were estimated. The results suggested proper treatment of the spent broth, whereas the secondary effluent stream from cleaning operations could be reutilized within the system. Quality mapping also suggested that the effluent's high organic and mineral load can be processed for water and material recovery, which may significantly reduce the process's grey water and pollution load.
2. A performance comparison study on PM2.5 prediction at industrial areas using different training algorithms of feedforward-backpropagation neural network (FBNN)
Chemosphere, Volume 317, March 2023, 137788
Presence of particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the atmosphere is fast increasing in Malaysia due to industrialization and urbanization. Prolonged exposure of PM2.5 can cause serious health effects to human. This research is aimed to identify the most reliable model to predict the PM2.5 pollution using multi-layered feedforward-backpropagation neural network (FBNN). Air quality and meteorological data were collected from Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. Six different training algorithms consisting of thirteen various training functions were trained and compared. FBNN model with the highest coefficient correlation (R2) and lowest root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were selected as the best performing model. Levenberg Marquardt (trainlm) is the best performing algorithms compared to other algorithms with R2 value of 0.9834 and the lowest error values for RMSE (2.3981), MAE (1.7843) and MAPE (0.1063).
3. Pollution and health-risk assessments of Cr-contaminated soils from a tannery waste lagoon, Hebei, north China: With emphasis on Cr speciation
Chemosphere, Volume 317, March 2023, 137908
In this paper, heavy metals (i.e., V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Sb) in soils from a tannery waste lagoon, Hebei, north China were investigated. Element concentrates were determined by a portable X-ray fluorescence in situ and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the lab. Two sets of indexes, including geological accumulation index, contamination factor, and pollution load index, and hazard quotient and total carcinogenic risk were adopted to evaluate the pollution and health-risk of heavy metals. A scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to observe chromium occurrence and speciation. With an average of 6493.11 mg/kg, chromium contents in the lagoon soils reached up to 12971.19 mg/kg, 211-times higher than the threshold of Chinese soils (61.00 mg/kg). Elevated Cr contents resulted in significantly high pollution and noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks in the studied area. Chromium in most soils occurred predominately as Cr3+ (60–74%), and to a lesser extent, Cr6+. The mechanism responsible for decreasing Cr6+ percentages in soils with increasing depth was summarized: Cr6+ favors aqueous environment; soil moisture decreased with increasing depth; in soils especially in the lower portion, Cr6+ was reduced by Fe0 and Fe2, transforming into Cr3+ and Fe3+. In addition, the alkaline condition promoted Cr3+ to precipitate, resulting more Cr3+ absorbing in soils. The intimate association of Cr and Fe in soils (i.e., Cr mainly occurred in Fe oxides and dolomite) further confirmed our assumptions. A combined application of microorganism (e.g., Aeromonas hydrophila) and biochar (prepared from maize stalk or peanut shells) were recommended to alleviate Cr pollution in the soils.
4. Three pathways towards elimination of CO2 emissions from industrial plants that use hydrocarbon fuels
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 391, 10 March 2023, 136159
Many industrial plants burn hydrocarbon fuels to generate electricity and high-temperature thermal energy required in their processes. This work proposes a novel system for generation of such thermal energy while eliminating CO2 emissions. The system produces electricity, thermal energy, methanol, and carbon black. Combined heat and power (CHP) unit generates high-temperature thermal energy and electricity required by the industrial plant; CO2 produced by CHP and by the plant itself is converted to methanol by using hydrogen produced via pyrolysis of methane, which has recently advanced to the first industrial scale plant. Thermal energy contained in the CHP flue gas replaces utility plant boilers or furnaces of the industrial plant (e.g. a refinery or a petrochemical plant). Two pathways are based on two different methane pyrolysis methods and CO2 removal via MEA absorption. The third pathway replaces MEA absorption with a novel in situ CO2 conversion reactor. Proposed pathways are examined as ways of eliminating CO2 emissions from a 5 million ton of crude oil per annum refinery. The study includes operational costs, capital costs, and material prices in USA, EU, and China. The results show that the proposed pathways are profitable for USA and EU, while for China they are not. The proposed pathways provide CO2 free energy generation from natural gas as an alternative to energy generation from either solar, wind or hydro energy sources. In addition, they enable capture and conversion of CO2 emissions from industrial process units.
5. Pollution emission reduction effect of the coordinated development of inward and outward FDI in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 391, 10 March 2023, 136233
This paper uses a panel data of 37 industrial sectors in China from 2003 to 2015, adopts the specification of a fixed effect model, and studies the influence of the coordinated development of inward and outward FDI on industrial pollution emissions. A negative correlation is found between the coordinated development level of inward and outward FDI and the industrial pollution emission level, indicating a pollution emission reduction effect associated with the coordinated development of inward and outward FDI. Furthermore, the moderation effect of global value chain position indicates that an industry can benefit from a stronger emission reduction effect associated with the coordinated development level of inward and outward FDI if it evolves to a higher position in the global value chain. In addition, the heterogeneity analysis indicates that industries with lower energy intensity, a lower ratio of state-owned enterprises, and with more green patents benefit from a more obvious effect on reducing industrial pollution emissions that is caused by the coordinated development of inward and outward FDI.
6. The effects of environmental investments on the economic performance of industrial plants – Evidence from Finland
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136142
Industrial plants that invest in environmental protection are larger and more productive, but do environmental protection investments also have a causal effect on their economic performance? This study proposes a novel econometric method to analyze the economic performance effects of environmental investments. Propensity score matching and difference-in-differences estimation on matched sample are used to investigate whether Finnish industrial plants that start investing in environmental protection out- or underperform otherwise similar plants. The empirical results show that plants that invest in environmental protection increase their turnover in comparison to control plants and that their labor productivity also increases. The economic gains are stronger when environmental protection investments are combined with environmental R&D, which implies complementarities between these activities.
7. Sector-based volatile organic compound emission characteristics and reduction perspectives for coating materials manufacturing in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136407
Coating materials manufacturing, with heavy use of organic raw materials and excipients, has become an important industrial source of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Effective control measures must be developed which rely on a complete understanding of both the current emission characteristics and future emission projections. Thus, a comprehensive whole-process method was proposed and local investigations and measurements were conducted to acquire the material balance-based emission factors (EFs) and sector-based VOC emission characteristics in China. Then, its historical emission trends were evaluated and future reduction perspectives were also projected. The results indicate that: (1) the non-controlled VOC EFs for different coatings were 80 g/kg solvent-based paint, 11 g/kg water-based paint, 49 g/kg varnish, 9 g/kg others (pigment, dyestuff, auxiliary), and 70 g/kg ink, respectively. (2) The VOC emissions increased from 0.34 Gg in 1949 to 872.72 Gg in 2018, and solvent-based paint was always the largest contributor (69–83%). Guangdong attributed the highest emissions (24.1%) in 2018, followed by Jiangsu (10.7%) and Sichuan (10.5%) provinces. The most abundant species were aromatics. (3) Disposal facility efficiency and VOC collection rate together determined the total process treatment efficiency. The disposal efficiency of adapted facilities could reach 90–99%, but the unmaintained or unsuitable facilities are more general and greatly reduced in efficiency. The collection rate could be up to >90% but only averaged about 40%. (4) Improving the treatment efficiency and expanding the market for green paint are the main pathways to reducing VOC emissions, and three scenarios were hereby set with increasing intensities. Compared to the non-controlled scenario, if basic or stringent control measures were fully implemented in China in 2030, the VOC emissions would be reduced by 70% or 81%, respectively.
8. The eco-efficiency evaluation in China's cement industry: A city-level study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 865, 20 March 2023, 161132
To implement strict environmental targets in China's cement industry into small regions, one should evaluate the city-level eco-efficiency that provides comprehensive instruction. This study establishes a plant-level database with 4000+ production lines located in 341 cities, calculates the energy consumption and CO2, SO2, NOx, and PM emissions, evaluates the eco-efficiency in each city via Slacks-based Measure, and verifies the spatial features of these indicators. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of the industry are highly concentrated, with ~10 % of the land area contributing to 28.4 %–34.6 % of the total amounts in 2019. The average eco-efficiency value of the clinker calcination and cement grinding processes are 0.761 and 0.714, but the city clusters having low eco-efficiency values are inconsistent with the ones having large energy consumption and emission amounts. The results can contribute to the implementation of the targets such as carbon peaking and pollution cap in China's cement industry.
9. Improved emission factors and speciation to characterize VOC emissions in the printing industry in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161295
Printing industry is one of the most important sources of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in China, and is thus a key industrial sector in terms of VOC control. However, process-based VOC emission and speciation from the printing industry have not been well identified, mainly owing to the poor emission factors (EFs) and diversity of source profiles. In this study, we systematically characterized process-based VOC emissions from the printing industry for the period of 2010–2019, through the establishment of improved emission factors and composite source profiles. VOC emissions from the printing industry were found to continuously increase from 2010 to 2018, reaching their maximum in 2018 at 939.8 Gg, but started to decrease afterwards. The substantial growth is driven by the large demand for ink and adhesive and the absence of effective control measures in the printing industry. The total VOC emissions and ozone formation potential (OFP) in China in 2019 were 916.1 Gg and 1834.5 Gg, respectively. Gravure printing and the compound process were the processes that contributed the most to both emissions and OFP. Rapidly developing provinces such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang were the largest contributors to emissions. Oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) accounted for most of the VOC emissions, followed by alkanes and aromatics, while aromatics were the dominant groups for total OFP, followed by alkenes/alkynes and OVOCs. Ethyl acetate, toluene, isopropanol, isopentane, and n-pentane were the top five VOC species in terms of emissions, while toluene, ethyl acetate, 1,3-butadiene, isopentane, and 1-butene were the top five species in terms of OFP. Scientific and precise control policy were proposed, involving four aspects: environmental access, emission standards, classification and management, and research on source substitution. We believe our study will provide an important reference for the systematic characterization and control policy of VOC emissions from other industries.
10. CO2 emission reduction pathways of iron and steel industry in Shandong based on CO2 emission equity and efficiency
Resources Policy, Volume 81, March 2023, 103406
In the context of the "dual carbon” goal, the governance of CO2 emissions should comprehensively consider efficiency and equity. Shandong is a major province of the iron and steel industry, and the transformation of its high-CO2 emission development model is urgent. Based on the CO2 emission data of the iron and steel industry in 14 prefecture-level cities in Shandong from 2011 to 2020, this paper adopted the Super-SBM model and constructed a CO2 emission equity indicator to measure the CO2 emission efficiency and equity respectively. According to the "equity-efficiency” combination, the 14 cities were divided into four types of regions, and different corresponding CO2 emission reduction pathways were designed. The results demonstrated that: (1) The CO2 emission equity exhibited an upward trend, mainly due to the expansion of the iron and steel industry and the increase of employees. The CO2 emission efficiency fluctuated slightly and was ineffective due to the ineffective scale effect. (2) From the perspective of CO2 emission trading, the iron and steel industry in most cities was expected to purchase CO2 emission allowances, while that in Linyi and Rizhao was expected to sell them. (3) The CO2 emissions as a whole had the characteristics of "high equity and low efficiency”.
11. The impact of carbon emission trading on green innovation of China's power industry
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 99, March 2023, 107040
As the primary source sector of carbon emissions, the power industry's green innovation is an indispensable component of China's low-carbon transformation. This paper took China's Carbon Emission Trading Scheme as a quasi-natural experience and adopted the synthetic control method to evaluate the impact of Carbon Emission Trading Scheme pilot policy on power industry's green innovation based on the provincial industrial level data. Furthermore, this paper examined the impact mechanisms of Carbon Emission Trading Scheme on the power industry's green innovation through policy comparison, moderating and mediating effect analyses. The research findings show that: 1) there is heterogeneity in Carbon Emission Trading Scheme's effectiveness in inducing green innovation in China, the power industry only in Beijing and Guangdong has been significantly promoted, while other pilots have not; 2) the success of Beijing and Guangdong can be attributed to distinctive features of their carbon market and power industry, including the refined quota accounting mechanism, the application of paid quota allocation, the larger enterprise scale and more research and development investment; 3) enterprise scale and research and development investment have positive moderating effect and mediating effect in the promotional effect of the Carbon Emission Trading Scheme on green innovation respectively. Finally, some policy recommendations are put forward to promote the power industry's green innovation and carbon market construction.
12. Algal-derived biochar as an efficient adsorbent for removal of Cr (VI) in textile industry wastewater: Non-linear isotherm, kinetics and ANN studies
Chemosphere, Volume 316, March 2023, 137826
Textile industries release effluent that contains the vast majority of heavy metals in which Cr (VI) is a toxic carcinogenic element that causes an environmental problem. The aim of the work is to synthesize algae-derived biochar derived from algae using slow pyrolysis at an operating temperature of 500 °C, a heating rate of 10 °C/min and a residence time of 60 min and to use it as an adsorbent to remove Cr (VI). The batch experiment was carried out using different concentrations of Cr (VI) (1, 10, 25, 50, 100, 125, 150 and 200 ppm) at different intervals of time (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min). The maximum removal percentage of Cr (VI) is 97.88% for the metal concentration of 1 ppm exhibiting non-linear adsorption isotherm (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Temkin models) and kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, nth order, and intra-particle diffusion) were analyzed using a solver add-in of Microsoft Excel. According to the results, the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.999) and pseudo-nth order models are suitable to describe monolayer adsorption and the process kinetics, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of algal biochar to adsorb is 186.94 mg/g. For the prediction of the optimal removal efficacy, an artificial neural network of the MLP-2-7-1 model was used. The results obtained are useful for future work using algal biochar as an adsorbent of Cr (VI) from textile wastewater to achieve sustainable development goals.
13. Designing policy packages for a climate-neutral industry: A case study from the Netherlands
Ecological Economics, Volume 205, March 2023, 107720
This paper investigates the design of policy packages to enable carbon neutrality in the manufacturing sector by 2050, based on the case of the Netherlands. It first models potential pathways to net-zero emissions by 2050 in the Dutch manufacturing sector, and then evaluates the current policy framework's ability to catalyse the transition. The analysis shows that the Netherlands' credible commitment to raising carbon prices combined with ambitious technology support provides strong incentives for manufacturing to significantly decarbonise. However, even if the carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, it is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. Moreover, the country's technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The paper offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country's carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans. Other countries can learn from the Dutch experience when designing their own decarbonisation strategy for the manufacturing sector.
14. Place-based policy upgrading, business environment, and urban innovation: Evidence from high-tech zones in China
International Review of Financial Analysis, Volume 86, March 2023, 102545
High-tech zones (HTZs) are an important place-based policy of China, established for promoting urban innovation. Since 2007, the Chinese central government has successfully upgraded many provincial HTZs to national HTZs. Based on panel data from 251 cities from 2004 to 2016, we study the impact of China's HTZ upgrading policy on urban innovation and the mechanism underlying this effect. We find that the place-based upgrading policy significantly improves the innovation level of cities; this is facilitated by improvement to the urban business environment in terms of financing channels, infrastructure, and industrial agglomeration. Heterogeneity analysis reveals that the improvements resulting from HTZ upgrading are prominent in cities located in the eastern regions of China, in cities adjacent to provincial capitals, and cities with convenient transportation or a high degree of marketization.
15. Do geopolitical risk, green finance, and the rule of law affect the sustainable environment in China? Findings from the BARDL approach
Resources Policy, Volume 81, March 2023, 103403
Keeping a sustainable environment in this era seems unrealistic due to numerous environmental factors; among those, carbon emission is the most daunting element to imbalanced the global sustainable environment. Such complications motivate the present authors to investigate the role of geopolitical risk, green finance, and the rule of law in attaining a sustainable environment in China. The data series of the years from 1995 to 2020 is tested through the Bootstrapped ARDL method under the theoretical framework of EKC theory. Before employing the BARDL technique, the descriptive analysis and unit root test is tested on the data to check the normality and validity of the data set. Afterward, the BARDL method for long- and short-run cointegration is analyzed based on the size and weak power characteristics. Finally, the Granger causality test proposed by Troster et al. (2018) is examined to check the cause and effect of geopolitical risk, green finance, and the rule of law with a sustainable environment. The Granger test identified the unidirectional causality among CE to GFIN and LAW, although other variables show the bi-directional causality. However, the results indicate the positive association of GPD and GPR with CE (carbon emission) in China's long-run and short-run data. A significant and negative relationship between the GFIN, GDP square, and the rule of law with CE is analyzed in both the long and short-run on the grounds of China's economy. In addition, the CUMSUM and CUMSUMsq test confirms the stability and reliability of the model. Furthermore, based on the findings, practical implications and limitations are developed to endure a sustainable environment in China.
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