Về quản lý môi trường
- Ô nhiễm PM2.5 khu vực được giới hạn bởi ranh giới bên trong khí quyển ở Đồng bằng Hoa Bắc: Phân tích dựa trên các quan sát bề mặt.
- Đánh giá tiềm năng về hệ thống điện hóa sinh học để xử lý nước thải: Thành tựu, trở ngại và vai trò trong môi trường bền vững.
- Tác động phối hợp của chuyển đổi năng lượng đối với giảm thiểu ô nhiễm không khí và kiểm soát phát thải CO2 ở Trung Quốc.
- Xem xét vai trò của năng lượng hạt nhân và năng lượng tái tạo trong việc giảm lượng khí thải carbon: Liệu vai trò của đổi mới công nghệ có thực sự tạo ra sự khác biệt nào đó không?
- Tác động đi đôi giữa phát triển kinh tế và môi trường sinh thái đô thị ở cảng Thượng Hải.
- Tác động tiềm tàng của các kênh chuyển dòng và các khu vực giữ nước như các biện pháp thích ứng với biến đổi khí hậu đối với việc giảm thiểu rủi ro lũ lụt: Một nghiên cứu điển hình về mô hình thủy văn từ lưu vực sông Chao Phraya, Thái Lan.
- Động lực của các ca tử vong do tim mạch và hô hấp do phơi nhiễm PM2.5 trong thời gian dài ở các siêu đô thị toàn cầu.
- Những cú sốc của biến đổi khí hậu đối với tăng trưởng kinh tế ở các nền kinh tế đang phát triển: Bằng chứng từ Iran.
- Hoa Kỳ và Trung Quốc: các con đường và chính sách để trung lập các-bon.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Khám phá hệ vi sinh vật, gen kháng thuốc kháng sinh, yếu tố di truyền di động và các mầm bệnh có khả năng kháng thuốc trong các nhà máy xử lý nước thải đô thị ở Brazil.
- Vi nhựa trong bãi rác và nước rỉ rác: Sự xuất hiện, hành vi môi trường và chiến lược loại bỏ.
- Nồng độ kim loại (loid), khả năng tiếp cận sinh học và đồng vị chì ổn định trong đất và rau từ các khu vườn cộng đồng đô thị.
- Bio-Morpheme là ý tưởng thiết kế sáng tạo cho cấu trúc đô thị "Thành phố sinh học” trong bối cảnh tiết kiệm nước và sức khỏe con người.
- Phân tích cấp thành phố về sự khác biệt trong phân bố không gian của các công trình xanh và các lực lượng kinh tế - Một nghiên cứu điển hình ở Trung Quốc.
- Giảm phát thải các-bon sẽ ảnh hưởng như thế nào đến khả năng phục hồi của đô thị.
- Quá trình phát triển hóa học của nước mưa do lượng mưa cực lớn ở siêu đô thị: Ý nghĩa đối với việc xác định nguồn ô nhiễm không khí đô thị.
- Từ không gian xanh đô thị đến các hành vi sức khỏe: Góc nhìn qua trung gian của các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Đặc điểm của chùm khói công nghiệp có mùi bằng cách kết hợp các kỹ thuật khối phổ nhanh và chậm cho các hợp chất hữu cơ dễ bay hơi.
- Mesocosm đã xây dựng các vùng đất ngập nước để loại bỏ các chất vi lượng từ nước thải của nhà máy xử lý nước thải: Ảnh hưởng của chất nền và tiền xử lý.
- Quy trình thu hồi nước thải nhà máy bột giấy mới để sử dụng CO2 và SOx.
- Mô hình hóa và đánh giá kinh tế kỹ thuật của việc loại bỏ và thu hồi nitơ điện hóa (sinh học) từ nước thải ở quy mô nhà máy xử lý đầy đủ.
- Đánh giá về các chất hấp phụ gốc carbon từ các nguyên liệu hữu cơ để loại bỏ các chất gây ô nhiễm hữu cơ từ nước xử lý công nghiệp dầu khí: Sản xuất, hiệu suất hấp phụ và khoảng trống nghiên cứu.
- Các chất ô nhiễm môi trường của nước thải công nghiệp giấy và tác hại của chúng đối với sức khỏe con người và hệ sinh thái.
- Ngành công nghiệp thời trang bền vững và tẩy rửa xanh.
- Cải thiện hiệu quả sử dụng nước và hiệu suất môi trường trong nhà máy dệt nhuộm vải dệt kim tích hợp.
- Mô hình lập kế hoạch năng lượng đa chu kỳ dựa trên tích hợp quy trình cho các ngành công nghiệp chuyên sâu về CO2.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Tracer-based characterization of fine carbonaceous aerosol in Beijing during a strict emission control period
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156638
Strict emission controls were implemented in Beijing and the surrounding regions in the North China Plain to guarantee good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. Thus, the APEC period provides a good opportunity to study the sources and formation processes of atmospheric organic aerosol. Here, fine particles (PM2.5, particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less) collected in urban Beijing before and during the APEC period were analyzed for molecular tracers of primary and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) were also reconstructed using a tracer-based method. The concentrations of biogenic SOA tracers ranged from 1.09 to 34.5 ng m−3 (mean 10.3 ± 8.51 ng m−3). Monoterpene oxidation products were the largest contributor to biogenic SOA, followed by isoprene- and sesquiterpene-derived SOA. The concentrations of biogenic SOA tracers decreased by 50 % during the APEC, which was largely attributed to the implementation of emission controls by the Chinese government. The increasing mass fractions of biogenic SOA tracers from isoprene and sesquiterpene during the pollution episodes implied that their photooxidation processes contributed to the poor air quality in urban Beijing. The reconstructed biogenic and anthropogenic SOC and POC concentrations were 89.6 ± 96.8 ng m−3, 570 ± 611 ng m−3, and 2.49 ± 2.08 μg m−3, respectively, accounting for 21.9 ± 11.4 % of OC in total. Biomass-burning derived OC was the largest contributor to carbonaceous aerosol over the North China Plain. By comparing the results before and during the APEC, the emission controls effectively mitigated about 34 % of the estimated OC and were more effective at reducing SOC than POC. This suggests that the reduction of the primary organic aerosol loading is harder than SOA over the North China Plain.
2. Regional PM2.5 pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: Analysis based on surface observations
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156728
There are plenty of mesoscale meteorological discontinuities in the atmosphere, acting as atmospheric internal boundaries (AIBs). In conjunction with the atmospheric boundary layer in the vertical direction, they form confined three-dimensional structures that significantly affect air pollution. However, the role of AIBs in regional pollution has not been systematically elucidated. Based on surface observations, this study investigates PM2.5 pollution distributions under the forcing of various AIBs in the North China Plain. A total of 98 regional pollution episodes are identified during the autumn and winter of 2014–2020, and are further classified according to the impact of AIBs. In the pollution formation-maintenance stage, there are three categories. The frontal category (with a frequency of 41%), including the frontal trough type and frontal inverted trough type, displays the most polluted air masses along the mountains. The frontal AIB defines the lateral border of the pollution zone and forms a frontal inversion above, creating a closed and stable structure wherein the highest concentration of PM2.5 accumulates. The wind shear category (29%) is decided by the dynamic convergence AIB, which causes lighter PM2.5 pollution with diverse spatial patterns corresponding to west-southwest shear, southeast-east shear, and south-north shear. The topographic obstruction category (14%) presents as a narrow arc-shaped pollution belt at the foot of the windward mountains, resulting from the cold air damming AIB with dynamical obstruction and thermal stratification. Pollution diffuses in three ways: northwest, west, and northeast, respectively. The first one is the strongest and most frequent (42%), with both strong horizontal wind and vertical mixing. The second category is relatively rare (17%), characterized by foehn-induced active vertical ventilation. The last one is frequent (41%), but relatively weak, mainly relying on horizontal diffusion. Some evolution details of the AIB affecting PM2.5 pollution are also illustrated by a typical case.
3. Prospective review on bioelectrochemical systems for wastewater treatment: Achievements, hindrances and role in sustainable environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156691
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a relatively new arena for producing bioelectricity, desalinating sea water, and treating industrial effluents by removing organic matter. Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) are promising for obtaining value-added products during simultaneous remediation of pollutants from wastewater. The search for more affordable desalination technology has led to the development of microbial desalination cells (MDCs). MDC combines the operation of microbial fuel cells (MFC) with electrodialysis for water desalination and energy generation. It has received notable interest of researchers in desalination and wastewater treatment because of low energy requirement and eco-friendly nature. Firstly, this article provides a brief overview of MDC technology. Secondly, factors affecting functioning of MDC and its applications have been accentuated. Additionally, challenges and future outlook on the development of this technology have been delineated. State-of-the-art information provided in this review would expand the scope of interdisciplinary and translational research.
4. Coordinated effects of energy transition on air pollution mitigation and CO2 emission control in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156482
China has made progress in energy transition to improve air quality, but still confronts challenges including further ambient PM2.5 reduction, O3 pollution mitigation, and CO2 emission control. To explore the coordinated effects of energy transition on air quality and carbon emission in the near term in China, we designed 4 scenarios in 2025 based on different projections of energy transition progress with varying end-of-pipe control level, in each of which we calculated emissions of major air pollutants and CO2, and simulated ambient PM2.5 and O3 concentrations. Results show that energy transition has disparate effects on emission reduction of different air pollutants and sectors, which largely depends on their current end-of-pipe control levels. The different effects on emission reduction may result in opposite variation tendencies of ambient PM2.5 and O3 concentration in a future scenario with aggressive energy transition policies and end-of-pipe control level in 2018. With the end-of-pipe control level strengthened in 2025, PM2.5 and O3 concentration could both reduce on the national scale, but the reduction of ambient O3 lags behind PM2.5, indicating the difficulty of O3 pollution control. As to CO2, national emission would go up in 2025 either implementing current or aggressive energy transition policies due to growing needs of electricity and on-road transportation, but emissions in most provinces could decline to below the 2018 level with aggressive energy transition policies because of substitution of clean energy in industrial, residential and off-road transportation sectors. The study results suggest strictly implementing restrictive end-of-pipe control measures along with energy transition to simultaneously reduce ambient PM2.5 and O3 concentration, and accelerating substitution of renewable energy in power sectors where electricity generation grows rapidly to synergistically control air pollution and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the projection of CO2 emissions could provide references for short-term emission control targets from the perspective of air quality improvement.
5. Examining the role of nuclear and renewable energy in reducing carbon footprint: Does the role of technological innovation really create some difference?
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156662
The deployment of energy sources is considered the compassion of several United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Countries should keep balance with the three major proportions of the global energy trilemma: energy security, affordability, energy access, and ecological balance to construct a solid basis for competitiveness and prosperity. In this regard, this study examines the influence of nuclear energy, technological innovations, renewable energy, non-renewable energy, and natural resources on carbon footprint in the highest nuclear energy-producing countries from 1990 to 2019. To do this, we developed an inclusive and comprehensive empirical investigation and applied modern econometric approaches. Panel second-generation long-run cointegration advocates long-run associations among the series. The findings reveal that nuclear and renewable energy consumption extensively improve environmental excellence. Conversely, technological innovations and non-renewable energy significantly reduce environmental sustainability. Moreover, natural resources play an adverse role in long-run. The findings of the panel causality test discovered unidirectional causality is running from carbon footprint to nuclear energy. Additionally, bidirectional causality exists between technological innovations, renewables, non-renewables, and natural resources with carbon footprint. This recommends that these nations should integrate energy policy activities and develop energy strategy consistency by harmonizing the vital global nuclear energy aspects to assist a well-calibrated energy structure.
6. The coupling effect between economic development and the urban ecological environment in Shanghai port
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156734
With the rapid development of ports in the world today, the ecological environment pollution of port cities is becoming more and more serious. How to coordinate the port industry and the urban environment is an urgent problem to be solved. This article proposes a system to evaluate the coordination between port industry chain development and the urban ecological environment by taking Shanghai Port as an example. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method was applied to calculate the weights of various indexes, then the Coupling Coordination Degree Model (CCDM) was adopted to systematically study the coordination relationship between port industry development and the urban ecological environment. Our research finds the coupling coordination degree between Shanghai Port's economic development and the urban ecological environment shows an overall upward trend, changing from severely misaligned in 2000 (0.125) to barely coordinated in 2019 (0.691). Shanghai has achieved some results in constructing the ecological environment and green port, but there is still much room for improvement. Shanghai port needs to strengthen container transportation, enhance energy conservation and emission reduction, and vigorously promote the development of a green port. This study will provide a basis and reference for relevant institutions, government departments, and policymakers to formulate scientific and effective green port industry chain development strategies.
7. Potential impact of diversion canals and retention areas as climate change adaptation measures on flood risk reduction: A hydrological modelling case study from the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156742
The countries of Southeast Asia are projected to experience severe flood damage and economic impacts from climate change, compared with the global average. Hence adaptation by incorporating infrastructures is essential, but it has been seldom explicitly included in the simulations projecting climate change impacts on flood risk in these countries. Quantifying the effects of infrastructure is the key to climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted in the Chao Phraya River Basin (CPRB) in Thailand to examine the adaptation potential of (i) existing structural and non-structural measures that include reservoir and diversion dams, diversion canals, and water retention areas, and (ii) the combined adaptation measures, a combination of alterations made to the existing diversion canals and retention areas, on reducing future floods using the H08 global hydrological model (GHM).
The results revealed that the impact of existing measures on the future flood reduction was smaller than the increase caused by warming in the CPRB. Conversely, the combined adaptation measures successfully mitigated the effect of warming by redirecting nearly 50 % of the diverted river flow to the ocean and storing 30 % of the diverted flow in the retention areas. Although a remarkable reduction was noted in the basin-wide flood risk, the effect of adaptation measures greatly varied across the basin. The combined adaptation measures largely reduced the number of flooding days by close to 100 at many of the considered stations within the basin, except for extreme flood events (historical 1-percentile flood events). This further reveals that the feasibility of adaptation measures in alleviating the extreme future floods will be limited in flood-vulnerable basins and thus require area-based prioritization for flood management. The modelling framework implemented in this study can be easily adapted to different GHMs and regions and should be examined for their applicability
8. Global spatio-temporal change assessment in interregional water stress footprint in China by a high resolution MRIO model
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156682
Developing effective strategies to alleviate increasing water stress in China requires an understanding of how consumption and production drive water stress footprints (WSF) at a high resolution and multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, current Chinese multi-regional input-output (CMRIO) models have limited resolution. Here, we build a high-resolution international MRIO model covering 31 Chinese provinces, 163 sectors, to address this issue, and then analyze the impact of changes in China's interprovincial and international trade patterns on the WSF from 2012 to 2017. We find that China's water stress embodied in inter-provincial trade has increased year after year, to 5606 km3 H2O-eq in 2017, exceeding 50 % of the total domestic footprint. Domestic water stress transfer is most apparent in the outsourcing of water stress from eastern coastal regions to Central and Western regions, with the top interregional supply chain paths mainly associated with the demand of processed rice and tobacco products. China has transformed into a net exporter of water stress in 2017, with water stress exports to developing countries accounting for 54 % of total exports, up from 51 % in 2012. With deepening globalization, trade between China and developing countries has boosted bilateral economic development, while also exacerbating water stress in China. In addition to agricultural cultivation, industrial products such as plastics and steel exported to meet international industries further contribute to water stress in Northern China. Further identify hotspots of water stress consumption is needed to prioritize actions to relieve regional water stress in a more effective manner, and our study can provide key information.
9. Influence of view factors on intra-urban air temperature and thermal comfort variability in a temperate city
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156720
Urban geometry is known to be one of the major factors in explaining the intra-urban temperature variations. A commonly used indicator to describe the urban geometry is the sky view factor. However, the existing studies have shown that the relationship between SVF and urban temperature is quite contradictory. This suggests that a single SVF cannot accurately quantify the urban geometry. For comparison, we here propose to use view factors, including sky, building and tree view factors (SVF, BVF, and TVF, respectively), to accurately quantify the three-dimensional urban geometry. Based on microclimate measurements conducted in Beijing Olympic Park and its surrounding urban environment in Beijing, China, the impact of view factors on intra-urban air temperature and thermal comfort was evaluated. Measurements were conducted along a selected path during hot summer days with clear skies and light winds by mobile traverses. The obtained results showed that SVF was positively correlated with air temperature during the day but negatively correlated with air temperature at night. BVF mainly played a warming role in both daytime and nighttime. Especially at night, BVF was the main geometric warming factor. TVF had a significant cooling effect during the day but did not have a negative effect at night due to reduced SVF. There was a strong point-to-point correlation between SVF and outdoor thermal comfort in the daytime. The mean differences in Mean Radiant Temperature and Physiologically Equivalent Temperature between shaded and unshaded sites were 12.0 °C and 6.8 °C, respectively, which suggested that providing effective shading is extremely important for improving outdoor daytime thermal comfort.
10. The dynamics of cardiovascular and respiratory deaths attributed to long-term PM2.5 exposures in global megacities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 842, 10 October 2022, 156951
Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is a significant driver of premature deaths. We estimate the number of cardiovascular and respiratory (CR) premature deaths attributed to long-term exposure to PM2.5 in 33 global megacities based on long-term remotely sensed observations from 2000 to 2019. Our analysis uses high-resolution (0.01 degree) PM2.5 concentration data and cause-specific integrated exposure-response (IER) functions developed for the Global Burden of Disease Project. From 2000 to 2019, PM2.5-related CR death rates per 1000 people increased in 6 of 33 megacities, decreased in 9, and remained constant in 18 megacities. The increase in PM2.5-related CR mortality in 11 megacities located in South and East Asia during the period 2000–2019 can be attributed to the increases in PM2.5 concentrations. All 33 megacities could avoid 30,248 (9 %), 62,989 (20 %), 128,457 (40 %), 198,462 (62 %) and all of the estimated 322,515 CR deaths attributed to PM2.5 pollution in 2019 if they were to attain the World Health Organization's four interim PM2.5 targets (IT-1, IT-2, IT-3, and IT-4) and the new air quality guideline (AQG), respectively. Major improvements in air quality are needed to reduce the number of CR deaths attributed to PM2.5 in South and East Asia, in addition to ny reductions that would likely follow shifts in the population structures of these megacities moving forward.
11. Characteristics and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Xinxiang, China, during the 2021 summer ozone pollution control
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 842, 10 October 2022, 156746
Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted in Xinxiang, China, during the implementation of Xinxiang's ozone pollution control period (CP) in June 2021. To evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, three study periods were determined by combining meteorological conditions and the implementation time of the control measures: before, during, and after the CP of ozone pollution (BCP, CP, and ACP, respectively). The average concentrations of VOCs during the three periods were 41.20 ± 4.99 ppbv, 33.64 ± 5.65 ppbv, and 37.42 ± 2.59 ppbv, respectively, with the same top three components, namely oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), alkanes, and halogenated hydrocarbons (XVOCs). However, the concentrations of these three components decreased substantially during the CP (by 19 %, 18 %, and 11 %, respectively). The ozone formation potential (OFP) during the BCP was 144.47 ppbv, which was 1.2 times and 1.3 times higher than those during the ACP and CP periods, respectively. During the CP, the proportion of alkenes that contributed to the OFP decreased significantly by 24 %. Five types of VOCs sources were determined by positive matrix factorization (PMF): (1) solvent use, (2) biogenic, (3) secondary formation, (4) industrial process, and (5) vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation sources. The VOCs emissions from industrial processes decreased by 54 % during the CP, whereas those from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation sources decreased by 36 %, indicating the effectiveness of emission control measures and the importance of these two sources for VOCs control in Xinxiang. In terms of regional transport, the results of the spatial analysis revealed that Hebi and Anyang in the northeast and Zhengzhou and Pingdingshan in the southwest, affected significantly the VOCs of Xinxiang. These results highlight the importance of controlling VOCs emissions in Xinxiang. Furthermore, attention should be paid to controlling the regional transport of surrounding cities.
12. Income inequality and emissions in France: Does income inequality indicator matter?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 370, 10 October 2022, 133457
This paper studies the link between carbon dioxide () emissions and income inequality in France over 1980–2018, focusing on the choice of income inequality indicators in use. To do so, we use a new source of data on net (post-tax and transfer) income inequality indicators using net Gini and Atkinson indexes. We also use market (pre-tax and transfer) income inequality indicators utilizing the market Gini index and share of market income earned by the richest 10% of the population. Using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, we find that income inequality has a different impact on emissions, depending on the income definition used for estimated disparities. Furthermore, the ARDL test shows that the market inequality coefficients are non-significant. However, net inequality indicators reduce emissions, and these results are consistent with the marginal propensity to emit theories, where some inequality could remain necessary to environmental quality.
13. Carbon trading market policies and corporate environmental performance in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133683
As an important practical exploration of energy saving and emission reduction through market mechanism, carbon emission trading market has important theoretical and practical significance on the impact of environmental performance of enterprises. This paper examines the impact of carbon market policy initiation and its improvement on corporate environmental performance. We found that: first, carbon market policy initiation can effectively improve corporate environmental performance; second, the impact of the degree of perfection of carbon market policy on corporate environmental performance has a threshold effect, and the optimal carbon market policy has a perfection interval of [0.723–0.758]; third, both internal corporate governance and corporate carbon information disclosure can form a synergistic effect with carbon market policy to promote corporate environmental performance improvement; fourth, the heterogeneity test shows that the carbon market policy has a more significant effect on the environmental performance improvement of low-cost transfer capability enterprises, high-energy-consuming enterprises and private enterprises. The findings of this paper provide new ideas to further promote the construction of governments carbon market and improve the environmental performance of enterprises.
14. The shocks of climate change on economic growth in developing economies: Evidence from Iran
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 372, 20 October 2022, 133687
Understanding the economic consequences of climate change has become necessary for economists as evidence indicates that climate is changing and will have detrimental consequences in the upcoming decades, especially in developing countries. Accordingly, this study examines the consequences of climate change on economic growth in Iran located in the mid-latitude belt of arid and semiarid regions on Earth. The present study implements a dynamic integrated assessment model to evaluate the potential impact of climate change on per capita output, per capita consumption, capital per worker, input prices, and welfare over the current century. Two classes of climate change scenarios from CMIP3 (A2 and A1B) and CMIP5 (RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5) under two assumptions of damage function known as "W-damage” and "DS-damage” were examined. In addition, three channels of damage –current production, productivity growth, and capital depreciation–were investigated. In general, the simulation results revealed a significant effect on the selected variables. Nevertheless, the effects were strongly dependent on climatic scenarios and assumptions about the damage function. The consequences of climate change under DS-damage were far more considerable than those under W-damage. The effects of capital damage from climate change were also more significant compared to those of other damage channels. It was revealed that the fall in consumption and welfare was far higher than the corresponding output reduction. When climate change damages from all examined channels were considered, capital per worker was dramatically affected. In particular, under the DS-damage assumption, it tended to decline over the study horizon. This happens while the contribution of capital to production is lower than expected for developing economies.
15. Innovation designs of industry 4.0 based solid waste management: Machinery and digital circular economy
Environmental Research, Volume 213, October 2022, 113619
The Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) holds the opportunity to improve the efficiency of managing solid waste through digital and machinery applications, effectively eliminating, recovering, and repurposing waste. This research aims to discover and review the potential of current technologies encompassing innovative Industry 4.0 designs for solid waste management. Machinery and processes emphasizing on circular economy were summarized and evaluated. The application of IR 4.0 technologies shows promising opportunities in improving the management and efficiency in view of solid waste. Machine learning (ML), artificial intelligence (AI), and image recognition can be used to automate the segregation of waste, reducing the risk of exposing labour workers to harmful waste. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless communications enable the traceability in materials to better understand the opportunities in circular economy. Additionally, the interconnectivity of systems and automatic transfer of data enable the creation of more complex system that houses a larger solution space that was previously not possible such as centralised cloud computing to reduce the cost by eliminating the need for individual computing systems. Through this comprehensive review-based work, innovative Industry 4.0 components of machinery and processes involving waste management which focuses on circular economy are identified with the critical ones evaluated briefly. It was found that the current research and work done is based on applying Industry 4.0 technologies on individual waste management systems, which lacks the coherency needed to capitalise on technologies such as cloud computing, interconnectivity, big data, etc on a larger scale. Therefore, a real world comprehensive end-to-end integration aimed to optimize every process within the solid waste management chain should be explored.
16. The carbon emissions related to the land-use changes from 2000 to 2015 in Shenzhen, China: Implication for exploring low-carbon development in megacities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115660
Megacities exploit enormous amounts of lands from outside of the city boundary. However, there is a large knowledge gap in the impact of socioeconomic activities associated land-use changes on carbon emissions of megacities during the urbanization. In the current work, we combined the material-flow analysis, environmental extended input–output model, and land matrix data to construct a hybrid network framework. Such a framework was used to estimate the carbon emissions driving from trade between sectors and associated land use changes during 2000–2015 in Shenzhen, China. Results indicated that the total carbon emissions of Shenzhen had a growth rate of 262.7% from 2000 to 2010 and a declining rate of 17.6% from 2010 to 2015. This pattern is associated with large declining rates in the overall energy and carbon intensities by 53.8% and 63.2% during the period of 2000–2015. Meanwhile, embodied carbon emissions of Shenzhen kept rising by approximately twofold, accompanied by the increasing trends in the land-use related carbon emissions both inside and outside of city boundary. The land uses per unit GDP showed a dramatical decline by 85.7% and with a large contribution of the transportation and industrial land, and this caused a gradual increase in overall land-use related emissions with average growth rate of 7.1%. In addition, the land-use change related carbon emissions of the transportation and industrial land had a cumulative growth of 85%. As for the embodied land-use related carbon emissions, the dominated contributor was the Agriculture sector which drove an average of 0.13 MtC yr−1 emissions via importing agricultural products from outside of Shenzhen. This study provides a scientific foundation for corporately mitigate carbon emissions between megacities and their surrounding regions.
17. The United States and China on the paths and policies to carbon neutrality
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115785
The rapid economic development has highlighted the global climate change problem and carbon dioxide emissions have brought challenges to global climate change. The combined carbon emissions of the United States and China are nearly half of global carbon emissions. These two countries have made great contributions to environmental protection and responded actively to global warming, and set the goal of carbon neutrality. This study takes the United States and China as examples to compare their national paths and policies to achieve carbon neutrality while also analyzing the stage effects of carbon emission reduction in these two countries. This study found that the policy systems in the United States and China are opposites of each other. The United States is a "Bottom to Top” system while China is a "Top to Bottom”. The CO2 emission in the United States is currently in the absolute carbon emission reduction period, that is, the reduction of total carbon emissions; while China is in the relative carbon emission reduction period, that is, the reduction of carbon emission intensity. China's transition time from carbon peaking to carbon neutrality is shorter than that of the United States, which is a huge challenge for China because its population is much larger than that of the United States. The results of this research can be used by other countries and regions for supporting carbon reduction policy decision-making and achieving UN sustainable development goals (SDGs).
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Exploring the microbiome, antibiotic resistance genes, mobile genetic element, and potential resistant pathogens in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Brazil
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 842, 10 October 2022, 156773
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been widely investigated in Europe, Asia and North America regarding the occurrence and fate of antibiotic resistance (AR) elements, such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens. However, monitoring data about AR elements in municipal WWTPs in Brazil are scarce. This study investigated the abundance of intI1, five ARGs (sul1, tetA, blaTEM, ermB and qnrB) and 16S rRNA in raw and treated wastewater of three WWTPs, using different sewage treatments named CAS (Conventional activated sludge), UASB/BTF (UASB followed by biological trickling filter) and MAS/UV (modified activated sludge with UV disinfection stage). Bacterial diversity and the presence of potentially pathogenic groups were also evaluated, and associations between genetic markers and the bacterial populations were presented. All WWTPs decreased the loads of genetic markers finally discharged to receiving water bodies and showed no evidence of being hotspots for antimicrobial resistance amplification in wastewater, since the abundances of intI1 and ARGs within the bacterial population were not increased in the treated effluents. UASB/BTF showed a similar performance to that of the CAS and MAS/UV, reinforcing the sanitary and environmental advantages of this biological treatment, widely applied for wastewater treatment in warm climate regions. Bacterial diversity and richness increased after treatments, and bacterial communities in wastewater samples differed due to catchment areas and treatment typologies. Potential pathogenic population underwent considerable decrease after the treatments; however, strong significant correlations with intI1 and ARGs revealed potential multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia-Shigella, Stenotrophomonas and Streptococcus) in the treated effluents, although in reduced relative abundances. These are contributive results for understanding the fate of ARGs, MGEs and potential pathogenic bacteria after wastewater treatments, which might support actions to mitigate their release into Brazilian aquatic environments in the near future.
2. Microplastics in landfill and leachate: Occurrence, environmental behavior and removal strategies
Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135325
Plastic wastes buried in landfill are gradually broken and decomposed into microplastics under physical, chemical and biological effects, bringing environmental risks to the exploitation of waste resources. Landfill leachate as a potential source of environmental microplastics has not good attention. Microplastics in leachate carry toxic and harmful pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes, and these vectors pose greater risks to human and environmental health without systematic treatment. Recently, the main technologies of landfill leachate treatment process include order batch activated sludge process, membrane biological reaction process, flocculation process, combined filtration process, and constructed wetland process. However, there is still little knowledge about microplastic removal of the existing leachate treatment facilities, and some technologies to alleviate the sources of such microplastics should be timely developed. This paper systematically summarizes the occurrence of plastics, microplastics and nanoplastics in leachate and their interactive pollution with other toxic pollutants. Meanwhile, the prospects of their environmental behaviors in landfill and leachate are put forward. The microplastic removal by existing leachate treatment equipment and the limitations and challenges to upgrading process of development and implementation are also discussed. The paper can provide a scientific basis for studying the fate of microplastics in landfill and leachate.
3. Metal(loid) concentrations, bioaccessibility and stable lead isotopes in soils and vegetables from urban community gardens
Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135499
Community gardens are "green oases” of recent cities with many benefits for human society. From a human health perspective, these benefits can be damaged by chemical contamination of soil and cultivated vegetables. Using geochemical approaches, this study characterised (i) total metal(loid) concentrations in soils and two commonly grown vegetables in urban community gardens (Bratislava, Slovakia), (ii) gastrointestinal bioaccessibility using a modified physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and (iii) stable lead (Pb) isotopes in order to identify sources of metal(loid)s, solubilisation in the human body and migration of Pb from soil to vegetables. While some soils could be considered contaminated when compared to the Slovak legislation for agricultural soil, the bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s did not exceed 20% in the intestinal phase, with the exception of cadmium (Cd). Tomatoes and lettuce contained low total and bioaccessible concentrations of metal(loid)s, being safe for people who consume their own grown vegetables. There were differences in Pb isotope composition among bulk soils, vegetables and bioaccessible Pb, with less radiogenic Pb being preferentially mobilised. Statistical methods considering the compositional nature of the geochemical data and the enrichment factor (EF) distinguished well metal(loid)s of natural origin (As, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, V) from those with anthropogenic contributions. This research has shown the usefulness of integrating different methodologies to better understand the geochemistry of metal(loid)s in urban soils with their highly diversified sources.
4. Bio-Morpheme as innovative design concept for "Bio City” urban structure in the context of water-saving and human health
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 369, 1 October 2022, 133266
This paper presents a novel model of an elementary autonomous housing complex called Bio-Morpheme, intended to be an element of a Bio-City's structure. Its novelty manifests from the idea of urban form integration with the form of the water transformation cycle in the building and its immediate surroundings. Key factors include the retention and utilisation of rainwater in the Bio-Morpheme. Another feature of the proposal is the potential to use Bio-Morpheme-like complexes as autonomous units or combine them into larger structures based on integrated water management in typologically diverse city zones. Define the urban and architectural features of a Bio-Morpheme complex allowed using the proposed theoretical model to verify the potential for comprehensive water management featuring the utilisation of rainwater and stormwater harvested from roofs, pavements, bicycle paths, and roads. The study assumed climate and hydrological conditions for Krakow, Poland, predicting the potential for application. The authors observed that a Bio-Morpheme's structure allows for incorporating 41% of the collected runoff into its water supply infrastructure and using this water for domestic purposes when the remaining water can be direct to a surface reservoir. The reservoir provides the Bio-Morpheme's residents with direct contact with a water surface and enhances the microclimate. The Bio-Morpheme model is a solution that allows for rationalizing processes in elementary urban structure cells, which has a beneficial effect on lowering the demand for grid-sourced water and the amount of sewage produced. It also allows for introducing a surface reservoir into an urban interior and guarantees the highest quality of the environment and the health of residents.
5. Enhanced nitrate contribution during winter haze events in a megacity of Sichuan Basin, China: Formation mechanism and source apportionment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 370, 10 October 2022, 133272
Chengdu, a typical basin city in China, still suffers from severe haze pollution in recent years. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the chemical causes and sources of fine particle matter (PM2.5) in this city, online observations of PM2.5 species and other pollutants were conducted at an urban supersite in winter of 2018. The average PM2.5 concentration during the observation period was 71.7 μg/m3, of which nearly half of the measurement days exceeded China's National Air Quality Standard (75 μg/m3). The most abundant species in PM2.5 was organic carbon (20.5%), followed by nitrate (16.0%), ammonium (13.2%), and sulfate (12.8%). Among them, nitrate formation contributed substantially to haze pollution, a phenomenon enhanced by the ammonia-rich environment and heterogeneous reactions. The positive matrix factorization model analysis showed that the largest contributor to PM2.5 was secondary aerosol formation (43.4%), while industrial process contributed the least (3.3%). In addition, two combustion sources, coal combustion and biomass burning/fireworks, accounted for 14.1% and 12.5%, respectively, and their contributions increased significantly with PM2.5 concentration. Air mass trajectory clustering analysis and concentration-weighted trajectory analysis showed that southeastern part of Chengdu was the hotspot for major pollution sources. These results suggest that sustained haze pollution improvement requires continuous strengthening control of precursors such as NOx and NH3, and strict control of combustion sources may be the key to eliminate heavy pollution, and various joint prevention and control measures should be implemented for specific pollution areas.
6. A city-level analysis of the spatial distribution differences of green buildings and the economic forces – A case study in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133433
The comprehensive development of green buildings is constrained by the regional imbalance distribution in China. Considering the shortness of previous studies at a provincial level in making practical guidance, this paper conducts a city-level study in China based on a panel dataset of Guangdong cities from 2008 to 2019, using a series of difference evaluation indicators to analyze the characteristics of the spatial distribution differences of green buildings and using grey correlation model and panel regression model to explore the influences made by critical economic factors. The results show that the spatial distribution of green building area in Guangdong Province shows a core-periphery structure, presenting a high imbalanced status. However, the imbalance has decreased over time, with the degree of spatial aggregation of green buildings in most cities steadily improving. Resident income, financial support, and real estate market all have significant positive impacts on the spatial aggregation of green buildings, and the construction industry development has a significant negative impact. As such, concrete suggestions on the above four aspects have been given to reduce the spatial distribution differences of green buildings between different cities, which can guide the balanced development of green buildings.
7. Recognizing surface urban heat ‘island’ effect and its urbanization association in terms of intensity, footprint, and capacity: A case study with multi-dimensional analysis in Northern China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 372, 20 October 2022, 133720
Current research on the surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect rarely address the discussion of what exactly is the ‘island’ of urban surface thermal environment. Given this, this study attempted to ‘islanding’ the spatial morphology of the SUHI effect for 13 different case cities in Northern China. A Gaussian surface model was applied to depict the remote sensed thermal characteristics of the case cities along the urban-rural gradient. Multi-dimensional indicators including SUHI intensity, footprint, and capacity were derived to quantify the seasonal SUHI characteristics, representing the maximum intensity, impact range, and accumulated volume of SUHI effect, respectively. Based on that, the seasonal SUHI characteristics of the case cities thus were analyzed during a long-term period from 2000 to 2015. Thereafter the variations of the SUHI effect and its possible associations with several representative urbanization factors were examined with the panel, cross-sectional, and time-series regression analyses separately. In this study, multi-indicator SUHI analysis revealed the generally prevalent and increasing seasonal SUHI effects in most cases, while significant urban cold island phenomena were also documented in part during the cold season. Urbanization processes such as booming population, land transformation, and economic development performed as the key contributors to the thermal variations in most cases. However, the case cities do not only suffer from their own unique thermal risks but are also subjected to varying influencers. In summary, this study highlights the multi-dimensional and heterogeneous characteristics of the SUHI effect and its urbanization association. That is, multi-indexing analysis of surface urban heat ‘island’ provides more robust and comprehensive characterization of urban land surface thermal environment, and multi-dimensional regression analysis contributes to reexamining the complicated nexus between the SUHI effect and urbanization process in the context of significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity. We believe that our work can provide relevant scholars with meaningful inspiration for future exploration of the SUHI effect.
8. How carbon emission reduction is going to affect urban resilience
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 372, 20 October 2022, 133737
In tackling climate change and promoting sustainable development, carbon emission reduction through means of cleaner production, circular economy and eco-innovation, etc., may lead to increased resilience of an urban system. This study aims to explore the impact of carbon emission reduction on urban resilience and its spatial-temporal characteristics with a sample of 267 prefectural-level cities from 2006 to 2019 in China. Firstly, this research conceptualizes urban resilience as economic prosperity, social wellbeing, cleaner environment and analyzes the impact mechanism of carbon emission reduction on these three dimensions. Then in the empirical analysis, the urban resilience assessment index is built to quantitatively evaluate urban resilience in Chinese cities and its spatial-temporal characteristics. Subsequently, the impact of carbon emission on urban resilience is investigated through geostatistical analysis. The results show that the urban resilience level in China shows significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity. High resilience cities are clustered in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta region and Pearl River Delta region, while lower resilience cities are in the northeast, northwest and southwest regions. Moreover, urban resilience in Chinese cities is mainly contributed by the economic subsystem. Over the study period, carbon emission reduction is positively related to urban resilience with high resilience and high carbon emission reduction agglomerated over space. Furthermore, the agglomeration effect increased from 2006 to 2019. These indicate that in the past fifteen years, urban resilience in Chinese cities is highly dependent on regional economic development which is still reliant on emission-intensive industries. The research provides important references for China's carbon emission reduction and resilience-building policies. Spatial heterogeneities need to be acknowledged to focus on key areas of emission reduction and resilience improvement in policymaking and implementation.
9. Rainwater chemical evolution driven by extreme rainfall in megacity: Implication for the urban air pollution source identification
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 372, 20 October 2022, 133732
Atmospheric pollution has become a global environmental issue, which caused a number of human health threats. It is therefore vital to understand the source-sink processes of air pollutants and their mechanisms. Rainwater is not only the major sink (removal process) of air pollutants, but also the good source tracer of atmospheric components. On the background of global climate changes, the extreme rainfall exerts a serious influence in megacity. However, the extreme rainfall driven chemical evolution of rainwater and its reflection on air pollution are rarely focused, even though it plays a significant role in urban-surficial ecosystem. To better understand the chemical evolution of urban extreme rainfall and their potential environmental effects, rainwater samples were collected in Beijing, a typical megacity, during the extreme rainfall period in 2021. Based on rainwater stoichiometry and historical comparison, the scouring process of air substance, the neutralizing process of rainwater and the ion sources were revealed. The findings showed that NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, and Ca2+ were four primary rainwater ions with distinct daily variations which were well removed by rainwater scouring process. The high values of NF (neutralization factor, ∼2.2) and NP/AP (ratio of neutralizing to acidifying potential, ∼1.8) suggested a relatively high level of rainwater neutralization. Source identification revealed that rainwater SO42− (94.9%) and NO3− (99.9%) were primarily originated from anthropogenic input, particularly the mobile emission sources (transportation), while sea salt input represented the major Cl− source (86.9%) and all Na+ source. By contrast, crust dust input was the main contributor of rainwater K+ (94.0%), Mg2+ (92.3%) and Ca2+ (98.2%), whereas NH4+ was considered only the contribution of human input (e.g., municipal feces and fossil fuel burning). This study clarified the chemical characteristics of extreme rainfall in megacity and highlighted the significant impact on urban environment, which will benefit the urban environmental management in the context of global climate change.
10. From urban greenspace to health behaviors: An ecosystem services-mediated perspective
Environmental Research, Volume 213, October 2022, 113664
Urban greenspace can provide important health benefits for urban residents, but knowledge about the potential mechanisms remains unclear, and it is challenging in promoting health behaviors through design and management practices. This study proposed a hypothetical model that assumed ecosystem services as mediating factors between urban greenspace and health behaviors. An urban park in Beijing was selected as a case area to test the hypothesis and identify the ecosystem services-mediated pathways. Results based on spatial explicit mapping and multivariate statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis and showed that urban greenspaces contribute to health behaviors in varying degrees through the delivery of health behaviors-related ecosystem services. The promotion effect was mainly mediated by cultural services, which is much more obvious than regulating services. We identified the importance of different properties of inner urban greenspace in promoting health behaviors through ecosystem services-mediated pathways. Green elements, especially tree canopy shaded ground, were found to contribute the most to health behaviors in the pathways, and slightly higher than facilities and grey elements. To promote health benefits, the design and arrangement of facilities and grey elements in urban greenspace is suggested to be cooperated with green elements for enhancing multiple ecosystem services. The findings will enhance the understanding of potential theoretical pathways from urban greenspace to health benefits, and support health promotion-oriented design and management practices.
11. Environmental information disclosure and public choice decisions for urban river restoration: A comparative study between Brussels (Belgium) and Guangzhou (China)
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115692
Worldwide environmental information disclosure (EID) has been widely promoted as a policy approach to establish transparent governments, enhance public environmental awareness, and foster participatory environmental governance. While information disclosure and transparency are inherently incentivised within democratic regimes, how and through what pathways an increased flow of environmental information in the absence of democracy could lead to favourable public support for environmental/ecological projects remain under-investigated. Particularly, there exists very limited literature which compares how EID is associated with public environmental choices between different sociopolitical contexts. Taking Brussels (Belgium) and Guangzhou (China) as a comparative case, this study examines the association between citizens' perceived trustworthiness of various environmental information sources and their choice decisions regarding urban river restoration initiatives in contrasting socialpolitical contexts. Latent class modelling of two paralleled discrete choice experiments unveils a consistent classification of three distinctive groups for each city and also the combined sample, including Enthusiastic Supporters (Class 1, who are cost-insensitive and supportive of all proposed changes), Pragmatic Supporters (Class 2, who are cost-sensitive, prefer some changes they favour), and Non-Supporters (Class 3, who are unwilling to support the proposed initiatives). Incorporating respondents' trustworthiness in information sources as covariates in class membership likelihood function, respondents' membership is found to be associated solely with the most trusted information source, i.e., social contacts in Guangzhou, third parties in Brussels, and social contacts for the whole sample. Holding trust toward the most-trusted information source can increase the probability of being a member of Class 1, otherwise, more likely being a member of Class 3. Taken together with the insignificance of the variable denoting a respondent's city in explaining class membership, this study reveals that the variations in the EID levels (matured vs. emerging) and sociopolitical contexts (democratic vs. non-democratic) cannot significantly shape citizens' environmental decisions. Instead, it is respondents' perceived trustworthiness of information outlets that plays a positive role in their supportive decisions. These analytical results offer new insights about the role of EID in environmental governance and call for instilling institutional trust in China and relational trust in Belgium for facilitating effective communication and pro-environmental behaviours across the whole community.
12. Estimating accumulation rates and health risks of PAHs in residential soils of metropolitan cities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115699
Predicting temporal changes in PAH concentrations in urban soils and their corresponding health risk is essential for developing appropriate management measures to prevent those risks. Concentrations of PAHs in soils of residential areas with different building ages in three metropolitan cities were determined to estimate the accumulation rates of PAHs in soil. The mean concentrations of total PAHs (∑PAHs) were 1297 ng/g in Shanghai, 865 ng/g in Beijing, and 228 ng/g in Shenzhen. The primary sources of the PAHs were traffic and coal combustion for industrial activity and space heating. The high PAH concentrations in Shanghai were attributed to the relatively high average building age of the sampled residential areas and the low annual temperature in the city. The overall annual accumulation rates of PAHs in the soils were estimated from linear regressions between the PAH concentrations and building age of the residential areas. The annual accumulation rate of PAHs in the soils was 64.7 ng/g in Beijing, 24.2 ng/g in Shanghai, and 3.3 ng/g in Shenzhen. The higher rate in Beijing was due to the higher intensity of PAH emissions and the lower temperature. The regression estimations suggest that health risks posed by PAHs in residential soils of the metropolitan cities increase considerably with time.
13. Challenges in carbon footprint evaluations of state-of-the-art municipal wastewater resource recovery facilities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115715
Wastewater treatment is an important source of direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which some wastewater operators report and account for CO2-eq impacts through carbon footprint evaluations. We investigated the challenges with GHG emissions’ accounting of three state-of-the-art energy-efficient wastewater resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) and reviewed their CO2 accounting reports. Our study aimed to highlight the major contributors and factors to estimate emissions, including direct N2O and CH4 emissions and propose recommendations for public reporting of CO2 accounting of WRRFs. We categorised emissions as direct (scope 1), background (scope 2), downstream and avoided emissions (scope 3A and 3B) and evaluated how a change in emission factor may affect how close the WRRFs are to reaching CO2 neutrality. The results show that electricity consumption and direct emissions constitute between 20 and 70% of actual CO2-eq emissions and therefore need careful consideration.
All three plants have increasingly offset scope 2 emissions over 2014–2019, resulting in a total reduction of approximately 3211 tons CO2-eq, corresponding to 72% of their needed cuts by 2030 set by the Danish government.
No standard factors are used across the plants to estimate emissions. We propose some general recommendations that wastewater operators can apply to correctly report and account for CO2-eq emissions. We also recommend that operators move their long-term focus from CO2 neutrality to CO2-eq reduction and make an effort to measure and quantify scope 1 direct emissions properly. A tax on N2O emissions should be introduced in future policies.
14. Source apportionment of air pollution in European urban areas: Lessons from the ClairCity project
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115899
Air pollution has become a major threat to human health in the last decades, with an increase of acute air pollution episodes in many cities worldwide. Source apportionment modelling provides valuable information on the contribution from different emission source sectors and source regions to distinct air pollutants concentrations. In this study, the CAMx model, with its PSAT tool, was applied to quantify the contribution of multiple source areas, categories and pollutant types to ambient air pollution, namely to PM and NO2 concentrations, over six European urban areas: Bristol (United Kingdom), Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Liguria Region (Italy), Sosnowiec (Poland) and Aveiro Region (Portugal). Results indicate overall higher annual NO2 and PM concentrations located in the urban centres of the case studies. A comparison between the different areas showed that Liguria is the region with highest NO2 annual mean concentrations, while Ljubljana, Liguria Region and Sosnowiec are the case studies with the highest PM annual mean concentrations. The annual average contributions denote a major influence from road transport to NO2 concentrations, with up to 50%, except in Aveiro region, where road transport presents a lower contribution to NO2 concentrations, and the greatest contributor is the industrial combustion and processes sector with 45%. These results indicate a negligible contribution of the transboundary transport to NO2 concentrations, highlighting the relevance of local sources, while for PM concentrations the transboundary transport is the major contributor. The results highlight the relevance of long-range transport of PM across Europe. The transboundary transport reduces its importance during winter, when residential and commercial combustion increases its contribution. In the case of the Aveiro region, the industrial combustion and processes sector also plays an important contribution to PM concentrations.
15. Optimal configuration of low impact development practices for the management of urban runoff pollution under uncertainty
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115821
The urbanization process has seen an accelerated increase in recent decades, leading to urban runoff pollution becoming more prominent. However, uncertainty of the pollution output and complexity of management systems have made controlling urban runoff pollution challenging. Therefore, it is necessary to propose advanced modeling methods for these challenges. This research presents an integrated urban runoff pollution management (IURPM) model for optimal configuration of low impact development (LID) practices under multiple uncertainties. The IURPM model combines the hybrid land-use prediction and improved pollution estimation models with interval parameter, stochastic parameter, and multi-objective programming. The proposed IURPM model can not only predict the output characteristics, but also provide optimal configuration schemes for the LID practices in the management of urban runoff pollution under multiple scenarios. In addition, uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and probability density function in the management systems can be effectively addressed. A case study of the IURPM model was conducted in Dongguan City, South China. Results show that considerable amounts of urban runoff pollutants would export from Dongguan City by 2025. The export loads and pollution output flux per unit area would have significant spatial heterogeneity. The results further indicate that population size, gross domestic product, and regional area size are expected to play important roles in the pollution export, while impervious surface coverage and population density would likely have great influences on the output flux of urban runoff pollution. Based on the model findings, multiple LID practices should be adopted in Dongguan City to reduce the urban runoff pollution loads. Using the IURPM model, multiple LID implementation schemes can be obtained under different pollution reduction scenarios and significance levels, that can provide decision-making support for urban water environmental management, considering variations in the policymaker's decision-making preferences. This study demonstrates that the IURPM model can be applied to the optimal configuration of LID practices for the management of urban runoff pollution under uncertainty.
16. Quantifying the influence of 2D and 3D urban morphology on the thermal environment across climatic zones
Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 226, October 2022, 104499
Urban heat islands (UHIs) exert a substantially negative impact on human health and urban sustainability. The role of two-dimensional (2D) landscape patterns in UHIs are well documented; while the effects and contributions of three-dimensional (3D) urban structures remain unclear, especially across different climatic zones. Here we investigated the relationship between 2D/3D urban morphology and the urban thermal environment in summer and winter during the day and at night in 62 representative large cities across four major climate zones in China. First, we extracted the seasonal surface regional heat island intensity (SRHII) using the MODIS 8-Day land surface temperature product. Subsequently, we constructed 25 2D and five 3D urban features and explored their relative importance and respective roles in UHIs in different climatic contexts. Results show that: (1) significant differences (p < 0.05) exist in SRHII between various climate zones; cities with a humid subtropical climate experience temperatures approximately 2 °C higher during the day in summer compared to those with the other climate types. (2) 3D urban features can effectively improve the interpretation of urban features for SRHII, with an average optimization level of 21%. (3) Urban trees have a higher cooling effect than other green spaces, whereas tall buildings can also reduce the UHI effect. (4) On summer days, equal proportions of tree to building volume provide the greatest cooling effects. This study provides new insights into the effect of 3D urban characteristics on SRHII and has promising implications for climate resilience planning and heat-related risk management
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Characterization of odorous industrial plumes by coupling fast and slow mass spectrometry techniques for volatile organic compounds
Chemosphere, Volume 304, October 2022, 135304
This study aimed to develop a technique to chemically characterize odor issues in neighborhoods of designated industrial zones with pronounced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Due to the elusive nature of odor plumes, speedy detection with sufficient sensitivity is required to capture the plumes. In this demonstration, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used as the front-line detection tool in an industrial zone to guide sampling canisters for in-laboratory analysis of 106 VOCs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID). The fast but less accurate PTR-MS coupled with the slow but accurate GC-MS/FID method effectively eliminates the drawbacks of each instrument and fortifies the strength of both when combined. A 10-day PTR-MS field screening period was conducted to determine suitable trigger VOC species with exceedingly high mixing ratios that were likely the culprits of foul odors. Twenty canister samples were then collected, triggered by m/z 43, 61 (ethyl acetate, fragments, EA), m/z 73 (methyl ethyl ketone, MEK), or 88 (morpholine) in all cases. Internal consistency was confirmed by the high correlation of critical species in the PTR-MS and trigger samples. Several long-lived halocarbons were exploited as the intrinsic internal reference for quality assurance. Oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) accounted for 15%–75% of the total VOC mixing ratios in the triggered samples. However, EA and MEK, the most prominent OVOC species, did not appear to have common sources with morpholine, which presented with PTR-MS peaks incoherent with the other OVOCs. Nevertheless, these distinctive OVOC plumes were consistent with the multiple types of odor reported by the local residents. In contrast with the triggered sampling, random samples in the same industrial zone and roadside samples in a major metropolitan area were collected. The pronounced OVOC content in the triggered samples highlighted the advantage over random grab sampling to address odor issues.
2. Mesocosm constructed wetlands to remove micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent: Effect of matrices and pre-treatments
Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135306
The contamination of the aquatic environment by micropollutants (MPs) brings risks for the ecosystem and human health. Constructed wetlands (CWs) were an eco-friendly technology to remove MPs from wastewater treatment plant effluent. In this study, the removal of MPs was evaluated in seven vertical flow mesocosm CWs with different configurations, including different support matrices (sand and a combination of bark-biochar), light pre-treatments (UVC and sunlight) or bioaugmentation in support matrices (activated sludge). The CWs with bark-biochar as support matrix significantly enhanced the removal of irbesartan and carbamazepine (>40 %), compared to the CW filled with the conventional support matrix sand. UVC irradiation as pre-treatment was more efficient in removing MPs than sunlight irradiation. After UVC pre-treatment, less MPs accumulated in the plants in the subsequent CW unit compared to the CW unit without any pre-treatment. Moreover, in the UVC combined CW system, less sulfamethoxazole, furosemide, mecoprop and diclofenac were accumulated in the plants (<0.5 μg) than other MPs (>3 μg). The addition of 0.5 % activated sludge combined with the aeration of influent did not improve MP removal in the CW. Considering the application, a bark-biochar based CW combined with UVC pre-treatment will result in more MP removal than a conventional sand CW.
3. Analysis of China's energy efficiency and influencing factors under carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 370, 10 October 2022, 133604
Nowadays, China's economy and energy structure are deeply adjusting to the direction of low-carbonization and non-carbonization with unprecedented efforts. This paper considered carbon emissions and energy endowments, adopted SBM-Undesirable model and spatial Durbin model to calculate the energy efficiency of 30 provinces and municipalities in China from 2015 to 2019 and analyze the direct effect, indirect effect and total effect on energy efficiency of 7 variables. Empirical results show that: Energy efficiency has spatial positive correlation and agglomeration characteristics; The main influencing factor of China's energy efficiency is energy consumption structure; Regions with strong energy endowment bear the environmental pollution cost of energy consumption areas in China; Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) exists in China, but different provinces and municipalities are distributed in disparate stages; Research and development (R&D) investment only affects local energy efficiency, and has no spillover effect on surrounding areas in China; Foreign direct investment (FDI) has negative impacts on China's energy efficiency, and there is a phenomenon of pollution paradise. The valuable conclusions obtained in this study deepens the insights about the influencing factors of China's energy efficiency under the constraints of carbon emission and energy endowment.
4. Novel pulp mill wastewater recovery process for CO2 and SOx utilization
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133298
Pulping industry has a pulp mill process that emits a significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur oxides (SOx). The pulp mill wastewater has a high potential for reducing pollution caused by CO2 and SOx because it contains useful mineral ions in high concentrations, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ that react with carbonate and sulfate ions. In this study, we develop a novel pulp mill wastewater recovery process for CO2 and SOx utilization. To design the CO2 and SOx capture and utilization process using pulp mill wastewater, a process model is developed based on validated experimental data. The developed process model comprises the following three steps: (1) metal ion separation of pulp mill wastewater to produce KClO4, Mg(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2; (2) SOx capture and utilization using Ca(OH)2 and SOx, utilized as desulfurization gypsum; (3) CO2 capture via generated KClO4, and the captured CO2 is utilized as carbonate using Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2. Accordingly, the economic feasibility of the suggested process model is demonstrated by calculating the pay-back period in economic assessment. As a result, the desulfurization efficiency was 99% with high-purity gypsum production. In addition, ∼98.2% CO2 was captured. Furthermore, the annual profit was increased by USD 94,469, and thus, the pay-back period was determined as 8.4 y.
5. Modelling and techno-economic assessment of (bio)electrochemical nitrogen removal and recovery from reject water at full WWTP scale
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115747
At conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), reject waters originating from the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge contain the highest nitrogen concentrations within the plant and thereby have potential for realising nitrogen recovery in a reusable form. At the same time, nitrogen removal from reject waters has potential to reduce the energetic and chemical demands of the WWTP due to a reduced nutrient load to the activated sludge process. In recent years, (bio)electrochemical methods have been extensively studied for nitrogen recovery from reject waters in laboratory-scale but not yet implemented in real WWTP environments, particularly due to concerns about the need for large capital investments. This study assessed the techno-economic feasibility of retrofitting a (bio)electrochemical nitrogen removal and recovery (NRR) unit into the reject water circulation line of a full-scale WWTP through modelling. Data from laboratory-scale (bio)electroconcentration ((B)EC) experiments was used to construct a simple, semi-empirical model block integrated into the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) simulating a generalised WWTP. The effects of nitrogen removal from the reject water on both the effluent quality and operational costs of the WWTP were assessed and compared to the BSM2 performance without an NRR unit. In all studied scenarios, the effluent quality index was improved by 4–11%, while both the aeration (7–19% decrease) and carbon (24–71%) requirements were reduced. The additional energy consumed by the NRR unit increased the total operational cost index by >18%, but the revenue assumed for the generated nutrient product (20 EUR kgN−1) was enough to make the BEC-NRR scenarios at realistically low current densities (1 and 5 A m−2) economically attractive compared to the control. A sensitivity analysis revealed that electricity price and nutrient product value had the most notable effects on the feasibility of the NRR unit. The results suggest a key factor in making (bio)electrochemical NRR economically viable is to reduce its electricity consumption further, while the anticipated increases in nitrogen fertiliser prices can help accelerate the adoption of these methods in larger scale.
6. Review on carbon-based adsorbents from organic feedstocks for removal of organic contaminants from oil and gas industry process water: Production, adsorption performance and research gaps
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115739
Large amounts of process water with considerable concentrations of recalcitrant organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), phenolic compounds (PCs), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), are generated by several segments of oil and gas industries. These segments include refineries, hydraulic fracturing (HF), and produced waters from the extraction of shale gas (SGPW), coalbed methane (CBMPW) and oil sands (OSPW). In fact, the concentration of PCs and PAHs in process water from refinery can reach 855 and 742 mg L−1, respectively. SGPW can contain BTEX at concentrations as high as 778 mg L−1. Adsorption can effectively target those organic compounds for the remediation of the process water by applying carbon-based adsorbents generated from organic feedstocks. Such organic feedstocks usually come from organic waste materials that would otherwise be conventionally disposed of. The objective of this review paper is to cover the scientific progress in the studies of carbon-based adsorbents from organic feedstocks that were successfully applied for the removal of organic contaminants PAHs, PCs, and BTEX. The contributions of this review paper include the important aspects of (i) production and characterization of carbon-based adsorbents to enhance the efficiency of organic contaminant adsorption, (ii) adsorption properties and mechanisms associated with the engineered adsorbent and expected for certain pollutants, and (iii) research gaps in the field, which could be a guidance for future studies. In terms of production and characterization of materials, standalone pyrolysis or hybrid procedures (pyrolysis associated with chemical activation methods) are the most applied techniques, yielding high surface area and other surface properties that are crucial to the adsorption of organic contaminants. The adsorption of organic compounds on carbonaceous materials performed well at wide range of pH and temperatures and this is desirable considering the pH of process waters. The mechanisms are frequently pore filling, hydrogen bonding, π−π, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and same precursor material can present more than one adsorption mechanism, which can be beneficial to target more than one organic contaminant. Research gaps include the evaluation of engineered adsorbents in terms of competitive adsorption, application of adsorbents in oil and gas industry process water, adsorbent regeneration and reuse studies, and pilot or full-scale applications.
7. Towards cost-effective total pollution control in Chinese industries
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115744
The cost-effectiveness of the command-and-control policy instrument in environmental regulations has been debated for a long time. The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of the decline in the cost-effectiveness of the Regional Total Pollution Control (RTPC) policy, which includes mandatory emission reduction goals for each province, and to determine factors affecting it. For this purpose, province-level and technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves were constructed for China's three key industries, that is, thermal power, iron and steel, and cement industries. The results show that the average decline in the cost-effectiveness in these industries based on the implementation of the RTPC policy during the 13th Five Year Plan is ∼2.55%. The magnitude of the decline slightly changes from 1.44% to 3.63% (90th percentile) when different emission reduction allocation strategies are selected for different provinces. The three main factors contributing to the decline in the cost-effectiveness are the strictness of the emission reduction goal, variance of unit abatement cost (UAC) of technology, and matching degree between the UAC and emission reduction goals based on the RTPC. The RTPC causes a relatively slight decline in the cost-effectiveness compared with the competitive market and therefore can be used for future policy design.
8. Emission trading scheme, technological innovation, and competitiveness: Evidence from China's thermal power enterprises
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115874
As flagship climate policy instruments, emission trading schemes (ETSs) are spreading, accelerating and strengthening globally. This study aims to explore whether the Porter hypothesis is present in China's ETS. Using the most recent data from 351 thermal power enterprises, the proposed agent-based model (ABM) creates a virtual decision-making and trading mechanism to identify ETS policy effects on enterprise technological innovation and competitiveness. Numerous findings and managerial insights emerge from the results. First, the weak Porter hypothesis cannot be realized in the early stages of China's ETS. However, when carbon price rises to 50–60 yuan/ton, the ETS spurs significant technological innovation. More importantly, the ETS-induced innovation effect is not associated with penalties or subsidies but is driven by allowance allocation and carbon price. Second, enterprise economic performance exhibits an inverted U-shaped trend. Specifically, innovation offsets may enhance enterprises' initial economic performance, while further tightening the allowance may have the opposite effect on competitiveness. Third, enterprise heterogeneity results in polarization, and the group of enterprises that proactively embrace technological innovation earn a higher profit. This work disentangles the dynamic effects of the weak and strong Porter hypotheses and provides empirical references for optimizing ETS design.
9. Environmental pollutants of paper industry wastewater and their toxic effects on human health and ecosystem
Bioresource Technology Reports, Available online 18 October 2022, 101250
The paper and pulp industry wastewater is one of the most prominent issues in the world. These industries use raw materials for paper manufacturing processes such as wood digestion, pulping, and bleaching due to the release of various environmental pollutants. The major organic and inorganic pollutants reported as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and neurotoxicity in juvenile channel catfish. Moreover, the direct toxicity of effluent to the reproductive system in aquatic flora and fauna is reported. In addition, several gaseous pollutants were reported for chronic, respiratory disorders, irritation to the skin, eyes, and cardiac problems along with nausea and headache. The presence of organic and inorganic pollutants in paper and pulp industry wastewater causes phytotoxicity in seed germination. The objective of this review is to understand the knowledge about pollutants of paper mill wastewater and their toxic effects in environment, which require special attention for pollution prevention of lakes, rivers, and other aquatic ecosystems.
10. Greenwashing and sustainable fashion industry
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 6 October 2022, 100710
The fashion industry is now in the eye of the storm for what concerns sustainability because of the enormous impact that such a business area has on the environment. To exploit the full potential for circular economy implementation, the fashion industry requires urgent changes adapting much more conscientious business practices, driving consumers to change their perceptions and behaviours towards circular products and services. The renunciation of greenwashing practices and the use of strategy focused on regaining consumer’s trust will increase the positive sentiment towards the fashion brands. This work demonstrates to what extent greenwashing may jeopardise the fashion industry in addressing challenges related to the implementation of more sustainable circular economy in the context of designing with intention of recycle, reduction of by-products, lower energy consumption and wise purchase habits.
This study provides guides for the fashion brands about the risks and gains related to the greenwashing practices and sustainable fashion industry. This study sketches also future research opportunities in more sustainable holistic approach of a products’ life cycle and how this can be translated into clear, transparent, or reliable certification schemes to prevent the misleading and dishonest marketing strategies helping the consumers to make a responsible choice.
11. Improving water-use efficiency and environmental performances in an integrated woven-knitted fabric printing-dyeing textile mill
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 22 October 2022, 134805
In this study, it was aimed to improve water-use efficiency and improve environmental performance with techno-economic water-use efficiency practices in an integrated textile mill that produces woven and knitted fabrics. In this context, detailed on-site investigations and data collection studies were carried out in the mill. All water consumption and wastewater generation points were determined. Specific water consumptions and specific wastewater amounts were calculated basis on the basic production processes, auxiliary processes, and non-process areas. Samples were collected from raw water, process water, process wastewaters, and composite wastewater at different periods and analyzed. Thus, reuse potentials of the process wastewaters were evaluated. Specific pollutant loads of process and composite wastewaters were also calculated. Moreover, saving/reduction potentials were calculated by comparing the specific water consumption, wastewater amounts, and pollutant loads of the mill with similar textile mills. It was decided to implement a total of 13 water-use efficiency practices to increase the water-use efficiency and environmental performance of the mill. Ultimately, it was found that reduction of 13.8–25.6% in the total water consumption, 18.2–32.9% in the total wastewater amount and 15.9–35.7% in the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) loads of the mill could be achieved after the implementation of suggested practices. The estimated payback periods were found to be between 2-45 months. This study shows that with low-cost water-use efficiency practices, significant reductions in water consumption, wastewater amounts, and pollution loads of wastewater can be achieved in similar textile mills. This study can be inspiring for other textile mills to improve their water-use efficiency performances. Also, it can provide significant contributions to industry stakeholders, policy makers and researchers in terms of presented water-use efficiency practices, obtained water-wastewater reductions/savings and applied methodology.
12. A Process Integration-based Multiperiod Energy Planning Model for CO2-Intensive Industries
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Available online 20 October 2022
Multiperiod carbon-constrained energy planning considers long-term demand variations as well as progressively stringent CO2 emissions limits towards net-zero carbon goals. Previous work on multiperiod energy planning has predominantly focused on the power generation sector. Nevertheless, emissions originating from industries must be mitigated to achieve decarbonisation at different (e.g., corporate, national, or regional) scales. This work develops a multiperiod energy planning model to determine the optimum deployment of energy sources for CO2-intensive industries other than the power generation sector. A hybrid approach is employed in this work, making use of the combined automated targeting model (ATM) and superstructural models. The hybrid approach in this work overcomes the non-linearity in the CO2 intensity calculations. Solving the ATM and superstructural model simultaneously ensures that both demand and CO2 emissions limits for all industries are satisfied in each period. The multiperiod energy planning model is demonstrated with a case study with and without CO2 load transfer scenarios. The case study is performed for 21 industries across three 5-year periods. For the CO2 load transfer scenarios, the CO2 emissions limits may be violated in earlier periods, triggering CO2 debts. The latter is compensated by CO2 credits in later periods where the total CO2 load is below the emissions limit due to aggressive mitigation strategies. Alternatively, in the absence of CO2 load transfer, the CO2 emissions limit for each period must be satisfied. Results show that the deployment of low-carbon energy sources (e.g., biomass and biogas) is necessary for the satisfaction of the CO2 emissions limit within a period. Once CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is available, its deployment would complement existing mitigation strategies in later periods. The deployment of CCS on certain renewable energy sources (e.g., biomass and biogas) results in CO2 removal (CDR) via negative emissions technologies (NETs). The development of the multiperiod energy planning model in this work allows decarbonisation strategies to be simultaneously employed across all industries for a cumulative CO2 reduction.
13. Lead and stable lead isotopes as tracers of soil pollution and human health risk assessment in former industrial cities of Hungary
Applied Geochemistry, Volume 145, October 2022, 105397
Lead is a toxic heavy metal that has become much more prevalent in the environment since industrialization and causes considerable health problems. The current study investigated the spatial distribution and sources of lead from urban soils in former heavy industrial cities, Salgótarján and Ózd (northeastern Hungary). Even today, industrial byproduct (e.g., coal ash, smelter slag) dumps in both cities pose a real threat to the residents. Our analytical results acquired on samples from kindergartens, playgrounds, parks, roadside, etc. indicated a heterogeneous lead distribution with 8.5–1692 mg kg-1 for Salgótarján and 6.6–1674 mg kg-1 for Ózd. The enrichment of Pb results from the high variability of the potential anthropogenic contamination sources, such as iron and steel work, coal mines, coal-fired power plant, smelter slag, vehicle emission, etc., in the studied areas. The potential lead emission sources were defined by 206Pb/207Pb – 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/204Pb – 208Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios in urban soil samples and the local endmembers: namely brown forest soil (206Pb/207Pb: 1.20 in Salgótarján and 1.21 in Ózd), brown coal (206Pb/207Pb: 1.18 in Salgótarján and 1.26 in Ózd), and industrial byproducts (206Pb/207Pb: 1.18 coal ash in Salgótarján and 1.12–1.16 smelter slags in Ózd). A positive correlation between TOC, TN, Mn, and Pb in Salgótarján and between Fe, Mn, and Pb in Ózd, shows that the urban soil characteristics play a significant role in Pb distribution in the sampling sites. Our study confirms that coal ash in Salgótarján and smelter slag in Ózd can be considered primary anthropogenic Pb contamination sources, resulting in low chronic health risks for residents.
14. Sustainable industrial ecology and environmental analysis: A case of melamine etherified resin fibres
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 369, 1 October 2022, 133301
Increasing global plastic consumption and its related plastic waste have become a major concern in the world. Achieving sustainable development in the plastics industry requires a systematic insight into all the relevant life cycle phases of plastic products and their environmental impacts. This paper utilises the concepts of industrial ecology and the circular economy to evaluate the three key aspects of thermoset plastic materials and their overall life cycle comprehensively: i) Sustainable production, ii) Recycling to obtain secondary products, and iii) End-of-life behaviour. For all three aspects, their environmental impacts are evaluated additionally using the conceptual Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The industrial ecology approach, together with LCA is performed on a case study of melamine etherified resin (MER) fibre, which is a high value-added thermoset plastic, difficult to recycle, and, at the end-of-life, potentially emits hazardous compounds. The potential to sustainably produce MER fibre exclusively from renewable and waste sources is explored, closing the loop on the manufacturing and disposal phases. The hydrothermal decomposition of MER fibres into valuable compounds is investigated as a recycling technology. Regarding the end-of-life, a systematic assessment is conducted of the environmental impacts of discharging such material into soil and water bodies. Cleaner production of MER fibres shows the potential to reduce greenhouse gas footprint up to 67%, while analysis of sustainable recycling and disposal highlights important environmental hotspots.
15. Novel (photo)electrochemical analysis of aqueous industrial samples containing phenols
Microchemical Journal, Volume 181, October 2022, 107778
Phenols are considered as toxic pollutants and their discharge into the environment by industries is regulated by a concentration limit. As these limits are in the low mg L−1 to µg L−1-range, sensitive methods are necessary to detect these phenols. Here, aqueous industrial phenolic samples throughout a cleaning process were analyzed by two novel electrochemical sensors. Both the photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor and the square wave voltammetric (SWV) sensor could successfully follow the decrease of the concentration of phenols along the industrial cleaning process. The discharge sample (µg L−1) could only be analyzed by the PEC sensor and not by the SWV sensor, as the phenolic concentration was close to the LOD of the latter. With HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) measurements, classical phenols such as phenol (PHOH), hydroquinone, resorcinol and o-cresol could be identified in the industrial samples, and their presence could be linked to the electrochemical responses. At last, the performance of the PEC and SWV sensors were compared with commercial colorimetric and chemical oxygen demand (COD) test kits. This comparison demonstrated the high sensitivity of the PEC sensor in the µg L−1-concentrated phenolic samples. Together with the identification of the redox peaks through HPLC-DAD analysis, the SWV sensor can be a powerful tool in the qualitative analysis of mg L−1-concentrated phenolic samples due to its speed, simplicity and absence of laborious sample pre-treatment steps.
16. How does industrial co-agglomeration affect high-quality economic development? Evidence from Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133485
Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle serves as a comprehensive industrial base and industrial agglomeration area. Its transformation is crucial for high-quality economic development in western China, and industrial co-agglomeration and technological innovation may play a key role. Using panel data of 16 cities in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle, we evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of high-quality economic development from 2008 to 2020 to explore the impact of industrial co-agglomeration on high-quality economic development, and how this impact fluctuates when technological innovation is included. The empirical results show that the overall level of high-quality economic development is increasing, while the gap between the cities in the sample is widening. The focal point of high-quality economic development is also moving towards the southeast and its spatial agglomeration is increasingly significant. Industrial co-agglomeration has a positive direct effect on high-quality economic development, but a negative spill-over effect. Technological innovation has a positive and partial mediation effect on industrial co-agglomeration and high-quality economic development. The findings of this study suggest policy makers to accelerate industrial co-agglomeration process and increase technology innovation investment, so as to more efficiently promote the high-quality economic development of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle.
17. Just transitions for industrial decarbonisation: A framework for innovation, participation, and justice
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 167, October 2022, 112699
Here we propose a framework for considering the justice issues of industrial cluster decarbonisation, a pressing challenge confronting many industrialised economies. Industrial clusters are large, multi-point source emitters, users of energy and employers of regional and national significance. In the UK, establishing low carbon industrial clusters is one of several grand challenges of industrial strategy. Theorising the just transition of industrial clusters requires concepts from multiple literatures. We Abstract relevant themes from the intersections of the literatures of just transitions, innovation studies and sociotechnical transitions, and public participation in spatial planning, and illustrate their empirical relevance. The broad themes of our framework are (i) politics, space and institutions, with sub-themes of justice, democracy, financialization; (ii) new processes and procedures, with sub-themes of legal recognition of public concerns, community-based planning, community capacity enhancement and life cycle impact assessment; and (iii) correlates of acceptance and resistance, with sub-themes of environmental values, perceived loss of amenity, pre-existing politics, perceptions of just process and trust in the developer. The framework is intended to both guide the design of just transition processes ex-ante and evaluate these post-hoc.
18. One Framework to Rule Them All: An Integrated, Multi-level and Scalable Performance Measurement Framework of Sustainability, Circular Economy and Industrial Symbiosis
Sustainable Production and Consumption, Available online 20 October 2022
There is an overall established agreement on the need for the industry to transition towards a more ecological and ethical approach to business. Numerous ways to engage into this transition exist, such as Sustainability, Circular Economy and Industrial Symbiosis; yet the proliferation of alternative paradigms creates confusion and generates limited applications in industries. The measurement of performance appears indispensable to foster the implementation of improving actions, benchmark results and effectively communicate them to different stakeholders. Despite the emerging interest, a proper system for the measurement of performance related to the ecological and ethical transition is still missing. By means of selection mechanisms specifically developed, indicators retrieved from the extant literature have been organized in a novel integrated, multi-level and scalable framework of performance measurement systems. The framework presents some features of great relevance, in particular: i) integration of Sustainability, Circular Economy and Industrial Symbiosis paradigms; ii) possibility to be applied at different levels of application, i.e. the single firm, the supply chain or the district; iii) adaptability to firms with different characteristics (firm size and awareness), thanks to the development of two different (full and core) scalable systems. The framework has been then validated in four manufacturing firms against its capacity to represent each paradigm, its usefulness, and its ease of use. Besides the positive feedbacks obtained considering the three axes of analysis, the framework was appreciated for its capability to overcome tensions among the three paradigms and encourage firms to consider performance beyond their own boundaries, including the supply chain or district, and its scalability as for different sizes. This research advances the knowledge on the ecological and ethical transition and on the related paradigms, contributing on theoretical and practical levels and offering several insights for future research, especially empirical ones.
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