Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 28-2022

  • Cập nhật: Thứ ba, 26/7/2022 | 11:12:32 AM

QLMT - Chuyên trang Quản lý môi trường trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 28 - 2022 với những nội dung chính như sau.

Về quản lý môi trường

- Xu hướng phát thải của VOCs công nghiệp ở Trung Quốc kể từ khi hành động không khí sạch và các triển vọng giảm thiểu trong tương lai.

- Đánh giá về mô hình ô nhiễm nước nguồn phi điểm cho các khu vực chuyển tiếp thành thị - nông thôn của Trung Quốc: Hiện trạng và triển vọng nghiên cứu.

- Hướng dẫn về Chất lượng không khí năm 2021 của WHO thúc đẩy thách thức lớn đối với không khí trong nhà.

- Các mục tiêu phát triển bền vững về kinh tế: Đánh giá và quan điểm ở Châu Âu.

- Các công ty thân thiện với môi trường có dễ bị tổn thương hơn trong đại dịch COVID-19 không?

- Hệ thống quản lý năng lượng gia đình vòng kín với các nguồn năng lượng tái tạo trong lưới điện thông minh: Đánh giá toàn diện.

- Tính khả thi về kinh tế - công nghệ và tính bền vững về môi trường của việc chuyển hóa chất thải thành năng lượng trong một nền kinh tế tuần hoàn: Nghiên cứu điển hình của Sri Lanka.

- Khám phá việc sử dụng dữ liệu thiết bị phục hồi tài nguyên nước để hình dung khả năng phục hồi năng động đối với các tác nhân gây căng thẳng môi trường.

- Hiểu biết sâu sắc về thiết kế hợp đồng sáng tạo để cải thiện sự tích hợp của đa dạng sinh học và các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái trong quản lý nông nghiệp.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Ô nhiễm vi hạt trong nước ngầm: Bằng chứng hiện tại và viễn cảnh tương lai.

- Nghi ngờ sàng lọc nước thải để truy tìm nguồn gốc thuốc chống COVID-19: Có khả năng ảnh hưởng xấu đến môi trường thủy sinh.

- Các đặc điểm cảnh quan và thảm thực vật của không gian xanh đô thị có thể dự đoán nhiệt độ bề mặt cục bộ.

- Sự thay đổi về mặt không gian trong ô nhiễm nước thải đô thị tác động đến các vi sinh vật sông và các mối nguy liên quan ở lưu vực Akaki, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

- Từ chối và tắc nghẽn màng của quá trình chưng cất màng sợi rỗng tiếp xúc trực tiếp ngập nước như sau xử lý cho lò phản ứng sinh học tầng sôi kỵ khí xử lý nước thải sinh hoạt.

- Phát thải giao thông chi phối các biến thể không gian của ô nhiễm kim loại và các rủi ro về sức khỏe sinh thái trong đất công viên đô thị.

- Hiểu một cách toàn diện các con đường chuyển hóa của protein trong quá trình phân hủy kỵ khí của bùn hoạt tính thải.

- Xử lý hiệu quả nước thải đô thị bằng hệ thống UASB / ASD kết hợp và các quan điểm để cải thiện tính bền vững của nhà máy xử lý nước thải đô thị.

- Đặc trưng cho sự biến thiên theo không gian về nồng độ kim loại nặng trong không khí: Những thay đổi sau 18 năm ở Baltimore, MD.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Những phát triển gần đây trong xúc tác quang của nước thải công nghiệp։ Đánh giá và ví dụ về sự phân hủy các hợp chất phenolic.

- Chất thải từ rỉ đường công nghiệp trong quá trình tổng hợp hiệu quả của graphene vài lớp và vật liệu nano phức hợp nano Au / Ag của nó. Ứng dụng quang xúc tác và siêu tụ điện.

- Mối liên hệ giữa tăng trưởng kinh tế, năng lượng tái tạo và dấu ấn sinh thái: Bằng chứng thực nghiệm từ hầu hết các nước sản xuất dầu.

- Đánh giá toàn diện các lợi ích kinh tế và môi trường của cộng sinh công nghiệp trong các khu công nghiệp.

- Lò phản ứng trồng nổi nổi tích hợp cho nước thải dệt nhuộm: Khả năng loại bỏ, tối ưu hóa các điều kiện vận hành và chiến lược quản lý chất thải tiềm năng sắp tới.

- Xác định giá trị của chất thải sinh học nông nghiệp và công nghiệp đối với vật liệu nano xanh để xử lý nước thải: Tiếp cận hóa học xanh và các nguyên tắc kinh tế tuần hoàn.

- Xu hướng phát thải của VOCs công nghiệp ở Trung Quốc kể từ khi hành động không khí sạch và các triển vọng giảm thiểu trong tương lai.

- Đồng cacbon hóa thủy nhiệt của khí sinh học công nghiệp với than non theo hướng sản xuất thủy điện biến tính: Hiệu ứng tổng hợp và đặc điểm cấu trúc.

Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt các công bố quốc tế bằng Tiếng Anh:

QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG

1. Diversity regained: Precautionary approaches to COVID-19 as a phenomenon of the total environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 154029

Abstract

As COVID-19 emerged as a phenomenon of the total environment, and despite the intertwined and complex relationships that make humanity an organic part of the Bio- and Geospheres, the majority of our responses to it have been corrective in character, with few or no consideration for unintended consequences which bring about further vulnerability to unanticipated global events. Tackling COVID-19 entails a systemic and precautionary approach to human-nature relations, which we frame as regaining diversity in the Geo-, Bio-, and Anthropospheres. Its implementation requires nothing short of an overhaul in the way we interact with and build knowledge from natural and social environments. Hence, we discuss the urgency of shifting from current to precautionary approaches to COVID-19 and look, through the lens of diversity, at the anticipated benefits in four systems crucially affecting and affected by the pandemic: health, land, knowledge and innovation. Our reflections offer a glimpse of the sort of changes needed, from pursuing planetary health and creating more harmonious forms of land use to providing a multi-level platform for other ways of knowing/understanding and turning innovation into a source of global public goods. These exemplary initiatives introduce and solidify systemic thinking in policymaking and move priorities from reaction-based strategies to precautionary frameworks.

2. Deterioration of air quality associated with the 2020 US wildfires
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154103

Abstract

The wildfires of August and September 2020 in the western part of the United States were characterized by an unparalleled duration and wide geographical coverage. A particular consequence of massive wildfires includes serious health effects due to short and long-term exposure to poor air quality. Using a variety of data sources including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI), obtained with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) and Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), combined with meteorological information from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and other supporting data, the impact of wildfires on air quality is examined in the three western US states, California, Oregon, and Washington, and areas to the east. The results show that smoke aerosols not only led to a significant deterioration in air quality in these states but also affected all other states, Canada, and surrounding ocean areas. The wildfires increased the average daily surface concentration of PM2.5 posing significant health risks, especially for vulnerable populations. Large amounts of black carbon (BC) aerosols were emitted into the atmosphere. AOD and UVAI exceeded 1 and 2 over most of the country. In parts of the three western states, those values reached 3.7 and 6.6, respectively. Moreover, a reanalysis based on MERRA-2 (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2) showed that the maximum values of BC surface mass concentration during the wildfires were about 370 μg/m3. These various indicators provide a better understanding of the extent of environmental and atmospheric degradation associated with these forest fires.

3. Emission trends of industrial VOCs in China since the clean air action and future reduction perspectives
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 153994

Abstract

Spatiotemporal change patterns of China's industrial VOCs emissions were explored in response to integrated air quality control policies during 2013–2019, and future emissions predicted under the two different scenarios targeting 2030. China's industrial VOCs emissions were decreased to 15.72 Tg in 2019, of which chemical industry, industrial painting, petroleum industry, coal-coking industry, and other industries respectively accounted for 31.0%, 23.9%, 15.6%, and 13.0%, 16.3%, after peaking at 16.40 Tg in 2016. VOC emissions from the petroleum industry and industrial painting showed a continuous increase, with emissions increasing by 0.46 Tg and 0.71 Tg. VOC emissions from the chemical industries increased by 0.91 Tg during 2013–2016 and decreased by 0.72 Tg during 2016–2019. Industrial VOCs emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, and Central Plain in 2019 respectively reduced by 12.0%, 3.2%, and 8.7% compared to 2013 due to stringent control measures and closure/relocation of highly polluting enterprises. By contrast, industrial VOCs emissions in the West Coast of the Strait and the Central Guizhou increased by 38.1% and 31.8% during 2013–2019. In summary, China's industrial high VOCs emission areas were shifting from key areas to its surrounding areas, resulting in little change in total VOCs emissions. The coal-coking industry, architectural painting, petroleum refining, and pharmaceutical industry will have the most considerable reduction responsibility to reduce VOCs emissions in the future. Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Zhejiang will share the highest reduction responsibility, accounting for approximately 40% of national emission reduction.

4. A review of non-point source water pollution modeling for the urban–rural transitional areas of China: Research status and prospect
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154146

Abstract

China has experienced a rapid period of urbanization since the 1980s. Many traditional agricultural areas were transformed into the urban-rural transitional areas, in which both urban and rural characteristics exist. Non-point source pollution (NPSP) has become a major side effect of urbanization and agricultural production which caused wide public concerns. It is crucial to carry out research on identifying the spatiotemporal variation in NPSP in the urban-rural transitional area (especially in developing countries, e.g., in China), which is a prerequisite for improving water quality and guiding NPSP control efforts. Modeling approaches are great tools to provide quantitative information on NPSP and optimize the best management practices for NPSP control. We reviewed over twenty years of publications on NPSP modeling and applications in urban, rural and its transitional areas. The strengths and limitations of 20 commonly used NPSP models in China were concluded based on a brief introduction and the evolution history. Reporting the strengths and weaknesses of each NPSP model could enhance its utility in practice. In terms of the unique characteristics of urban-rural transitional areas, which are neither strictly urban nor rural, non-point source pollutants are often distinctly different between traditional pollutants from urban and agricultural areas since the great differences in the hydrological processes, and none of existing NPSP models are fully applicable to urban-rural transitional areas. Based on limited NPSP modeling studies in urban-rural transitional areas, the existing research insufficiency were technical and mechanism limitations of the model despite of numerous improvements in the past, concerns about simulation accuracy, limited investigations on new pollutants, and lack of monitoring data. Future development trend and concerns of NPSP models for urban-rural transitional areas were discussed, which could be of great help to the development of NPSP models and their applications in water quality management in the rapid urbanized China.

5. Be-7 and Pb-210 in fallout and aerosols in 2000–2016 in central Europe — Deposition velocity and dependence on meteorological parameters
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154205

Abstract

The main aim of this research was to determine the transport and deposition velocities of 7Be and 210Pb based on a vast database containing the results of measurements of 7Be and 210Pb in fallout and aerosol samples carried out at several stations located throughout Poland in the period from 2000 to 2016. The monthly deposition flux of 7Be and 210Pb showed an unequivocal downward trend but was also subject to seasonal changes, with maximum values in the summer period. The same patterns were found in the case of the deposition rate, the average values of which were 0.7 cm s−1 for 7Be and 0.5 cm s−1 for 210Pb. A strong, statistically significant dependence of the deposition rate on the amount of dust was demonstrated, whereby a 10 μg m−3 decrease in dust increases the 7Be deposition rate by 0.1 cm s−1. Reduction of the concentration of carrier particles reduces the share of dry deposition in favour of precipitation convection, which is much more significant for the transport of both isotopes to the surface. Study of the effect of meteorological parameters showed that the concentrations of 7Be in fallout and aerosol samples and 210Pb in fallout increase with increasing temperature, indicating a significant share of convection processes in isotope transport. The concentrations of 210Pb in aerosols did not show any significant statistical changes over time. Their maximum values  were observed in the winter period, indicating an additional source of this isotope related to combustion processes in the heating season. The studies confirmed the dominant role of convective precipitation and large-scale precipitation processes in the elution of 7Be from the atmosphere by showing the monthly deposition of this isotope to be strongly dependent on the total precipitation (r = 0.618).

6. Life cycle CO2 emissions for the new energy vehicles in China drawing on the reshaped survival pattern
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154102

Abstract

Promoting new energy vehicles (NEVs) is the key to achieving net-zero emissions in the transportation sector. NEVs' total life cycle CO2 emissions are mainly determined by average vehicle lifespan, annual mileage traveled, energy carbon intensity and energy mix in the production stage. Current studies mainly adopt assumptions about NEVs' average lifespan due to limited available data. This paper expands on the previous studies by examining the NEVs' age and distribution based on the national representative China Compulsory Traffic Accident Liability Insurance for Motor Vehicles (CTALI) database from 2018 to 2020. Then, the survival patterns and lifespan of NEVs are assessed using Weibull distribution. New energy passenger vehicles' life cycle CO2 emissions are further evaluated based on the reshaped representative survival patterns. The results show that there are significant differences in survival patterns between conventional vehicles and NEVs. NEVs generally show a shorter average lifespan compared with conventional vehicles. Among NEVs, the average lifespan of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is better than that of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The survival patterns of several types of electric vehicles (including passenger battery electric vehicles, non-operating light battery electric buses, and light battery electric trucks) do not have a stable period in their first few years of operation. The life cycle assessment results show that the total life cycle CO2 emissions of passenger BEVs and PHEVs are lower than those of conventional vehicles. However, the short lifespan dramatically increases the passenger BEV and PHEV total life cycle CO2 emissions per kilometer, resulting in passenger BEV total life cycle CO2 emissions per kilometer being higher than those of conventional vehicles.

7. The WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2021 promote great challenge for indoor air
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154376

Abstract

The WHO AQGs 2021 incorporates more stringent guidelines for air pollution, which now include both ambient and indoor air quality. We discuss the challenges to meeting the AQGs for indoor air. We suggest a cocktail-like treatment solution that combines efforts from a multidiscipline field of policy, technology, and education.

8. Spatial-temporal variation and nonlinear prediction of environmental footprints and comprehensive environmental pressure in urban agglomerations
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131556

Abstract

It is necessary to evaluate the comprehensive environmental pressure (CEP) for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Water-carbon-ecological footprints (named as WF, CF, and EF3D) and Nonlinear Grey Bernoulli projection model are integrated for identifying the CEP in the urban agglomerations of Cheng-Yu district (UAC), middle reaches of the Yangtze River (UAM), and Yangtze River Delta (UAD). Results reveal that the general water resources system is quite satisfactory. The annual growth rate of CF is approximately 4.93%, mostly contributed by raw coal consumption. Natural resources consumption exceeds the ecosystem carrying capacity due to the increased ecological deficit (above 3.0 hm2/cap). The average ecological footprint depth reaches 24.61, 17.59, and 30.89 in the UAC, UAM, and UAD, respectively, implying higher than 17 times its own land area required for supporting regional resource consumption. The growth rates of CEP are 3.53%, 2.86%, and 6.85% in the UAC, UAM, and UAD, respectively, above 80% of which is from carbon and ecological pressure. In terms of the coupling coordination degree of environmental footprints, results disclose that the resources consumption structure is improved in the UAM and UAD, but it is in an unfavorable direction for the UAC. Moreover, the future environmental footprints and CEP will continuously increase. Some measures, such as energy-saving and emission-reduction technologies, thus should be further strengthened.

9. Economic sustainable development goals: Assessments and perspectives in Europe
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131730

Abstract

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a shared blueprint to support countries in their pursuit of reconciling economic growth with sustainability. This study considers 35 indicators related to the economic SDGs (SDG 7, SDG 8, SDG 9, SDG 11 and SDG 12) considering available data from 27 European countries in order to identify an aggregate value of sustainability in accordance with the multicriteria analysis. The results obtained make it possible to draw up a ranking in which Sweden comes out on top, ahead of Denmark. Denmark, along with Austria, are the only two countries to perform better than the European average in all 5 SDGs analyzed. In general, northern and western countries outperform other considered countries. The obtained multicriteria aggregate sustainability indicator shows a good linear fit with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. However, Luxembourg and Ireland behave as outliers, showing a high GDP level misaligned from the multicriteria aggregate sustainability indicator. A distinguished characteristic of these countries is the very attractive taxation system, which, as it seems, has succeeded in prompting economic growth yet failing in reconciling it with sustainability objectives. These findings open up to reflections in which growth drivers should be aligned with sustainability targets.

10. Driving factors behind the development of China's green bond market
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131705

Abstract

Green bonds have developed rapidly, over a short period, in China's capital market, making it the world's largest green bond market. However, there is little empirical literature on China's green bond market growth drivers. This paper uses structural equation models to explain the driving factors and mechanism of the top-down development model of China's green bond market. The findings indicate that the local economy and environmental governance impacts growth more in the green bond market, followed by the institutional environment. In contrast, policy support impacts were small and statistically insignificant. Meanwhile, the effects of the local economy and environmental governance are direct, and the institutional environment indirectly promotes economic development. These results suggest that the local economy and institutional and environmental governance are the main driving factors for China's green bond market's rapid development and the reasons for unbalanced regional distribution. Overall, the findings have practical implications for further promoting the coordinated development of the green bond market and building a green financial system.

11. Environmental self-regulation and firm survival: Evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131795

Abstract

Environmental self-regulation (ESR) is an increasingly important instrument to solve environmental problems. Although ESR is linked to improved firms' environmental performance, it is unclear whether ESR benefits firms’ long-term survival. We use environmental certifications, an externally certified form of ESR, and operation data of Chinese manufacturing firms from 1999 to 2013 to examine the impact of ESR on firm survival. We find that ESR participation significantly improves firm survival, and this effect is more evident on heavy-polluting firms and non-state-owned firms and in regions and periods with more stringent environmental regulations. Mediating effect analysis shows that this enhanced survival effect is mainly from favorable governmental treatment including lower compliance cost and higher subsidies, instead of from market factors including cost reduction, higher demand, and technology improvement. This study contributes to our understanding of the performance consequences of firm environmental conduct and the underlying mechanisms.

12. Are environmentally friendly firms more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131781

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected supply and demand to a large extent. Declining demand for firms' output has caused significant financial stress for all kinds of firms worldwide. Production that requires environmental measures usually gets constrained when firms, especially small and medium-sized firms (SMEs), have difficulty in accessing credit. Firms thus face the dilemma of whether to continue environmental behaviors or to fulfill financial commitments to suppliers, employees, and so on. As such, an empirical question is whether the economic consequences of COVID-19 vary by firms’ types and their environmental behaviors. Using 4,888 sample firms from 14 EU member states, this study finds evidence that the severity of damage caused by COVID-19 depends on firm size and whether firms invested in pollution abatement techniques. Specifically, eco-friendly firms perform better during the COVID-19 pandemic, and SMEs are less vulnerable than large firms. In particular, eco-friendly SMEs are less affected by the pandemic than conventional SMEs and large firms. These findings are probably related to the efficacy of government relief programs targeted to eco-friendly SMEs and/or the healthy financial status of these firms prior to the pandemic.

13. Closed-loop home energy management system with renewable energy sources in a smart grid: A comprehensive review
Journal of Energy Storage, Volume 50, June 2022, 104609

Abstract

Nowadays, energy plays a prominent role in all aspects of our life. So far, unclean and non-renewable energy, which has severe economic and environmental impacts, dominant the worldwide energy market. Energy researchers from all over the world are focusing on two approaches: reducing consumption especially for residential loads and diversifying energy sources to include renewables. The constant expansion and competitiveness of renewable energy technologies call for a better approach to grid management. Hence, Home Energy Management System (HEMS) using renewables and integrated into a Smart Grid (SG) scheme provides a solution for monitoring and scheduling appliances' operational activities, which helps reduce consumption and increase energy efficiency. This work mainly aims to provide a comprehensive literature on HEMS in the SG and reviews it as a closed-loop control system. In addition, the architecture of HEMS integrated into a SG is studied, including HEMS functionality, renewable energy sources in a SG, smart energy management system center controller, smart appliances classification, most advanced HEMS monitoring devices used today, sensing, and measuring devices, and HEMS communication and networking system. Demand Side Management (DSM) and Demand Response (DR) programs in HEMS are discussed, with a classification of different DR programs. Several HEMS scheduling methods, including mathematical, metaheuristic, and artificial intelligence optimization techniques, will be reviewed. Some HEMS challenges are also briefly discussed.

14. Techno-economic feasibility and environmental sustainability of waste-to-energy in a circular economy: Sri Lanka case study
Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume 68, June 2022, Pages 308-317

Abstract

Many countries in Asia-Pacific region have programs in place for clean energy transition aligned with their Nationally Determined Contributions. However, in most of these countries waste-to-energy (WtE) has no major role in the current programs. The study presented in the paper has examined WtE in a circular economy as a solution that can have economic, financial, social, and environmental co-benefits through efficient use of natural resources, reduced emissions, and fostering innovation. The case study involving Sri Lanka has shown that similar countries have the potential to implement WtE projects coupled with appropriate circular economy elements with adequate financial and economic returns. The results show the viability of a centralized incineration plant of 500 tons/day capacity and decentralized biogas facilities of 150–200 tons/day capacity for each of the three districts in the country's Western province. The estimated total power generation capacity from incineration is about 20.3 MW and the annual exported electricity is 129.86 GWh. The estimated power generation capacity of the biogas plants is about 7.16 MW, and the annual exported electricity is about 41.4 GWh. The total amount of compost produced is estimated to be about 43,000 tons/year by processing digestate and 125 tons of recyclable waste expect to be recovered daily. The proposed development plan positively impacts the grid emission factor of the country and the estimated avoided annual GHG emission is about 380,000 tons of CO2. This pioneering case study can be used as a basis for immediate action to solve waste management issues within a circular economy helping similar economies in the Asia Pacific region in their efforts to achieve net zero emission target by the middle of this century.

15. Exploring the use of water resource recovery facility instrument data to visualise dynamic resilience to environmental stressors
Water Research, Available online 2 June 2022, 118711

Abstract

Water resource recovery facilities (WRRF) face increasingly dynamic stressors, such as higher rainfall intensity and extended dry periods, which can exert stress on ageing water infrastructure and processes. These events can generate process stresses, which lead to wastewater process failures which result in pollution events that could be identified from instrument data used for operational/compliance monitoring. This extraction can be performed on two levels 1) for discrete processes that generate data to monitor process control variables and 2) at the WRRF process boundary (global), which is mainly used for compliance. Both levels of data hold valuable information on the dynamic influence of environmental stressors (cause) and the resulting process stress or resilience (effect) as ‘dynamic resilience’. This paper proposes a novel methodology that uses actual water company instrument data to evaluate the ‘discrete’ (unit processes) and ‘global’ (WRRF boundary) dynamic resilience of a WRRF in the south of the UK. Dynamic resilience is presented as a four-stage methodology, which; 1) cleans WRRF data and extracts a standard operating condition; 2) identifies dynamic high and low flow environmental stressor events (one in five years); 3) models the process stresses and resilience generated by the imposed dynamic stressor before; 4) generating a contoured heat map of process-related stresses or resilience as a self ordering window. These methods demonstrate the possibility of visualising the dynamics of WRRF resilience (dynamic stressors and process stresses/resilience) resulting from high and low flow dynamic environmental stressors. Despite some challenges experienced with self ordering window scaling, the results demonstrate the possibility of identifying zones of process stress and resilience. It may also be possible to expand the methods developed to incorporate storm flows and combined sewer discharges.

16. Insights into innovative contract design to improve the integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural management
Ecosystem Services, Volume 55, June 2022, 101430

Abstract

Innovative contracts are needed that promote the provision of biodiversity and diverse ecosystem services from land under agricultural production, given that mainstream agri-environment-climate measures (AECM) funded by the public purse have shown limited effectiveness. Recently, various actors from the public, private and third sectors have experimented with and implemented innovative contracts that incentivise farmers for the increased provision of environmental public goods alongside private goods. Due to their evolving and experimental nature, detailed information on characteristics of contract design and governance context of these contracts is lacking, hence preventing them from being used more widely.

This paper addresses this gap and reports the findings of an analysis of 62 cases, based on information from a literature review and complemented by expert knowledge. Following an actor-based typology, we identified innovative payments for ecosystem services (PES) as the most common contract type, followed by value chain approaches and very few land tenure contracts. Alternative classifications are possible, with hybrid contracts showing promising combinations of different contract characteristics such as basis of payment (action-based, results-based) and contract parties (collective or bilateral arrangements). The most innovative approaches were value chain contracts. They exhibited more tailored contracts between (single) producers and processors instead of the generic publicly-funded AECM, a stronger bottom-up approach to define the (mostly action-based) measures, and the interest of processors to use these activities for marketing purposes. In contrast, publicly-funded PES contracts appeared to be more innovative with respect to results-based payments rewarding the environmental performance of farmers, and providing them more flexibility and autonomy. Future research should focus on the benefits of such innovative contracts, e.g. with regard to costs and environmental effectiveness.

MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ

1. Stormwater management in urban areas using dry gallery infiltration systems
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153705

Abstract

The increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation events due to climate change, together with the continuous development of cities and surface sealing that hinder water infiltration into the subsoil, is accelerating the search for new facilities to manage stormwater. The Canary Islands (Spain) are taking advantage of the knowledge acquired in the construction of water mines to exploit a novel stormwater management facility, which we have defined as a dry gallery. Dry galleries are constituted by a vertical well connected to a horizontal gallery dug into highly permeable volcanic layers of the vadose zone, from where infiltration takes place. However, the lack of scientific knowledge about these facilities prevents them from being properly dimensioned and managed. In this work, we simulate for the first time the infiltration process and the wetting front propagation from dry galleries based on a 3D unsaturated flow model and provide some recommendations for the installation and sizing of these facilities. The fastest advance of the wetting front takes place during the earliest times of infiltration (<2 h), with plausible propagation velocities and infiltration rates higher than 1000 m∙d−1 and 2 m3∙s−1. As time progresses, the propagation velocity and infiltration rate decrease as a consequence of the hydraulic gradient attenuation between the gallery and the aquifer. Therefore, stormwater infiltration is a highly transient process in which a sizing underestimation of 100% may be committed if unsaturated conditions or geological configuration are neglected.

2. Food waste and its embedded resources loss: A provincial level analysis of China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153665

Abstract

Food waste is of great concern because it causes severe environmental pollution during disposal and contains many resources that should be well managed. Food waste quantification could clarify the resource value of wasted food and thus help to improve resource utilization efficiency, reduce water eutrophication potential, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By considering household food waste, out-of-home food waste, and food delivery waste in rural and urban regions, this paper quantifies the nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and carbon footprint embedded in China's food waste at the provincial level. The results indicate that food waste in China was 56.75 Mt. in 2018. Those wasted food cause 0.54 Mt. loss of phosphorus (5.12% of the phosphorus fertilizer consumption), 3.58 Mt. loss of nitrogen (10.43% of the nitrogen fertilizer consumption), and 120.25 billion tons loss of water (3.06 times of the storage capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir). If ignoring the greenhouse gas emissions caused by land-use change, the carbon footprint caused by wasted food is 168.07 Mt. CO2eq, accounting for 1.44% of China's total GHG emission. Principal component analysis indicates that the per capita disposable income, urbanization rate, and personal consumption expenditure are critical factors for food waste volume variation in different provinces. Considering China's significant role in the global resource cycling, improving nutrient/resource utilization efficiency along the food supply chain, minimizing food waste volume, and developing economic-effective processes for food waste reuse and recycling are recommended to close the imbalanced resource cycle during the current food waste management.

3. Selection of surrogate viruses for process control in detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153737

Abstract

Since SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater is often present at low concentration or under detection limit, ensuring the reliability of detection processes using appropriate process controls is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate applicability and limitations of candidate surrogate viruses as process controls under combinations of different virus concentration and RNA extraction methods. Detection efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 spiked in wastewater was compared with those of candidate surrogate viruses of bacteriophage ϕ6, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), F-specific coliphage (F-phage), and murine norovirus (MNV). After inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and ϕ6 were spiked in two different wastewaters, the viruses in solid and liquid fractions of wastewater were concentrated by centrifuge and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, respectively. Viral RNA was extracted by using QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit and 3 other commercially available extraction kits, then quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR using CDCN1 assay. Regardless of extraction kits, SARS-CoV-2 was consistently detected with good efficiency from both liquid (11–200%) and solid fractions (7.1–93%). Among the candidate process controls, PMMoV was widely detected at good efficiencies from both liquid and solid fractions regardless of selection of RNA extraction kits. F-phage and MNV also showed good detection efficiencies in most combinations of wastewater fractions and RNA extraction kits. An enveloped virus ɸ6 was found often undetected or to have very low detection efficiency (0.1–4.2%) even when SARS-CoV-2 spiked in wastewater was detected with good efficiency. Consequently, PMMoV is widely applicable as process control for detection of SARS-CoV-2 either in liquid fractions concentrated by PEG precipitation, or in solid fractions concentrated by centrifuge.

4. Microplastics contamination of groundwater: Current evidence and future perspectives. A review
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153851

Abstract

Groundwater is a primary water source which supplies more than 2 billion people. The increasing population and urbanization of rural areas stresses and depletes the groundwater systems, reducing the groundwater quality. Among the emerging contaminants, microplastics (MPs) are becoming an important issue due to their persistency in the environment. Seepage through the pores and fractures as well as the interaction with colloidal aggregates can partially affect the MPs dynamics in the subsoil, making the detection of the MPs in the groundwater systems challenging. Based on literature, a critical analysis of MPs in groundwater is presented from a hydrogeological point of view. In addition, a review of the MPs data potentially affecting the groundwater systems are included. MPs in groundwater may have several sources, including the atmosphere, the interaction with surface water bodies, urban infrastructures, or agricultural soils. The characterization of both the groundwater dynamics and the heterogeneity of MPs is suggested, proposing a new framework named "Hydrogeoplastic Model”. MPs detection methods aimed at characterizing the smaller fragments are necessary to clarify the fate of these contaminants in the aquifers. This review also aims to support future research on MP contamination in groundwater, pointing out the current knowledge and the future risks which could affect groundwater resources worldwide.

5. Suspect screening of wastewaters to trace anti-COVID-19 drugs: Potential adverse effects on aquatic environment
Science of The Total Environment,Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153756

Abstract

During the first period of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the lack of specific therapeutic treatments led to the provisional use of a number of drugs, with a continuous review of health protocols when new scientific evidence emerged. The management of this emergency sanitary situation could not take care of the possible indirect adverse effects on the environment, such as the release of a large amount of pharmaceuticals from wastewater treatment plants. The massive use of drugs, which were never used so widely until then, implied new risks for the aquatic environment. In this study, a suspect screening approach using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry techniques, allowed us to survey the presence of pharmaceuticals used for COVID-19 treatment in three WWTPs of Lombardy region, where the first European cluster of SARS-CoV-2 cases was detected. Starting from a list of sixty-three suspect compounds used against COVID-19 (including some metabolites and transformation products), six compounds were fully identified and monitored together with other target analytes, mainly pharmaceuticals of common use. A monthly monitoring campaign was conducted in a WWTP from April to December 2020 and the temporal trends of some anti-COVID-19 drugs were positively correlated with those of COVID-19 cases and deaths. The comparison of the average emission loads among the three WWTPs evidenced that the highest loads of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin were measured in the WWTP which received the sewages from a hospital specializing in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The monitoring of the receiving water bodies evidenced the presence of eight compounds of high ecological concern, whose risk was assessed in terms of toxicity and the possibility of inducing antibiotic and viral resistance. The results clearly showed that the enhanced, but not completely justified, use of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin represented a risk for antibiotic resistance in the aquatic ecosystems.

6. Spatially non-stationary relationships between urbanization and the characteristics and storage-regulation capacities of river systems in the Tai Lake Plain, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153684

Abstract

Given environmental or hydrological functions influenced by changing river networks in the development of rapid urbanization, a clear understanding of the relationships between comprehensive urbanization (CUB) and river network characteristics (RNC), storage capacity (RSC), and regulation capacity (RRC) is urgently needed. In the rapidly urbanized Tai Lake Plain (TLP), China, various methods and multisource data were integrated to estimate the dynamics of RNC, RSC, and RRC as well as their interactions with urbanization. The bivariate Moran's I methods were applied to detect and visualize the spatial dependency of RNC, RSC, or RRC on urbanization. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was set up to characterize spatial heterogeneity of urbanization influences on RNC, RSC and RRC. Our results indicated that RNC, RSC and RRC variables each showed an overall decreasing trend across space from 1960s to 2010s, particularly in those of tributary rivers. RNC, RSC, or RRC had globally negative correlations with CUB, respectively, but looking at local scale the spatial correlations between each pair were categorized as four types: high-high, high-low, low-low, and low-high. GWR was identified to accurately predict the response of most RNC, RSC, or RRC variables to CUB (R2: 0.6–0.8). The predictive ability of GWR was spatially non-stationary. The obtained relationships presented different directions and strength in space. All variables except for the water surface ratio (Wp) were more positively affected by CUB in the middle eastern parts of TLP. Drainage density, RSC and RRC variables were more negatively influenced by CUB in the northeast compared to other parts. The quantitative results of spatial relationships between urbanization and RNC, RSC or RRC can provide location-specific guidance for river environment protection and regional flood risk management.

7. Land conversion induced by urbanization leads to taxonomic and functional homogenization of a river macroinvertebrate metacommunity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153940

Abstract

Conversion of forests to urban land-use in the processes of urbanization is one of the major causes of biotic homogenization (i.e., decline in beta diversity) in freshwater ecosystems, threating ecosystem functioning and services. However, empirical studies exploring urban land-use shaping patterns of taxonomic and functional beta diversities and their components in subtropical urban rivers are limited. Here, by leveraging data for 43 sampling sites from urban and forest rivers in Shenzhen, a megacity showing rapid urbanization, we determined the spatio-temporal dynamics and associated drivers of taxonomic and functional beta diversities of river macroinvertebrates. Our results showed that, from the forest to urban rivers, taxonomic beta diversity (wet: 32.9%; dry: 17.1%) declined more significantly than functional beta diversity (wet: 17.4%; dry: 9.5%) in different seasons. We further found that these compositional changes were largely driven by decreased roles of species/traits replacement. Although replacement was also dominant for taxonomic beta diversity (60.4%–68.4%) in two sets of rivers, richness difference contributed more to functional beta diversity in the urban river (52.6%–60.5%). Both deterministic and stochastic processes simultaneously affected beta diversity, with stochastic processes being more important in the urban (3.0–19.0%) than forest rivers (0.0%–3.0%). Besides, db-RDA and variation partitioning results showed that local-scale environmental variables explained considerably large fractions of variation in beta diversity. We hence recommended that biodiversity conservation should focus on improving and restoring local environmental conditions. Despite no significant seasonal differences in beta diversity were detected in this study, we found that the roles of deterministic (i.e., local-scale and land-use variables) and stochastic processes varied considerately across seasons. This result highlights the viewpoint that urban river biodiversity monitoring should go beyond one-season snapshot surveys. As the ongoing trend of urbanization in developing countries, the findings of this study are relevant in guiding urban river environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation and land-use planning.

8. Landscape and vegetation traits of urban green space can predict local surface temperature
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 154006

Abstract

Societal and technological advances have triggered demands to improve urban environmental quality. Urban green space (UGS) can provide effective cooling service and thermal comfort to alleviate warming impacts. We investigated the relative influence of a comprehensive spectrum of UGS landscape and vegetation factors on surface temperature in arid Urumqi city in northwest China. Built-up area range was extracted from Luojia 1-01 (LJ1-01) satellite data, and within this range, the landscape metric information and vegetation index information of UGS were obtained based on PlanetScope data, and a total of 439 sampling grids (1 km × 1 km) were generated. The urban surface temperature of built-up areas was extracted from Landsat8-TIRS images. The 12 landscape metrics and 14 vegetation indexes were assigned as independent variables, and surface temperature the dependent variable. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gradient Boost Regression Tree (GBRT) and Random Forest (RF) were enlisted to establish numerical models to predict surface temperature. The results showed that: (1) It was feasible to predict local surface temperature using a combination of landscape metrics and vegetation indexes. Among the three models, RF demonstrated the best accuracy. (2) Collectively, all the factors play a role in the surface-temperature prediction. The most influential factor was Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), followed by Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Class Area (CA) and AREA. This study developed remote sensing techniques to extract a basket of UGS factors to predict the surface temperature at local urban sites. The methods could be applied to other cities to evaluate the cooling impacts of green infrastructures. The findings could provide a scientific basis for ecological spatial planning of UGS to optimize cooling benefits in the arid region.

9. Spatiotemporal variation in urban wastewater pollution impacts on river microbiomes and associated hazards in the Akaki catchment, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 153912

Abstract

In Addis Ababa and its environs, most urban wastewater is discharged into rivers without treatment. This study related urban wastewater characteristics to the prevalence of faecal, antibiotic resistant, and potentially pathogenic bacteria in rivers of the Akaki catchment across six locations, for the dry and wet season. Spatiotemporal variation in bacterial hazards across the catchment was up to 6 log10 units. Cooccurrence of sewage pollution marker gene HF183 in all river samples testing positive for the Vibrio cholerae marker gene ompW, and high levels of these two genes in untreated wastewater, identified human sewage as the likely source of Vibrio cholerae hazards in the catchment. Levels of the marker genes rodA for E. coli, HF183 for human host associated Bacteroides, ciaB for Arcobacter, and ompW for Vibrio cholerae were all higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Marker gene gyrB for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in the samples. From the sequencing data, notable bacterial genera in the dry season included wastewater pollution indicators Arcobacter and Aeromonas, whereas soil erosion may explain the greater prominence of Legionella, Vicinamibacter, and Sphingomonas during the wet season. Except for the most upstream location, all faecal coliform (FC) counts exceeded WHO standards of 1000 CFU/100 mL for unrestricted irrigation. Concerningly, 0.6–20% of FC had ESBL producing antimicrobial resistance traits. In conclusion, multiple bacterial hazards were of concern for river water users in the Akaki catchment, and elevated in the dry season, when the river water is being used for irrigation of vegetable fields that supply the markets of Addis Ababa. This reflects inadequate treatment and limited dilution of urban wastewater by the natural river flows during periods of low rainfall.

10. The impact of climate change on urban resilience in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154157

Abstract

The increasing uncertainty related to disaster risk under climate change brings about new challenges for sustainable urban management. The emergence of the urban resilience concept can improve the ability and extent to which cities can absorb and resolve risks, providing insight into the sustainable development of cities and regions. Yet, to date, the impact of climate change on regional urban resilience is not well understood. This paper measures the changes in urban resilience of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from 1998 to 2019, and then explores the contribution of climate influencing factors such as temperature, precipitation and wind speed to urban resilience using econometric models. Results demonstrate the following: (1) Urban resilience shows a large spatial heterogeneity in the BTH region. Overall, Beijing and Tianjin have better and more stable resilience than Hebei Province. (2) Regarding the static impact of climate change on urban resilience, a 1 unit increase in Ln temperature and Ln precipitation will respectively increase Ln resilience by 1.01 units and 0.54 units, indicating that it has a significant positive impact on urban resilience. Each 1 unit increase in Ln wind speed will decrease resilience by 1.65 units, representing a significant negative effect. (3) Regarding the dynamic impact of climate change on urban resilience, a positive 1 unit impact of climatic factors indicates that an increase in temperature will first increase and then decrease urban resilience, and an increase in precipitation and wind speed will initially support improvement in urban resilience. Based on these findings, this article offers policy recommendations to improve urban resilience.

11. Evaluating the oxidation inhibition of sulfide in urban sewers using a novel quantitative method
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 133958

Abstract

Sulfide inhibition is a critical task for the secure operation of sewer systems, and oxidation is usually utilised to achieve this purpose. However, the effects and mechanism of oxidation during the transformation of sulfur-associated pollutants in gas-liquid-solid phases of sewers have not been extensively evaluated. In this study, a method for quantifying sulfur-associated pollutant exchange pathways in gas-liquid-solid phases of sewers was established. The results showed that although the concentration of sulfide decreased under different oxidation conditions, the consumption of sulfate in sewers clearly increased. The transformation strength of elemental sulfur was high (18.65 mg/L, 35.52% of sulfate from the influent) and the accumulation of sulfate in sediment was obvious (3.49 mg/L, 6.65% of sulfate from the influent). Higher concentrations of sulfate in the influent promoted the generation of sulfide in sediment (8.98 mg/L, 17.10%). Thus, the oxidation process led to the generation of more absolute sulfide. In addition, promoting the metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria enhanced the loss of organic carbon in sewers, which might weaken the efficacy of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment plants. Based on the evaluation of the exchange pathways of sulfur-associated pollutants in sewers, further studies into sulfide inhibition in sewers should consider the above issues to enhance the safe management of urban sewers.

12. Rejections and membrane fouling of submerged direct contact hollow-fiber membrane distillation as post-treatment for anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor treating domestic sewage
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 133964

Abstract

In this study, submerged direct contact membrane distillation (SDCMD) with a hollow-fiber membrane was applied as a post-treatment for an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR) treating domestic sewage. The rejection efficiency of organic contaminants and nutrients, such as ammonia nitrogen and phosphate in SDCMD were investigated. As the transmembrane temperature difference increased, the permeate flux of SDCMD increased, while the rejection efficiency of ammonia nitrogen decreased. Regardless of the transmembrane temperature applied in this study, rejection efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved for organics and phosphate by SDCMD treatment of the AFBR effluent. A higher solution pH resulted in a lower ammonia nitrogen rejection efficiency, probably because nitrogen dominantly exists in the gaseous form and can easily pass through the hollow-fiber membrane. Long-term operation with the integrated AFBR-SDCMD process over 50 d at a transmembrane temperature of 30 °C and solution pH of 5.5 showed rejection efficiencies of 98.7%, 98.1%, and 90.5% for ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively. During the entire integrated process for treating domestic sewage, both DOC and nutrients present in the bulk solution of the SDCMD reactor were effectively removed to a concentrate. However, the permeate flux produced by the SDCMD membrane decreased over time, mainly because of the progressive biofouling.

13. Traffic emission dominates the spatial variations of metal contamination and ecological-health risks in urban park soil
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134155

Abstract

Metals in urban park soil are closely related to traffic emissions, which adversely affect soil quality and human health. However, little is known about the quantitative impacts of traffic on the spatial variations of metals in park soil after the banning of leaded gasoline. Herein, concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in surface soil of four recreational parks of Sydney (Ashfield, Robson, Lamberts and Leichhardt) were measured to evaluate their spatial characteristics in contamination, ecological and health risks and relationships with traffic emissions. Contamination of metals are assessed by contamination factor (CF). Normalized metal concentrations (<63 μm) in the park soil were 24–614, 23–3520 and 99–3060 mg kg−1 for Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, and CFs ranged from 1.4 to 207, whose variations inter- and intra-parks were related to traffic volumes. Traffic emission accounted for 72–84% of metals contamination in soil of Ashfield, Robson and Lamberts by sites, whereas the values were 25–70% for Leichhardt due to the absence of a surrounding arterial road. In Ashfield and Robson Parks, metal concentrations from traffic decreased exponentially with distance from arterial roads. Metals in Lamberts Park and in areas near arterial roads in Ashfield and Robson Parks may raise ecological risk, and traffic sources contributed to 61–81% of the risk. The ranges of ecological risk zones away from arterial roads and average daily traffic volumes showed an exponential relationship. Copper and Zn in soil of the four parks have no non-carcinogenic health risk for children and adults, and Pb has negligible health risk for adults. Lead in Lamberts Park and in sites near arterial roads of Ashfield and Robson Parks may raise non-carcinogenic risk for children (HI > 1) due to traffic emissions. These results emphasize the remarkable influence of traffic emissions on urban soil metal, which can be predicated quantitatively by traffic volume.

14. Comprehensively understanding metabolic pathways of protein during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134117

Abstract

The metabolic pathways of protein during anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) were comprehensively investigated. Results showed that 100 kinds of peptidases were involved in the hydrolysis and acidogenesis processes. Serine endopeptidases (EC 3.4.21.53) and serine-type carboxypeptidases (EC 3.4.16.4) were the key enzymes of endopeptidases and exopeptidases, respectively. The pathways of ko00250 (alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism), ko00260 (glycine, serine and threonine metabolism), ko00270 (cysteine and methionine metabolism), ko00280 (valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation), ko00360 (phenylalanine metabolism) and ko00310 (lysine degradation) were the critical metabolic pathways of amino acids during AD of WAS, since they have complete pathways from amino acids to vital intermediates (pyruvate or acetyl-CoA). l-aspartate, l-alanine, threonine, glycine, serine, l-cysteine were the intermediate products in the conversion of protein to pyruvate, while l-leucine, l-isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine could be directly metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Dechloromonas and Thauera played major roles in the crucial metabolic pathways of amino acids (ko00250, ko00260, ko00280 and ko00270). These important discoveries could provide a new biological perspective for improving AD performance.

15. Psychrophilic treatment of municipal wastewater with a combined UASB/ASD system, and perspectives for improving urban WWTP sustainability
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134228

Abstract

According to new paradigms of urban wastewater management, energy savings and resources and energy recovery from sewage will assume an ever-increasing importance. Anaerobic processes, aside from being more energy efficient than conventional aerobic ones, are particularly suited to recover embedded organic energy, improving the overall energy balance of treatment processes, however, their performance is limited by low temperatures and slower kinetics. In this study, a pilot Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor was operated to treat municipal wastewater at low temperature regime (16.5–18.5 °C) for 22 weeks, both as standalone process and combined with a sidestream anaerobic sludge digester. Process performance highlighted good system robustness, as proved by stable pH and volatile fatty acid/total alkaline buffer capacity ratio, even though observed methane yield was low. Observed COD and TSS removal efficiencies were in the ranges of 60–69% and 63–73%, respectively. Methane production ranged between 0.106 and 0.132 Nm3CH4/kgCODrem. An economic assessment was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of implementing UASB pre-treatment of municipal wastewater in existing conventional facilities (activated sludge and anaerobic sludge digestion), showing that significant energy demand reduction could be achieved for both biological secondary treatment and sludge management, leading to considerable operational economies, and possible positive economic returns within a short pay-back period (3–4 yrs).

16. Characterizing spatiotemporal variability in airborne heavy metal concentration: Changes after 18 Years in Baltimore, MD
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112878

Abstract

Introduction

This study investigates the impact of changes in local industry, urban development, and proximity to suspected emission sources on airborne metal concentration in Baltimore, Maryland between 2001 and 2019 with particular focus on the urban industrial community of Curtis Bay in South Baltimore.

Methods

Integrated PM2.5 and PM10 Harvard Impactors were set up at six locations in the Baltimore City metropolitan area in weeklong sampling sessions from January–July 2019 to assess variation in airborne metal concentration by proximity to suspected metal emission sources. PM2.5 and PM10 were collected on Teflo filters and analyzed for a panel of 12 metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The findings were compared against airborne metal concentrations reported by the Baltimore Supersite in 2001 and 2003 to assess changes over the 18-year period.

Results

PM2.5 concentrations reported from this study ranged from 3.27 μg/m3 to 36.0 μg/m3 and PM10 concentrations ranged from 9.00 μg/m3 to 30.1 μg/m3 across all sampling sites. Metal concentrations ranged from 1.4 times (Cd) to 4.8 times (Cr) higher in PM10 compared to PM2.5. Compared to the study reference site, median PM2.5 concentrations of Co and Fe were roughly 1.8 times and 2.1 times higher, respectively, at near-road sampling sites indicating significant variability in airborne metal concentration by proximity to local traffic emissions. PM2.5 and PM10 Sb concentrations were 3.4 times and 6.7 times higher at a near incinerator site compared to the reference, consistent with existing evidence of Sb sourcing from municipal incinerators in Baltimore City. Decreases in Cr (−40%), Ni (−73%), Pb (−55%), and Zn (−36%) concentrations were observed over the 18-year period while concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Mn were not statistically significantly different.

Conclusion

Declines in airborne Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentration since 2001 appear to coincide with industrial decline highlighting the success of remediation and redevelopment efforts. Remaining spatial variability is related to vehicular traffic and proximity to a municipal incinerator which should be focal areas for future intervention to reduce metal exposure disparities in Baltimore City.

17. Concentrations and isotopic analysis for the sources and transfer of lead in an urban atmosphere-plant-soil system
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114771

Abstract

Lead pollution has attracted significant attention over the years. However, research on the transfer of lead between urban atmospheric particles, soils, and plants remains rare. We measured lead concentrations and lead isotope ratios in total suspended particles (TSP), soil, and plants in an urban wetland in Beijing. The study period was September 2016–August 2017- covering all four seasons. The concentrations of lead in the atmospheric particles vary from 3.13 to 6.68 mg/m3. It is significantly higher in autumn than that in spring and summer (P < 0.05). There is also a significant difference between summer and winter (P < 0.05). The soil lead concentrations range from 57 to 114 mg/kg, with the highest concentration in spring, followed by summer, winter and autumn. The lead concentrations are 1.28–7.75 mg/kg in plants. The concentration was highest in spring and significantly higher than in summer. The bioaccumulation factor of Phragmites australis was 0.064 (<0.1), indicating that lead is not easily transferred to plants. Unlike the bioaccumulation factors, translocation factors have much higher values, indicating a higher transfer within the plants. Results also indicate an interesting seasonal pattern with almost 97% of lead in plants during spring being of atmospheric origin, whereas in autumn, soilborne sources contribute almost 94%. The isotopic compositions of lead in the urban atmosphere-soil-plant system show that lead pollution results from the mixing of geogenic and anthropogenic materials. Vehicle exhaust, crustal rocks and ore deposits are likely primary sources of lead pollution within the study domain.

MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP

1. Research on a push-pull industrial trough-side exhaust hood based on CFD simulation and experiment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154265

Abstract

The traditional industrial trough-side exhaust hood requires large energy consumption for one-way airflow because the air inlet and outlet are on both sides of the industrial slot. In this research, based on the improvement of the traditional push-pull trough-side exhaust hood, a double-sided symmetrical push-pull industrial trough-side exhaust hood is researched. Simulation software ICEM and FLUENT were used to research the relationship between the distance of air inlet and outlet and the air volume ratio, and the relationship between the air volume ratio and mass fraction of pollutant gases, using carbon monoxide as the pollutant gas. The research found that when the pollutant mass fraction reaches the specified level, the air inlet and outlet distance is quadratically related to the air volume ratio. When the distance between the inlet and outlet is 0.12 m and the corresponding minimum flow ratio is 1.7, the interference of the suction air outlet pressure on the blowing air outlet jet reaches the minimum. By comparing the energy consumption with the traditional industrial trough-side exhaust hood, the energy saving rate is 75.8% with the same pollutant control effect. The double-sided symmetrical push-pull industrial trough-side exhaust hood reduce the cost of treating and discharging pollutants and provides a new idea for industrial pollutant treatment.

2. Exploring the source, migration and environmental risk of perfluoroalkyl acids and novel alternatives in groundwater beneath fluorochemical industries along the Yangtze River, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154413

Abstract

The widely used legacy perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with serious environmental hazards are gradually restricted and being replaced by novel alternatives. Here, for an efficient control of emerging environmental risks in groundwater, we systematically studied the source apportionment, spatial attenuation, composition change and risk zoning of 12 PFAAs and five novel alternatives within a region of ~200 km2 around a mega fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) along the Yangtze River, and in-depth explored potential association between groundwater and soil pollution as well as influencing factors on contaminant migration and risk distribution in the aquifer. Short-chain PFAAs and novel alternatives together accounted for over 70% in groundwater, revealing their prevalence in replacing legacy perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Novel alternatives for PFOA were mainly hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) and hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA), while those for PFOS were 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS). PFAAs (maximum total: 1339 ng/L) and novel alternatives (maximum total: 208 ng/L) in groundwater were mostly derived from the FIP, and exhibited an exponentially decreasing trend with increasing distance. Compared with those in groundwater, more diverse sources of PFAAs and novel alternatives in surface soil were identified. The transport of these chemicals may be retarded by clayed surface soils with high organic matter contents. High aquifer permeability could generally promote the dilution and migration of PFAAs and novel alternatives in groundwater, as well as reduce the differences in their spatial distribution. Shorter-chain components with smaller molecules and higher hydrophilicity exhibited greater migration capacities in the aquifer. In addition, different levels of health risk from PFOS and PFOA were zoned based on drinking groundwater, and high risks tended to be distributed in areas with relatively poor aquifer water yield due to higher pollutant accumulation.

3. Recent developments in photocatalysis of industrial effluents ։ A review and example of phenolic compounds degradation
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 133688

Abstract

Industrial expansion and increased water consumption have created water scarcity concerns. Meanwhile, conventional wastewater purification methods have failed to degrade recalcitrant pollutants efficiently. The present review paper discusses the recent advances and challenges in photocatalytic processes applied for industrial effluents treatment, with respect to phenolic compounds degradation. Key operational parameters including the catalyst loading, light intensity, initial pollutants concentration, pH, and type and concentrations of oxidants are evaluated and discussed. Compared to the other examined controlling parameters, pH has the highest effect on the photo-oxidation of contaminants by means of the photocatalyst ionization degree and surface charge. Furthermore, major phenolic compounds derived from industrial sources are comprehensively presented and the applicability of photocatalytic processes and the barriers in practical applications, including high energy demand, technical challenges, photocatalyst stability, and recyclability have been explored. The importance of energy consumption and operational costs for realistic large-scale processes are also discussed. Finally, research gaps in this area and the suggested direction for improving degradation efficiencies in industrial applications are presented. In the light of these premises, selective degradation processes in real water matrices such as untreated sewage are proposed.

4. Construction of K and Tb Co-doped MnO2 nanoparticles for enhanced oxidation and detoxication of organic dye waste
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134104

Abstract

Developing low-cost and efficient materials for dye pollutant removal under mild condition remains a great challenge. Here K+ and Tb3+ co-doped porous MnO2 (K–Tb–MnO2) nanoparticles with tailored properties including crystal structure, surface area and catalytic activity have been synthesized. Experimental results reveal that K–Tb–MnO2 nanoparticle has higher specific surface area, Mn3+ content and surface oxygen vacancies than pristine MnO2 nanoparticle and single-doped MnO2 materials, showing the uniqueness of dual-doped metal ions. Using methyl blue (MB) as a model pollutant, its removal efficiency by K–Tb–MnO2 nanoparticles within 5 min is 93.6%, which is 18, 8.3, and 2.9 times higher than that of MnO2, K–MnO2, and Tb–MnO2 nanomaterials, respectively. Oxalic acid triggered MnO2 material dissolving assay and FT-IR spectrum suggested that remarkable performance of K–Tb–MnO2 nanoparticle toward MB removal can be attributed to a combined effect of adsorption (16% MB removal) and catalytic degradation (84% MB removal). Moreover, K–Tb–MnO2 nanoparticle mediated MB degradation is demonstrated to be a combination of non-radical oxidation by Mn3+ and radical-participated degradation, with 1O2 as the main species. And the intermediates and pathways of MB degradation were studied by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Importantly, cell viability experiment suggests that the toxicity of MB dye could be efficiently alleviated after the treatment with K–Tb–MnO2 nanoparticle. These results demonstrate the great potential of the novel K–Tb–MnO2 particles to be used as a highly effective nanomaterials to reduce the risk of dye wastes toward the environment and human health.

5. Detection and identification of hazardous organic pollutants from distillery wastewater by GC-MS analysis and its phytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation by using Allium cepa and Cicer arietinum L.
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134123

Abstract

Distillery industry generates a huge amount of wastewater, which contains a high strength of organic and inorganic load. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze the physico-chemical pollution parameters and the occurrence of phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic pollutants in wastewater. The result revealed that values of wastewater parameters were recorded as 13268 mg l−1 (BOD), 25144 mg l−1 (COD), 25144 mg l−1 (TS), and 6634 mg l−1 (phosphate), while pH was alkaline. The organic compounds detected by GC-MS were quercetin 7,3′,4′-trimethoxy, octadecadienoic acid, propanoic acid, glycocholic acid methyl ester, cantaxanthin, etc. The Allium cepa was used for the toxicity test with different concentrations of wastewater showed a significant level of reduction in root growth and length after exposure and the maximum reduction was at 25% and 20%. Phytotoxicity studies were performed using Cicer arietinum L. with different concentrations of wastewater, which showed adverse effects on seed germination, root length, and the effect was associated with the increasing concentration of wastewater. A. cepa root tips were used for the analysis of mitotic index (MI), nuclear abnormalities (NA), and chromosomal aberrations (CA). MI was decreasing significantly from 72% (control) to 33%, 22%, 23%, 21%, and 18% at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% wastewater concentration, respectively. The A. cepa root tip cells showed chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities like vagrant, stickiness, chromosomal loss, c-mitosis, binucleated, micronuclei, and aberrant cell. This study concluded that the wastewater treatment process is insufficient and the discharged waste needs a proper assessment to know the associated health risk.

6. Industrial molasses waste in the performant synthesis of few-layer graphene and its Au/Ag nanoparticles nanocomposites. Photocatalytic and supercapacitance applications
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131540

Abstract

In view of clean environment, the industry needs to address multiple demands at different levels of production and processes via the sustainable approach including recycling or smart use of produced waste. On the other hand, a development and success of green energy requires the crucial materials synthesized via efficient, sustainable methodology. Herein, the green, simple, easily scalable, fast, and highly efficient synthesis of few-layer graphene (FLG) and its composites with Au and Ag nanoparticles using a waste is presented. The FLG synthesis based on the exfoliation of graphite runs in water in the presence of industrial co-product, molasses, which next also shows performant reductive properties during Ag and Au NPs formation. The decreased size of NPs deposited on FLG indicates the synergetic effect of molasses and FLG, exhibiting the add role of FLG/molasses as metal stabilizer species. The NPs/FLG composites are efficient photocatalysts of bisphenol (BisA) degradation in the presence of peroxy-monosulfate (PMS) activator. The Au/FLG (PVDF) and Ag/FLG (PVDF) based electrodes reveal as well relatively high gravimetric capacitance, 205 Fg-1 and 729 Fg-1. The presented approach is much worthy to be further applied in the synthesis of other layered materials as well as other non-noble supported metallic systems.

7. The nexus between economic growth, renewable energy and ecological footprint: An empirical evidence from most oil-producing countries
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131548

Abstract

Although the impact of fossil fuel consumption is known worldwide, oil-producing countries stay away from using renewable energy sources due to commercial concerns, which causes an increase in global warming. We investigated the relationship between economic growth, renewable energy consumption, and ecological footprint in the oil-producing USA, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Canada, China, Brazil, Kuwait, and Nigeria for 1999–2017 using a dynamic panel data analysis and panel causality analysis. Our motivation was to demonstrate the oil-producing countries' growing ecological footprint/environmental pollution and the influence on global warming. Our objective is to analyze how economic growth and renewable energy consumption contribute to the ecological footprint in countries whose growth is based on oil production. We employed a dynamic Two-Step System Generalized Method of Moments test and Dumitrescu-Hurlin Heterogenous Panel Causality Test. Our findings demonstrate a significant effect of economic growth on ecological footprint, confirming the Pollution Haven Hypothesis and no significant effect of renewable energy consumption on ecological footprint. Future researchs based on our analysis may determine the optimum distribution of conventional and renewable energy production that guarantees economic growth while reducing global warming. The first contribution of our study to the literature is to examine the related nexus through dynamic panel data analysis, unlike the studies using static analysis. The second contribution is to identify the damage done to our planet by oil-producing countries' efforts to maintain their economic growth despite environmental degradation. In other words, by combining these two, our study's contribution is identifying the Pollution Haven Hypothesis by dynamic and causality analyses for oil-producing countries. Our findings demonstrate that; a) renewable energy consumption does not influence and is not a cause of the ecological footprint, b) economic growth is a cause and has an influence on the ecological footprint for most oil-producing countries. In our test results, it has been found out that a 1% increase in economic growth will increase the ecological footprint by 0.02828%.

8. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131635

Abstract

The benefit evaluation of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks plays an important part in park management. This study aims to propose a comprehensive assessment method for industrial symbiosis benefits by combining resource productivity and considering the impact of emissions in emergy analysis. Besides, classify industrial symbiosis according to the exchange of materials, water, and energy to conduct an in-depth analysis of diverse symbiosis. The case study of an eco-industrial park in China shows that industrial symbiosis has a positive effect in many aspects, including increasing the productivity of direct input materials, water, and energy by 0.33, 36.50, and 0.38 times respectively, reducing the emission impact by 30.91%, saving economic investment equal to 30.18% of gross domestic product, reducing the environmental load rate by 23.88% and increasing the sustainable development index by 32.74%. Suggestions on building a symbiosis network are put forward by comparing the contributions of symbiosis types. This study provides park managers with a symbiosis classification and a benefit evaluation tool to build symbiosis networks and make policies for sustainable industrial development.

9. Integrated emergent-floating planted reactor for textile effluent: Removal potential, optimization of operational conditions and potential forthcoming waste management strategy
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114832

Abstract

Native emergent and floating plants; local reed grass (Phragmites karka) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), respectively, were used to treat textile wastewater using an integrated emergent-floating planted reactor (IEFPR) system at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 8, 14, and 19 days. Real textile effluent having characteristics of 1686.3 ADMI for colour, 535 mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS), 647.7 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 124 mg/L for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was used throughout this study. The IEFPR system experienced maximum removal of colour (94.8%, HRT 14 days, day 3), TSS (92.7%, HRT 19 days, day 7), and COD (96.6%, HRT 8 days, day 5) at different HRT and exposure time. The process conditions (HRT and exposure time) were optimized for maximum colour, TSS and COD removal from textile effluent by employing response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization has resulted 100% removal of colour, 87% removal of TSS and 100% removal of COD at HRT of 8 days and exposure time of 5 days, with 0.984 desirability. The integrated plant-assisted treatment system showed reliable performance in treating textile wastewater at optimum operational conditions to improve effluent quality before disposal into water bodies or being recycled into the process. The potential of phytoremediator (produced plant biomass) to be utilized as resources for bioenergy or to be converted into value added products (adsorbent or biochar) provides an alternative to management strategy for better environmental sustainability.

10. Valorization of agro-industrial biowaste to green nanomaterials for wastewater treatment: Approaching green chemistry and circular economy principles
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114806

Abstract

Water pollution is one of the most critical issues worldwide and is a priority in all scientific agendas. Green nanotechnology presents a plethora of promising avenues for wastewater treatment. This review discusses the current trends in the valorization of zero-cost, biodegradable, and readily available agro-industrial biowaste to produce green bio-nanocatalysts and bio-nanosorbents for wastewater treatment. The promising roles of green bio-nanocatalysts and bio-nanosorbents in removing organic and inorganic water contaminants are discussed. The potent antimicrobial activity of bio-derived nanodisinfectants against water-borne pathogenic microbes is reviewed. The bioactive molecules involved in the chelation and tailoring of green synthesized nanomaterials are highlighted along with the mechanisms involved. Furthermore, this review emphasizes how the valorization of agro-industrial biowaste to green nanomaterials for wastewater treatment adheres to the fundamental principles of green chemistry, circular economy, nexus thinking, and zero-waste manufacturing. The potential economic, environmental, and health impacts of valorizing agro-industrial biowaste to green nanomaterials are highlighted. The challenges and future outlooks for the management of agro-industrial biowaste and safe application of green nanomaterials for wastewater treatment are summarized.

11. "It’s not a very certain future”: Emotion and infrastructure change in an industrial town
Geoforum, Volume 132, June 2022, Pages 81-91

Abstract

Four decades on from the onset of deindustrialisation in the UK and other late-capitalist societies, industrial places are again emerging as key objects of policy discourse. Under the dual pressures of decarbonisation, and the recognition of ‘left behind’ regions as potential hotspots for feelings of political marginalisation, new strategies for clean growth are emerging, aiming to boost local economic and environmental performance. Presenting data produced via biographical interviews and deliberative workshops in Port Talbot, South Wales, we explore how experiences of life in one of the UK’s most significant manufacturing towns has shaped local feelings towards four place-based scenarios for industrial and energy systems decarbonisation. Drawing on the rich literatures detailing the cultural and emotional impacts of deindustrialisation, we illustrate how situated experiences of industrial dependence and decline shaped how Port Talbot residents made sense of visions for the town’s future. In so doing we show how, in the face of industrial decline, alternative aspects of place emerged as locus points of emotional and cultural identification, ‘public things’ (Honig, 2017) in which alternative hopes for the future are invested. As emergent policies for clean growth become enacted in concrete projects, we argue for a clearer focus on experiences of and relationships embedded in industrial places, to ensure such strategies meet the desires of local communities.

12. Emission trends of industrial VOCs in China since the clean air action and future reduction perspectives
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 153994

Abstract

Spatiotemporal change patterns of China's industrial VOCs emissions were explored in response to integrated air quality control policies during 2013–2019, and future emissions predicted under the two different scenarios targeting 2030. China's industrial VOCs emissions were decreased to 15.72 Tg in 2019, of which chemical industry, industrial painting, petroleum industry, coal-coking industry, and other industries respectively accounted for 31.0%, 23.9%, 15.6%, and 13.0%, 16.3%, after peaking at 16.40 Tg in 2016. VOC emissions from the petroleum industry and industrial painting showed a continuous increase, with emissions increasing by 0.46 Tg and 0.71 Tg. VOC emissions from the chemical industries increased by 0.91 Tg during 2013–2016 and decreased by 0.72 Tg during 2016–2019. Industrial VOCs emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, and Central Plain in 2019 respectively reduced by 12.0%, 3.2%, and 8.7% compared to 2013 due to stringent control measures and closure/relocation of highly polluting enterprises. By contrast, industrial VOCs emissions in the West Coast of the Strait and the Central Guizhou increased by 38.1% and 31.8% during 2013–2019. In summary, China's industrial high VOCs emission areas were shifting from key areas to its surrounding areas, resulting in little change in total VOCs emissions. The coal-coking industry, architectural painting, petroleum refining, and pharmaceutical industry will have the most considerable reduction responsibility to reduce VOCs emissions in the future. Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Zhejiang will share the highest reduction responsibility, accounting for approximately 40% of national emission reduction.

13. VOC characteristics and their source apportionment in a coastal industrial area in the Yangtze River Delta, China
Journal of Environmental Sciences, Available online 1 June 2022

Abstract

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of secondary organic compounds and ozone, which raise major environmental concerns. To investigate the VOC emission characteristics, measurements of VOCs based on proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry during 2017 were conducted in a coastal industrial area in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Based on seasonal variation in species concentration, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was applied to apportion the sources of VOCs in each season. The PMF results revealed that unknown acetonitrile source, paint solvent, electronics industry, biomass burning, secondary formation and biogenic emission were mainly attributed to VOC pollution. Biomass burning and secondary formation were the major sources of VOCs and contributed more than 70% of VOC emissions in spring and autumn. Industry-related sources contributed 8.65–31.2% of the VOCs throughout the year. The unknown acetonitrile source occurred in winter and spring, and contributed 7.6–43.73% of the VOC emissions in the two seasons. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis illustrated that the industry sources came from local emission, while biomass burning and biogenic emission mainly came from the northwest direction. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) model showed that secondary formation-related source was mainly from Jiangsu Province, northeastern China and the surrounding ocean. The potential source areas of unknown acetonitrile source were northern Zhejiang Province, southern Jiangsu Province and the northeastern coastal marine environments.

14. The sustainability of industrial structure on green eco-efficiency in the Yellow River Basin
Economic Analysis and Policy, Volume 74, June 2022, Pages 775-788

Abstract

China attaches great importance to the green eco-efficiency and sustainability of the Yellow River Basin (YRB), but the level and influencing factors of such eco-efficiency there lack in-depth analysis. Thus, this research uses the Slack Based Model (SBM) to calculate the green eco-efficiency of YRB, uses the overall feasible generalized least square method (FGLS) to estimate the regression model, and employs data of 43 cities from 2007 to 2018 to analyze the sustainability of industrial structure upgrading. The results are as follows. First, the overall level of YRB’s green eco-efficiency is low. Second, spatial distribution presents the heterogeneity characteristics of the "middle reaches a depression”, displaying a fluctuating trend after the first decline and then a rise together with changes in time. Third, due to the influence of spatial heterogeneity, the levels of sustainability of industrial structure optimization on green eco-efficiency of the reaches of YRB vary.

15. Can green industrial policy promote green innovation in heavily polluting enterprises? Evidence from China
Economic Analysis and Policy, Volume 74, June 2022, Pages 59-75

Abstract

Although synergies of economic and environmental development are a central global concern, there has been limited empirical research on the effectiveness of green industrial policy at the enterprise level in developing countries. This article demonstrates the impact of China’s green industrial policy on green innovation based on evidence related to Chinese listed companies in heavily polluting industries against the backdrop of China’s Five-Year Plans context from 2011 to 2020. It finds that green industrial policy promotes green innovation among enterprises through the mediating roles of government subsidies and bank loans. Notably, this effect is more significant for enterprises that are state-owned and located in Eastern China. The findings offer guidance for developing countries on how to implement green industrial policy to stimulate green innovation.

16. Hydrothermal co-carbonization of industrial biowastes with lignite toward modified hydrochar production: Synergistic effects and structural characteristics
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3, June 2022, 107540

Abstract

Attempts to prepare high-grade and clean solid fuels from biowastes and low-rank coals are essential for protecting the environment and utilizing the energy from low-grade resources. The improvement of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and co-carbonization (co-HTC) on the upgrading and denitrogenation capabilities of industrial biowastes with low-rank coal as lignite (LC) was evaluated at 120–300 °C. The results demonstrated that coupled upgrading and denitrogenation occurred with a more intense effect on industrial biowastes than LC during the HTC process. For co-HTC in the prevailing hydrolysis (180 °C) or polymerization (240 °C) stage, an optimal mixing ratio of industrial biowaste/LC of 1:1–3:1 could result in an enhanced experimental calorific value, energy recovery efficiency, nitrogen removal efficiency, and weakened experimental nitrogen content, demonstrating the significant positive synergies on both upgrading and denitrogenation capabilities. The corresponding synergistic coefficients were maximized at 7% and − 23% for the calorific value and nitrogen content of hydrochars, respectively. The combined analyses of XPS, 13C NMR, and FTIR could provide evidence that these synergies of co-HTC were intrinsically associated with LC: (1) its more stable carbon and nitrogen functionalities; (2) promotion of its components or reaction sites on prevailing hydrolysis and polymerization reactions at corresponding temperature stages.

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