Về quản lý môi trường
- Xác định các rào cản cho các giải pháp dựa vào tự nhiên trong quản lý rủi ro lũ lụt: Tổng quan liên ngành sử dụng phương pháp tiếp cận cộng đồng chuyên gia.
- Các chất gây ô nhiễm đang nổi lên đáng lo ngại đối với môi trường: Các xu hướng hiện tại và nghiên cứu trong tương lai.
- Những thách thức và cơ hội trong quản lý bền vững vi nhựa và nhựa nano trong môi trường.
- Ô nhiễm không khí xung quanh và tỷ lệ COVID-19 trong bốn năm 2020 - 2021 tăng mạnh.
- Đại dịch COVID-19 vào năm 2020 (có giãn cách xã hội) và năm 2021 (có tiêm phòng): tác động tương tự đối với các yếu tố môi trường và theo mùa.
- Phân tích tác động của các yếu tố môi trường và xã hội đối với sự lây truyền COVID-19 giai đoạn đầu ở Trung Quốc bằng máy học.
- Ảnh hưởng của các yếu tố khí hậu và sự can thiệp của chính phủ đối với đại dịch Covid-19: Bằng chứng từ 134 quốc gia.
- Số hóa có cải thiện hiệu quả sử dụng năng lượng tổng yếu tố xanh không? Bằng chứng từ 213 thành phố của Trung Quốc.
- Mối quan hệ bất đối xứng giữa năng lượng mặt trời và chất lượng môi trường: Bằng chứng từ 10 quốc gia tiêu thụ nhiều năng lượng mặt trời nhất.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Khám phá các gói đô thị xanh như một phần của Giải pháp dựa vào thiên nhiên cho các biện pháp thích ứng với biến đổi khí hậu ở các thành phố đang phát triển nhanh chóng của miền Nam toàn cầu.
- Các hoạt động phát triển có tác động thấp giảm thiểu ngập lụt đô thị và ô nhiễm không điểm do biến đổi khí hậu.
- Một cách tiếp cận thiên lệch trong bối cảnh kinh tế tuần hoàn: Trường hợp chất thải rắn đô thị hữu cơ ở Ý.
- Việc thay đổi các tiêu chuẩn đánh giá xúc tiến chính thức có góp phần cải thiện chất lượng môi trường đô thị không?
- Mô hình hóa khử NH4NO3 trong PM2.5 trong điều kiện phát thải amoniac cao ở các khu vực đô thị: Dựa trên dữ liệu độ phân giải cao.
- Dự báo phát thải dioxin dựa trên hồi quy rừng sâu được cải thiện cho quá trình đốt chất thải rắn đô thị.
- Phản ứng của các hạt nitrit hóa đối với nước thải đô thị đã được xử lý trước bằng yếm khí ở nhiệt độ thấp trong lò phản ứng dòng chảy liên tục.
- Đặc điểm không gian của nồng độ PM2.5 và ozone trong các cụm đô thị Trung Quốc.
- Chuỗi công cụ nhiệt đô thị để mô phỏng tiện nghi nhiệt mùa hè trong các tòa nhà đô thị thụ động.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Loại bỏ hấp phụ các sulfonamit, tetracyclin và quinolon khỏi nước thải và nước bằng cách sử dụng các vật liệu làm từ cacbon: Những phát triển gần đây và định hướng trong tương lai.
- Phát thải PAH, PCB, PBDEs và kim loại nặng trong không khí, nước và đất xung quanh một nhà máy tái chế nhựa phế thải ở một khu công nghiệp, miền Đông Trung Quốc.
- Nguy cơ đối với sức khỏe của flo trong đất từ khu vực công nghiệp phốt pho dựa trên khả năng tiếp cận sinh học trong ống nghiệm qua đường miệng, đường hô hấp và qua da.
- Hệ thống xử lý sinh học - vật lý tích hợp cho nước thải công nghiệp batik: Đánh giá về lựa chọn quy trình.
- Hiệu quả, hóa trị sản phẩm phụ và kiểm soát ô nhiễm của quá trình đồng nhiệt phân bùn dệt nhuộm và chất hấp phụ rắn thải: Phụ thuộc vào bầu khí quyển, nhiệt độ và tỷ lệ pha trộn của chúng.
- Đánh giá về lò phản ứng sinh học màng kỵ khí để nâng cao giá trị của chất thải hữu cơ đô thị: Thành tựu, hạn chế, cân bằng năng lượng và triển vọng tương lai.
- Phân tích lại và xem xét sự lắng đọng hợp chất thơm nguyên tố và đa vòng trong trầm tích tuyết và hồ từ Vùng cát dầu của Canada tích hợp hiệu suất công nghiệp và các biến khí hậu.
- Giải quyết đồng thời hai vấn đề chất thải công nghiệp: Khí hóa than xốp mịn phân cấp dựa trên xỉ với hiệu suất hấp phụ CO2 nâng cao.
- Kết hợp máy học để tạo mô hình động cơ nhiệt trong thu hồi nhiệt thải công nghiệp.
Ảnh minh hoạ
Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh.
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Moving from adaptation capacities to implementing adaptation to extreme heat events in urban areas of the European Union: Introducing the U-ADAPT! research approach
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 310, 15 May 2022, 114773
Extreme Heat Events (EHE) are a major concern for many urban areas worldwide and are considered as one of the deadliest natural hazards globally. Climate change and socioeconomic trends (exposure and susceptibility) are expected to exacerbate the risk of urban heat stress. Several urban areas have recently declared a climate emergency and initiated the adaptation process, but progress is still patchy, uncoordinated, and of varied quality. The main constraint is the lack of mechanisms for monitoring and reporting adaptation strategies, not allowing the supervision and evaluation of the adaptation process. The EU-funded project U-ADAPT! (Urban-Adaptation) focuses on the concrete expression of adaptation to evaluate the current implementation and effectiveness of adaptation measures and strategies to reduce Heat Disaster Risk (HDR), moving the emphasis from the study of vulnerability, resilience, and potential adaptation (adaptation capacity) of communities to the actual depth and pace of the past and current adaptation process. In this article, we discuss the theoretical support and design of the project and set the base for next project stages, which ultimately aims to create a unique interdisciplinary framework and a replicable multidimensional indicator on adaptation to EHE that empower European Union citizens to demand a safe and sustainable environment and hold institutions accountable for the adaptation process to current and upcoming risks.
2. Identifying barriers for nature-based solutions in flood risk management: An interdisciplinary overview using expert community approach
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 310, 15 May 2022, 114725
The major event that hit Europe in summer 2021 reminds society that floods are recurrent and among the costliest and deadliest natural hazards. The long-term flood risk management (FRM) efforts preferring sole technical measures to prevent and mitigate floods have shown to be not sufficiently effective and sensitive to the environment. Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) mark a recent paradigm shift of FRM towards solutions that use nature-derived features, processes and management options to improve water retention and mitigate floods. Yet, the empirical evidence on the effects of NBS across various settings remains fragmented and their implementation faces a series of institutional barriers. In this paper, we adopt a community expert perspective drawing upon LAND4FLOOD Natural flood retention on private land network (https://www.land4flood.eu) in order to identify a set of barriers and their cascading and compound interactions relevant to individual NBS. The experts identified a comprehensive set of 17 barriers affecting the implementation of 12 groups of NBS in both urban and rural settings in five European regional environmental domains (i.e., Boreal, Atlantic, Continental, Alpine-Carpathian, and Mediterranean). Based on the results, we define avenues for further research, connecting hydrology and soil science, on the one hand, and land use planning, social geography and economics, on the other. Our suggestions ultimately call for a transdisciplinary turn in the research of NBS in FRM.
3. High temperatures trigger suicide mortality in Brussels, Belgium: A case-crossover study (2002 - 2011)
Environmental Research, Volume 207, 1 May 2022, 112159
Temperature may trigger the risk of suicide, however, the extent and shape of the associations show geographical variation. Here, we investigate the short-term effects of temperature on suicide deaths occurring in Brussels between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st, 2011.
We conducted a bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover study with cases being suicide deaths occurring among Brussels residents aged 5 years or older. Cases were matched by day of the week with control days from the same month and year. The exposure was the daily average temperature measured at the Uccle station (Brussels) and obtained from the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. We combined conditional logistic regression with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) to obtain one week (lag 0–6) cumulative risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effects of moderate and extreme cold (5th and 1st percentiles of temperature, respectively) and moderate and extreme heat (95th and 99th percentiles of temperature, respectively), relative to the median temperature.
In total, 1891 suicide deaths were included. The median temperature was 11.6 °C, moderate and extreme cold temperatures were 0 and -3.1 °C, respectively, and moderate and extreme high temperatures were 20.9 and 24.4 °C, respectively. The cumulative risk of suicide mortality was almost twice higher among lags 0 to 6 for both moderate and extreme heat, relative to the period median temperature (e.g. moderate heat RR = 1.80 CI:1.27–2.54). No statistically significant associations were observed for cold temperatures.
In Brussels, a western European city with temperate climate, high temperatures may trigger suicide deaths up to one week later. In the context of climate change, adaptation strategies must take into consideration the effects of temperature on mental health.
4. Emerging contaminants of high concern for the environment: Current trends and future research
Environmental Research, Volume 207, 1 May 2022, 112609
Wastewater is contaminated water that must be treated before it may be transferred into other rivers and lakes in order to prevent further groundwater pollution. Over the last decade, research has been conducted on a wide variety of contaminants, but the emerging contaminants are those caused primarily by micropollutants, endocrine disruptors (EDs), pesticides, pharmaceuticals, hormones, and toxins, as well as industrially-related synthetic dyes and dye-containing hazardous pollutants. Most emerging pollutants did not have established guidelines, but even at low concentrations they could have harmful effects on humans and aquatic organisms. In order to combat the above ecological threats, huge efforts have been done with a view to boosting the effectiveness of remediation procedures or developing new techniques for the detection, quantification and efficiency of the samples. The increase of interest in biotechnology and environmental engineering gives an opportunity for the development of more innovative ways to water treatment remediation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of emerging sources of contaminants, detection technologies, and treatment strategies. The goal of this review is to evaluate adsorption as a method for treating emerging pollutants, as well as sophisticated and cost-effective approaches for treating emerging contaminants.
5. Challenges and opportunities in sustainable management of microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment
Environmental Research, Volume 207, 1 May 2022, 112179
The accumulation of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has raised concerns because of their adverse effects on ecosystem functions and human health. Plastic waste management has become a universal problem in recent years. Hence, sustainable plastic waste management techniques are vital for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Although many reviews have focused on the occurrence and impact of micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs), there has been limited focus on the management of MNPs. This review first summarizes the ecotoxicological impacts of plastic waste sources and issues related to the sustainable management of MNPs in the environment. This paper then critically evaluates possible approaches for incorporating plastics into the circular economy in order to cope with the problem of plastics. Pollution associated with MNPs can be tackled through source reduction, incorporation of plastics into the circular economy, and suitable waste management. Appropriate infrastructure development, waste valorization, and economically sound plastic waste management techniques and viable alternatives are essential for reducing MNPs in the environment. Policymakers must pay more attention to this critical issue and implement appropriate environmental regulations to achieve environmental sustainability.
6. Ambient air pollution and COVID-19 incidence during four 2020–2021 case surges
Environmental Research, Volume 208, 15 May 2022, 112758
Air pollution exposure may make people more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. However, previous studies in this area mostly focused on infection before May 2020 and long-term exposure.
To assess both long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 incidence across four case surges from 03/1/2020 to 02/28/2021.
The cohort included 4.6 million members from a large integrated health care system in southern California with comprehensive electronic medical records (EMR). COVID-19 cases were identified from EMR. Incidence of COVID-19 was computed at the census tract-level among members. Prior 1-month and 1-year averaged air pollutant levels (PM2.5, NO2, and O3) at the census tract-level were estimated based on hourly and daily air quality data. Data analyses were conducted by each wave: 3/1/2020–5/31/2020, 6/1/202–9/30/2020, 10/1/2020–12/31/2020, and 1/1/2021–2/28/2021 and pooled across waves using meta-analysis. Generalized linear mixed effects models with Poisson distribution and spatial autocorrelation were used with adjustment for meteorological factors and census tract-level social and health characteristics. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) per 1 standard deviation.
The cohort included 446,440 COVID-19 cases covering 4609 census tracts. The pooled RRs (95% CI) of COVID-19 incidence associated with 1-year exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 were 1.11 (1.04, 1.18) per 2.3 μg/m3,1.09 (1.02, 1.17) per 3.2 ppb, and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) per 5.5 ppb respectively. The corresponding RRs (95% CI) associated with prior 1-month exposures were 1.11 (1.03, 1.20) per 5.2 μg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) per 6.0 ppb for NO2 and 0.96 (0.85, 1.08) per 12.0 ppb for O3.
Long-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were associated with increased risk of COVID-19 incidence across all case surges before February 2021. Short-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were also associated. Our findings suggest that air pollution may play a role in increasing the risk of COVID-19 infection.
7. COVID-19 pandemic over 2020 (with lockdowns) and 2021 (with vaccinations): similar effects for seasonality and environmental factors
Environmental Research, Volume 208, 15 May 2022, 112711
How is the dynamics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020 with an health policy of full lockdowns and in 2021 with a vast campaign of vaccinations? The present study confronts this question here by developing a comparative analysis of the effects of COVID-19 pandemic between April–September 2020 (based upon strong control measures) and April–September 2021 (focused on health policy of vaccinations) in Italy, which was one of the first European countries to experience in 2020 high numbers of COVID-19 related infected individuals and deaths and in 2021 Italy has a high share of people fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (>89% of population aged over 12 years in January 2022). Results suggest that over the period under study, the arithmetic mean of confirmed cases, hospitalizations of people and admissions to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in 2020 and 2021 is significantly equal (p-value<0.01), except fatality rate. Results suggest in December 2021 lower hospitalizations, admissions to ICUs, and fatality rate of COVID-19 than December 2020, though confirmed cases and mortality rates are in 2021 higher than 2020, and likely converging trends in the first quarter of 2022. These findings reveal that COVID-19 pandemic is driven by seasonality and environmental factors that reduce the negative effects in summer period, regardless control measures and/or vaccination campaigns. These findings here can be of benefit to design health policy responses of crisis management considering the growth of COVID-19 pandemic in winter months having reduced temperatures and low solar radiations ( COVID-19 has a behaviour of influenza-like illness). Hence, findings here suggest that strategies of prevention and control of infectious diseases similar to COVID-19 should be set up in summer months and fully implemented during low-solar-irradiation periods (autumn and winter period).
8. Impact analysis of environmental and social factors on early-stage COVID-19 transmission in China by machine learning
Environmental Research, Volume 208, 15 May 2022, 112761
As a highly contagious disease, COVID-19 caused a worldwide pandemic and it is still ongoing. However, the infection in China has been successfully controlled although its initial transmission was also nationwide and has caused a serious public health crisis. The analysis on the early-stage COVID-19 transmission in China is worth investigating for its guiding significance on prevention to other countries and regions.
In this study, we conducted the experiments from the perspectives of COVID-19 occurrence and intensity. We eliminated unimportant factors from 113 variables and applied four machine learning-based classification and regression models to predict COVID-19 occurrence and intensity, respectively. The influence of each important factor was analysed when applicable.
Our optimal model on COVID-19 occurrence prediction presented an accuracy of 91.91% and the best R2 of intensity prediction reached 0.778. Linear regression-based model was identified as unable to fit and predict the intensity, and thus only the variable influence on COVID-19 occurrence can be explained.
We found that (1) CO VID-19 was more likely to occur in prosperous cities closer to the epicentre and located on higher altitudes, (2) and the occurrence was higher under extreme weather and high minimum relative humidity. (3) Most air pollutants increased the risk of COVID-19 occurrence except NO2 and O3, and there existed a lag effect of 6–7 days. (4) NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) did not show apparent effect until two weeks after.
9. The influence of climate factors and government interventions on the Covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from 134 countries
Environmental Research, Volume 208, 15 May 2022, 112484
This paper investigates at the world level the influence of climate on the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. For that purpose, panel regressions of the number of cases and deaths from 134 countries are run on a set of explanatory variables (air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and wind) along with control variables (government interventions and population size and density). The analysis is completed with a panel threshold regression to check for potential non-linearities of the weather variables on virus transmission.
The main findings support the role of climate in the circulation of the virus across countries. The detailed analysis reveals that relative humidity reduces the number of cases and deaths in both low and high regimes, while temperature and wind reduce the number of deaths.
10. Does digitization improve green total factor energy efficiency? Evidence from Chinese 213 cities
Energy, Volume 247, 15 May 2022, 123395
The "Digital China” strategy is changing China's economic development model, and China is gradually shifting from pursuing rapid economic growth to high-quality economic development quality. This paper constructs China's urban information and communication technology (ICT) comprehensive development index and then innovatively undertakes the impact of the ICT on green total factor energy efficiency (GTFEE). Using panel data from China's 213 prefecture-level cities from 2011 to 2018, this study explores the direct impact, mediating effect, nonlinear relationship, and regional and development differences of ICT development on GTFEE. The dynamic panel model results show that ICT development positively promotes GTFEE, moderated by technological innovation and industrial structure effects. It is also indicated that the impact of ICT development on GTFEE varies with different resource mismatch levels by using the dynamic threshold model novelty. Moreover, diverse regional locations and development levels lead to varying influences of ICT development on GTFEE. Specifically, eastern regions and developed cities can benefit more from ICT development.
11. The asymmetric nexus of solar energy and environmental quality: Evidence from Top-10 solar energy-consuming countries
Energy, Volume 247, 15 May 2022, 123381
Solar energy is one of the least carbon-intensive techniques of generating electricity in an increasingly carbon-constrained world. Solar energy emits no emissions during power production, and life-cycle assessments indicate that it has a lower carbon footprint than fossil fuels. The study explores the asymmetric relationship between solar energy production and environmental quality in the top-10 solar energy-consumer countries (China, USA, Germany, Japan, Italy, Australia, India, Spain, United Kingdom, and France). A new technique, ‘Quantile-on-Quantile (QQ)’, is used by taking the panel data from 1996 to 2018. Carbon footprint is taken as a proxy for environmental quality. The findings investigate how solar energy quantiles impact quantiles of carbon footprint asymmetrically by offering a suitable framework for understanding the overall dependency pattern. The empirical findings show that, with the exception of India and Spain, solar energy production improves environmental quality by minimizing carbon footprint at various quantiles. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the degree of the asymmetrical link in the solar energy-environmental quality association varies by country, implying that governments must exercise individual attention and precaution when developing policies related to solar energy and environmental quality.
12. Going beyond European emission targets: Pathways for an urban energy transition in the city of Riga
Energy, Volume 246, 1 May 2022, 123352
The city of Riga, currently updating their energy planning strategy for 2020–2030, surpassed the emission reduction target of the EU for 2030. Suitable targets for Riga are a reduction by 61% (2030) and 70% (2050), respectively, compared to 1990 levels. To achieve these objectives, this paper describes the research work defining pathways and measures in line with the planned actions of Riga, that focus on three thematic areas: green hydrogen, solar engagement, and modern transportation. The characterisation and comparison of the pathways is based on a graphical indicator method and weighting different factors accordingly to the Riga energy framework. The research done shows that production of green hydrogen is economically viable for Riga, achieving a Levelized Cost of Electricity of 0.0395 EUR/kWh and a Levelized Cost of Hydrogen of 3.67 EUR/kgH2. Rooftop photovoltaic systems represent an appealing option for the citizens if a feed-in tariff of 0.1 EUR/kWh is awarded. As additional outcomes, this paper proposes alternative loan schemes such as voucher return packages that can foster citizen engagement in renewable projects and defines strategies to reduce road emissions that could include the development of microalgae carbon capture systems and the creation of a fossil-free last-mile delivery zone.
13. Assessment of the impacts of different policy instruments on achieving the deep decarbonization targets of island energy systems in Norway – The case of Hinnøya
Energy, Volume 246, 1 May 2022, 123249
Norway enjoys an electricity-dominant clean energy system with a high share of hydropower. The power and heating sectors are characterized by high penetration of renewables. But the transportation and offshore industries remain challenging to be decarbonized; therefore, it needs more exploration on cost-effective energy transition strategies. This study develops a long-term energy planning model, TIMES-Hinnøya, for the Hinnøya island in Norway and couples it with a detailed electricity system model with hourly time resolution, EnergyPLAN, to overcome the low temporal resolution limitation of the long-term energy planning model. The two models run iteratively. Using the model, five scenarios are designed to investigate the effects of key policy instruments on the energy transition. These scenarios assume the continuation of current climate policies, such as carbon tax on fossil fuels, preferential policies towards purchasing and owning electric vehicles, ban on new internal combustion engine (ICT) cars as of 2025, and the potential incremental carbon tax rate. The results illustrate that although absolute reduction occurs in all the scenarios, the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050 can only be achieved by forbidding the sales of new ICE cars, highlighting the importance of zero-emission vehicles in the future transportation system.
14. Global energy transition to 100% renewables by 2050: Not fiction, but much needed impetus for developing economies to leapfrog into a sustainable future
Energy, Volume 246, 1 May 2022, 123419
This is a discussion and response to "Global 100% energy transition by 2050: A fiction in developing economies?” authored by Anthony Afful-Dadzie and published in Joule 5 (2021) 1634–1643. The preview has raised concerns around the feasibility of energy transitions towards 100% renewable energy and sustainable technologies in developing economies, after examining the article Bogdanov et al. (2021) in Afful-Dadzie (2021). Although, the author has rightly pointed out the disparity in the recent growth of renewable energy across the developed and developing countries of the world, along with highlighting a pertinent issue of ‘availability of finance’ for energy transitions across developing countries, the preview fails to contextualise the issue of financing energy transitions, in particular across developing countries, and has trivialised complex and cumbersome cost optimal energy transition modelling with vague and unscientific illustrations. In response, the authors of Bogdanov et al. (2021) have contextualised, clarified and confuted the issues raised in Afful-Dadzie (2021).
15. Airborne microplastics: A review of current perspectives and environmental implications
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 347, 1 May 2022, 131048
Microplastics (MPs), as an entirely anthropogenic type of pollution, are considered to be stratigraphic markers of the Anthropocene Epoch, and have become of increasing public concern over the past decade. Recent studies have revealed that the atmosphere is an efficient medium to disseminate MPs from their sources to remote mountains and marine areas. However, current research on atmospheric MPs (i.e. airborne MPs) is generally less highlighted than MP water and soil pollution studies due to the lack of standard methods for the identification and quantification of atmospheric MPs. This paper reviews the published literature on airborne MPs, gives an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of current airborne MPs collection techniques, extraction methods and identification (i.e., ‘passive’ and ‘active’ sampling, density separation and visual identification), and lays a foundation for future studies. The physical and chemical characteristics, classification, spatial and temporal scale distributions, sources, transport, and environmental impacts of airborne MPs are summarized. There are substantial research gaps in the quantification of airborne MPs and the exploration of toxicity mechanisms of inhalable MPs. The establishment of accredited methods is an urgent challenge for a better understanding on airborne MPs and their environmental and health effects. As one of the constituents in many aerosols, airborne MPs should be treated as a recognized pollutant for long-term monitoring, and the factors that specifically affect airborne MPs could be better addressed by means of the characterization of individual MPs. In the future, the effects and interaction of MPs in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere are also of critical importance.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Exploring urban green packages as part of Nature-based Solutions for climate change adaptation measures in rapidly growing cities of the Global South
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 310, 15 May 2022, 114786
Given a lot of elusive information on the use and implementation of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) in the Global South, this review provides a synthesis of the evidence on the: - (1) distribution of urban green technologies in form of arboriculture and urban agriculture as a part of NbS packages for the sustainability of cities against population growth and impact of climate change; and (2) options of integrating and mainstreaming various NbS packages into city development policies, planning processes, and decision-making agendas. The sustainability of urban green as part of NbS packages and the usefulness for improvement of livelihoods is determined by the spatial (geographical location) and temporal (time of action) scales, and socio-ecological and institutional factors. Various NbS packages have shown the ability for use as climate change adaptation measures throughout the world. These functions include protection from soil erosion, protection from inland flooding, buffering natural resources against drier and more variable climates, protection from coastal hazards and sea-level rise, moderation of urban heatwaves and effects of heat island, and managing storm-water and flooding in urban areas. Furthermore, the benefits of urban agriculture and arboriculture include use as sources of food and generation of income; improve recreation and social interactions, and the sustainability of biodiversity. They also mitigate the impact of environmental pollution and climate change through reduction of gas emissions and act as carbon sinks. While the starting capital and lack of policy on urban agriculture and arboriculture in many countries, the importance of the industry is inevitably a useful agenda especially in the Global South due to vulnerability to the impact of climate change. This review also suggests the inclusion of all institutions, governments, and relevant stakeholders to emphasize gender sensitization at all levels of planning and decision-making in food production and adaptation measures to climate change.
2. Residential green space is associated with a buffering effect on stress responses during the COVID-19 pandemic in mothers of young children, a prospective study.
Environmental Research, Volume 208, 15 May 2022, 112603
Green spaces are associated with increased well-being and reduced risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate how residential proximity to green spaces was associated with stress response buffering during the COVID-19 pandemic in a prospective cohort of young mothers. We collected information on stress in 766 mothers (mean age: 36.6 years) from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort at baseline of the study (from 2010 onwards), and during the COVID-19 pandemic (from December 2020 until May 2021). Self-reported stress responses due to the COVID-19 pandemic were the outcome measure. Green space was quantified in several radiuses around the residence based on high-resolution (1 m2) data. Using ordinal logistic regression, we estimated the odds of better resistance to reported stress, while controlling for age, socio-economic status, stress related to care for children, urbanicity, and household change in income during the pandemic. In sensitivity analyses we corrected for pre-pandemic stress levels, BMI, physical activity, and changes in health-related habits during the pandemic. We found that for an inter-quartile range contrast in residential green space 300 m and 500 m around the residence, participants were respectively 24% (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.51) and 29% (OR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.60) more likely to be in a more resistant category, independent of the aforementioned factors. These results remained robust after additionally controlling for pre-pandemic stress levels, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, urbanicity, psychological disorders, and changes in health-related habits during the pandemic. This prospective study in young mothers highlights the importance of proximity to green spaces, especially during challenging times.
3. To separate or not? A comparison of wastewater management systems for the new city district of Hiedanranta, Finland
Environmental Research, Volume 208, 15 May 2022, 112764
In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methods were applied for the new city district of Hiedanranta, where source-separating sanitation systems are being considered. Two source-separating systems were compared to the conventional sanitation system with a centralized wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). With a separating system, three to 10 times more nitrogen could be recovered compared to the conventional system. If the nutrient potential of the reject water of the sludge digestion were to be utilized, the recovery rate would be even higher. For phosphorus, the recovered amount would be at the same level for all the alternatives. However, the plant availability of phosphorus is higher in separating systems. Based on the environmental impacts of separating systems with improved nutrient recovery, the climate and eutrophication impacts could be reduced, but the acidification impact may be higher. However, the actual climate benefits depend on how the avoided emissions will be realized, which is highly dependent on the policy and decision-making processes in the society. The life cycle costs of the alternative source-separating systems are higher at current prices. Source-separating sanitation produces new recycled nutrient products of human origin that contain fewer contaminants and could therefore be more easily accepted for end use when certain boundary conditions are met.
4. Planning for low-carbon energy-transportation system at metropolitan scale: A case study of Beijing, China
Energy, Volume 246, 1 May 2022, 123181
The urbanization and expansion of megalopolises have led to concerns on traffic, energy crisis and deteriorated green-house gas emissions, and thus the electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be an essential role in alleviating these problems. In this study, a flexible-possibilist chanced constraints programming (FCCP) model is developed to plan low-carbon energy-transportation systems at the metropolitan scale (METS), which can incorporate multiple uncertainties in both the soft constraints and objective function. By integrating the possibilist programming with fuzzy sets and chanced constraint, the FCCP could tackle multiple complexities such as the combination of vague possibilities, flexibilities and probabilities, hence is superior to conventional approaches. The FCCP model is then applied for the planning METS in Beijing, and solutions are obtained under different satisfactory degrees and confidence levels. The results reveal that: 1) the power demand will be increasingly dependent on the imported power and renewable energy in Beijing; 2) the mass roll-out of EVs will reduce 6.7 million tonnes of CH, 44.7 million tonnes of CO and 1.08 × 105 million tonnes of CO2 respectively, while the need of battery supply facilities will cost approximately 4 × 109 dollars; 3) the carbon emissions will decrease with the growing number of EVs, the upgraded power supply pattern and the stringent policies. These findings could support decision-makers to plan the METS system when faced with multiple uncertainties.
5. The contribution of changes in climate-friendly behaviour, climate change concern and personal responsibility to household greenhouse gas emissions: Heating/cooling and transport activities in the European Union
Energy, Volume 246, 1 May 2022, 123387
In the European Union (EU) the household sector is directly responsible for one quarter of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and this share is increasing. People's concern about climate change and climate-friendly behaviour could significantly mitigate emission levels. However, there is a lack of studies related to how changes in climate change concern, personal responsibility and climate-friendly behaviour contribute to household GHG emissions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse whether the changes in concern, personal responsibility and climate-friendly behaviour affected the EU household sector total (HGHG), heating/cooling and transport activities GHG emissions from the Paris Agreement until the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in the EU in 2019. Results showed that household changes in choice of green energy supplier significantly reduced, and changes in insulation of home to reduce energy consumption and heating degree days significantly increased the GHG emissions in household sector. Considering the heating/cooling sector, changes in choice of green energy supplier significantly influenced the reduction of GHG emissions. Meanwhile only changes in climate change concern significantly influenced the reduction of transport activities GHG emissions. Therefore, this study provides a new insight for policymakers how to reduce GHG emissions in the household sector.
6. Closing the circle for urban food waste anaerobic digestion: The use of digestate and biochar on plant growth in potting soil
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 347, 1 May 2022, 131071
Food waste can be used via anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. The liquid by-product (digestate) contains nitrogen (mainly as ammonium) which is susceptible to N loss as a fertiliser and also faces logistical constraints for agricultural use. Biochar can adsorb and retain nutrients and alter microbial N-cycling processes. We investigated the use of digestate as a nutrient source and its interactions with biochar when applied to potting mix targeted for localised urban use. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were grown for 45 days in potting mix amended with five rates of food-waste-derived digestate (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% v/v), with and without biochar (10% v/v). At harvest, plant growth parameters and potting soil characteristics were measured. The rhizosphere bacterial community was profiled by amplicon sequencing followed by an in-silico analysis of putative functional genes. Plant biomass and shoot N concentration increased with digestate addition in a typical nutrient dose-response curve. While growth lagged when digestate was combined with biochar, both treatments reached a similar maximum shoot yield. Biochar application decreased soil mineral N content and two putative ammonium nitrification cycling genes, AmoA and AmoB, which prevent the conversion of NO3- from NH4+. Rhizosphere bacteria beta-diversity separated into two distinct clusters, with and without biochar, at all levels of digestate. Addition of biochar with digestate decreased the availability of soil mineral N by decreasing the mineralisation of nitrogen which likely reduced the risk of N loss. The rhizosheath bacterial community mediated this effect. Further quantification of these processes may aid in optimising of the benefits for the environment and plant growth from the transformation of blended organic urban wastes into organic fertilisers for potting soils.
7. Socioeconomics determinants of household carbon footprint in Iskandar Malaysia
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 347, 1 May 2022, 131256
Understanding the complex links between socioeconomic variables and carbon emissions can reveal household spending and lifestyle patterns. This study oversees those issues and examines consumption patterns and their related variables such as climate change understanding, attitudes, and knowledge, in order to better comprehend the complicated linkages. This study revealed that eight socioeconomic elements influence a household's carbon footprint: (i) household income (β = 0.476, p < 0.05), (ii) green attitudes (β = −0.196, p < 0.05), (iii) residential space (β = 0.157, p < 0.05), (iv), education levels (β = 0.131, p < 0.05), (v) household's tenure status by ownership (β = 0.130, p < 0.05), (vi) household's age (β = 0.112, p < 0.05), (vii) size of household (β = 0.101, p < 0.05), and, (viii) female-headed household (β = −0.077, p < 0.05). Approximately 83.6% of respondents are mindful of climate change, but only 2.6% correctly define it as a long-term shift in weather patterns. The study found that 82% of households are willing to change their consumption habits and lifestyle to reduce their household's carbon footprint. In order to achieve a low carbon society, our research advocate a multipronged approach and policy action is crucial based on the results. Further, robust climate change educational and awareness programmes is decisive at the multilevel and scale in Malaysia to achieve its carbon emissions reduction target by 2050.
8. Low impact development practices mitigate urban flooding and non-point pollution under climate change
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 347, 1 May 2022, 131320
Climate change-induced extreme rainfall events exacerbate the failure in stormwater hydraulic and water quality management. As a promising alternative for stormwater management, the low impact development (LID) performance under the impact of climate change was analyzed in this study. The hydraulic and water quality models were integrated and the hydrological inputs were derived from downscaled general circulation model (GCM) projections. Results demonstrated that the LID practices in the given areas mitigated runoff volume, peak flow, and non-point pollution by 45–80%, 39–60%, and 31–82%, respectively. Scenario analysis showed that the LID hydraulic performance declined under all three future climate scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5), while the LID water quality performance fluctuated among different climate patterns. Uncertainty analysis suggested that the climate change caused wide-range uncertainties on LID performance, the uncertainty of LID water quality performance was larger than that of LID hydraulic performance. Spatial analysis indicated that the LID performance was spatially heterogeneous under climate change, and the heterogeneity was related to the land-cover distribution of the given area. In addition, sensitivity analysis suggested that the impact of climate change on the short-term performance of LID practices was stronger than that on the long-term performance. Accordingly, the methods and findings provided herein could assist sustainable urban water management by investigating the LID performance under climate change.
9. A selection bias approach in the circular economy context: The case of organic municipal solid waste in Italy
Journal of Cleaner Production ,Volume 348, 10 May 2022, 131266
Organic waste is often indicative of the amount of food waste, and it primarily reflects the consumption habits of households. As underlined by the applicable principles of the Circular Economy (CE), prevention is always the first choice when dealing with waste but evaluating the prevention framework without considering the application of waste separation policies appears to be a complex task. Considering Italian municipal waste management, the implementation of separation policies has been delayed in several provinces. It is difficult to assess the effectiveness of prevention policies established by international and national authorities in this context. The lack of organic waste separation is registered as a missing value in datasets: such instances are often non-random. The research objective of this work is to assess whether economic activity affects organic waste generation and, once the selection bias has been investigated, try to assess the overall implications. Initial findings corroborate the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis under biased and unbiased estimations. The tipping point is relatively lower when the inverse Mills Ratio is considered, which is positive. Hence, an increase of the expected economic activity requirement could result in a cost that municipalities incur when delaying the enforcement of separation policies. The missing information undermines the potential feedback from practitioners and other stakeholders capable of steering expectations: the unobserved flows have to reach a certain level before being collected.
10. Does the change of official promotion assessment standards contribute to the improvement of urban environmental quality?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 348, 10 May 2022, 131254
Official promotion assessment standards are an important factor affecting the environmental governance of local governments. The study of the Chinese government adding the evaluation of ecological civilization to the official promotion assessment standards is of great significance to promote China's environmental pollution control and eco-environmental protection. Therefore, it is necessary to explore diversified ways of environmental governance from the perspective of improving the assessment standards for official promotion. Based on this background, this paper uses a variety of econometric models to compare the impact of traditional assessment standards and new assessment standards, including environmental factors on environmental quality. The results show that: (1) Different from the negative environmental impact brought by traditional assessment, when the official promotion assessment standards change, that is, when it is included in the environmental assessment, the official promotion incentive can actively promote the improvement of regional environmental quality, and this result has a more significant effect on the improvement of environmental quality in economically underdeveloped areas and vulnerable areas. (2) The mechanism test shows that the change of assessment standards will force officials to improve environmental quality by improving regional productivity. (3) the promotion of environmental supervision, represented by the development of information technology, helps strengthen the positive effect of the transformation of official assessment standards on the environment. However, it is unstable. This paper provides a useful reference for improving official promotion assessment standards, exploring diversified ways of environmental governance, and clarifying the effectiveness of the Chinese government's ecological environment reform.
11. Analysis of factors influencing residents' waste sorting behavior: A case study of Shanghai
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 349, 15 May 2022, 131126
Waste sorting is essential to alleviate the current municipal waste dilemma, and some countries have implemented waste management policies to encourage residents separating food waste at the source. In order to improve residents' participation rate in waste sorting, it's necessary to study the influencing factors of residents' waste sorting behavior. Therefore, this study built an extended theoretical research model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A survey of 324 valid questionnaire responses in Shanghai was conducted to analyze the factors influencing residents' waste sorting behavior by using structural equation modelling. This research found that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were positively and significantly related to residents' waste sorting intention and proved sorting behavior is influenced by sorting intention. Meanwhile, the results suggested these three newly added factors (infrastructure, economic incentive, and assistance & supervision) have a positive moderating effect on the relationship between intention and behavior. This research advanced the understanding of residents' waste sorting behavior and improved TPB by adding three factors. Moreover, our study concluded important experience from a relatively successful case city of Shanghai, which provided valuable implications for promoting residents of other municipalities to participate in waste sorting.
12. Modeling of reducing NH4NO3 in PM2.5 under high ammonia emission in urban areas: Based on high-resolution data
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 350, 20 May 2022, 131499
At present, the air quality in urban areas in China has continued to improve, but PM2.5 is still severely polluted in autumn and winter and is difficult to meet the Chinese standard. With the renovation of coal-fired boilers and the transformation of ultra-low emissions in factories, NO3− has gradually become the main inducing species for high levels of PM2.5. In this study, a high-resolution (1 h) online instrument was used to analyze the characteristics of atmospheric PM2.5 in the autumn and winter periods from October 2019 to February 2020 at Zhengzhou University in Zhengzhou. The inorganic nitrate in PM2.5 mainly existed in the form of semivolatile NH4NO3, and the method of reducing NH4NO3 was studied through data analysis. The basic method of reducing particulate nitrate in PM2.5 is not only to reduce nitrate precursors (NOx) but also to transform particulate nitrate into gas by reducing the aerosol pH value (enhancing aerosol acidity). The simulation analysis of NHx (NHx = NH3+NH4+), NO3T (NO3T=HNO3+NO3−), and SO42− reduction using the thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II revealed that total ammonia (TA) has an obvious peak clipping effect on particulate NO3− when it is reduced by 60% and can effectively reduce NH4NO3 in PM2.5. The reliability and credibility of the data results were enhanced through long-term observation and local time analysis, and reducing TA and NO3− in areas with high ammonia emissions was proven to be feasible. This study is beneficial for formulating measures to reduce the average annual concentration of PM2.5 in ammonia-rich areas.
13. Dioxin emission prediction based on improved deep forest regression for municipal solid waste incineration process
Chemosphere, Volume 294, May 2022, 133716
Dioxin (DXN) emission concentration is an important environmental indicator in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) process. The prediction model of DXN emission can be used for pollution control to realize actual requirements of operation optimization. Therefore, a DXN emission concentration prediction model based on improved deep forest regression (ImDFR) is proposed in this study. A feature reduction layer based on out-of-bagging error is first introduced into the ImDFR to eliminate redundant variables and feed all confidence information on DXN emission into the feature enhancement layer of the MSWI process. A deep ensemble stacking model is subsequently built to depict deep features and increase diversity and accuracy using random forests, completely random forests, GBDT, and XGBoost as subforests. Finally, the predicted value of the DXN prediction model is determined in the decision layer. The DXN emission prediction model is verified using actual historical data of two incinerators operated with a daily processing capacity of 800 tons. The experimental results showed that the proposed prediction model presents higher accuracy and better generalization ability than state-of-the-art models.
14. Response of nitritation granules to anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater at low temperatures in a continuous-flow reactor
Chemosphere, Volume 294, May 2022, 133831
Achieving mainstream nitritation with aerobic granules is attractive based on increasing evidence but generally treating artificial low-ammonium wastewater. Real municipal wastewater is much more complex in composition, the behavior of the nitritation granules would be different when treating real municipal wastewater. Herein, the response of nitritation granules to influent shift from artificial low-ammonium (35–40 mg/L) wastewater to anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (MWWpre-treated) was investigated at low temperatures. Results showed that MWWpre-treated caused the outgrowth of filamentous bacteria on the granule surface and developed into finger-like structures, which in turn resulted in the decrease of the overall granular sludge settleability. Batch-tests and microbial analysis indicated the functional and microbial differentiation between the newly formed fluffy exterior and the original compact granule. The fluffy exterior was dominated by genus Flavobacterium (66.6%) and primarily functioned as COD removal, whereas the nitrifiers (mainly Nitrosomonas) were still located in the compact core and performed nitritation. Moreover, the heterotrophs-dominated fluffy exterior hindered the oxygen transfer towards nitrifiers located in the compact granule and thereby facilitated the stable NOB repression in the granule particularly at low temperatures (<10 °C). Finally, gradual recovery of the granular sludge morphology and settleability occurred after the influent reverted to synthetic low-ammonium wastewater. Overall, this work demonstrated that the feeding of MWWpre-treated only caused morphological changes of the nitritation granules, but its structural and functional stability could be maintained stably.
15. Spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 and ozone concentrations in Chinese urban clusters
Chemosphere, Volume 295, May 2022, 133813
Despite China's public commitment to emphasise air pollution investigation and control, trends in PM2.5 and ozone concentrations in Chinese urban clusters remain unclear. This study quantifies the spatiotemporal variations in PM2.5 and surface ozone at the scale of Chinese urban clusters by using a long-term integrated dataset from 2015 to 2020. Nonlinear Granger causality testing was used to explore the spatial association patterns of PM2.5 and ozone pollution in five megacity cluster regions. The results show a significant downward trend in annual mean PM2.5 concentrations from 2015 to 2020, with a decline rate of 2.8 μg m-3 yr-1. By contrast, surface ozone concentrations increased at a rate of 2.1 μg m-3 yr-1 over the 6 years. The annual mean PM2.5 concentrations in urban clusters show significant spatial clustering characteristics, mainly in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Fenwei Plain (FWP), Northern slope of Tianshan Mountains urban cluster (NSTM), Sichuan Basin urban cluster (SCB), and Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Surface ozone shows severe summertime pollution and distributional variability, with increased ozone pollution in major urban clusters. The highest increases were observed in BTH, Yangtze River midstream urban cluster (YRMR), YRD, and Pearl River Delta (PRD). Nonlinear Granger causality tests showed that PM2.5 was a nonlinear Granger cause of ozone, further supporting the literature's findings that PM2.5 reduction promoted photochemical reaction rates and stimulated ozone production. The nonlinear test statistic passed the significance test in magnitude and statistical significance. FWP was an exception, with no significant long-term nonlinear causal link between PM2.5 and ozone. This study highlights the challenges of compounded air pollution caused primarily by ozone and secondary PM2.5. These results have implications for the design of synergistic pollution abatement policies for coupled urban clusters.
16. An urban thermal tool chain to simulate summer thermal comfort in passive urban buildings
Building and Environment, Volume 215, 1 May 2022, 108987
This paper presents a simulation tool chain for the prediction of thermal comfort in passive urban buildings during summer and under heat wave conditions. The tool chain encompasses EnergyPlus building energy model and the Urban Weather Generator and UrbaWind tools to consider the impacts of the urban environment on building loads. This chain of tools is computationally efficient and does not require notable expertise for the simulations. To assess its accuracy, this simulation results are compared to in situ measurements. This paper describes the measurement setup, analyzes the measurement results and reveals a satisfactory model accuracy through a comparison to the measurement data. The average nighttime urban heat island between July and September 2020 reached 2.31 °C in the city of Lyon. Not considering the urban heat island effect (employing rural weather files) in urban thermal simulations could induce a 1 °C bias in indoor air temperature predictions. This could also result in overpredicting the cooling potential of natural ventilation during summer. Key parameters of the simulation accuracy are identified. These are the action schedule of occupants in regard to opening devices (shutters, windows and doors) and the urban boundary layer height at night.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Adsorptive removal of sulfonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones from wastewater and water using carbon-based materials: Recent developments and future directions
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 349, 15 May 2022, 131421
Antibiotics are widely used for treatment of diseases caused by bacteria. They reach the aquatic environment through urine and excreta. The dominant antibiotics that are commonly detected in aquatic environments include tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones. This review critically analyzes the effectiveness of carbon-based materials (biochar and hydrochar) for removal of antibiotics from wastewater and water. Both biochar and hydrochar show excellent performance for adsorptive removal of antibiotics from the aqueous medium. However, the adsorption capacity of hydrochar is relatively higher than that of biochar, specifically for the removal of tetracyclines. Insights into removal mechanisms, solution chemistry, adsorption kinetics, isotherms, adsorbent regeneration and cost-analysis are provided. The key mechanisms associated in the adsorption of antibiotics onto biochar/hydrochar surfaces include π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions and H-bonding. Thermodynamics studies indicate the sorption process is mostly spontaneous and endothermic. In most cases, the adsorption data can best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models. Overall, biochar/hydrochar-mediated adsorptive removal of antibiotics from aqueous solution merits serious considerations from both economic and environmental perspectives. The key knowledge gaps and future research directions are highlighted to expand the scope of ongoing research on engineered biochar/hydrochar and modification of their physicochemical characteristics to achieve effective removal of antibiotics and their metabolites.
2. Emission of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and heavy metals in air, water and soil around a waste plastic recycling factory in an industrial park, Eastern China
Chemosphere, Volume 294, May 2022, 133734
Environmental information in recovery of waste plastic in a certificated factory in industrial park in Eastern China is provided in this paper. The process involves raw material storage, washing, closed crushing, closed regeneration, product storage, and waste storage. Particulate matters, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) emitted from the production process are analyzed. A total of 25 atmospheric samples, 6 soil samples, and 2 water samples are sampled in and around the factory. The following conclusions could be concluded: (1) the concentrations of Cu and Pb are significantly higher than that of Ni, Cr and Cd in total suspended particulate matters; (2) PHE, DghiP, NAP and FLA are the main PAHs components in the air; PHE, FLA, DghiP, NAP, and PYR are the main congeners of PAHs in both washing wastewater and surface water; PHE, NAP, FLA, and CHR are the major congeners in the soil samples; (3) PCB-18, PCB-17 and PCB-31,28 are the main congeners in the air samples; PCB-70 and PCB-110 are the main congeners in soil samples; PCB-49 and PCB-52 are the main congeners in both surface water and washing wastewater; (4) DBDPE and BDE-209 are the main congeners for the all air, water and soil samples. Washing process and crushing process are identified as the main sources of all the above pollutants releases, and management strategies are provided to reduce the pollutants emission and the environmental hazardous caused by the waste plastic recovery process.
3. Health risk of fluorine in soil from a phosphorus industrial area based on the in-vitro oral, inhalation, and dermal bioaccessibility
Chemosphere, Volume 294, May 2022, 133714
Health risk of F in soil is of special concern due to the continuously elevated concentration of F in soil. However, there is still a dearth of risk assessments of F in soil based on in-vitro bioaccessibility posed by multiple exposure routes. Herein, the oral, inhalation, and dermal bioaccessibility of F in soil was firstly obtained by adapting and combining in-vitro methods, which then was introduced to remedy an information gap of a comprehensive risk of F in soil posed by a multi-exposure pathway. Combined in-vitro tests indicate the oral, inhalation, and dermal bioaccessibility of F was 13.15 ± 2.63%, 16.55 ± 2.63%, and 1.27 ± 0.73%, respectively. Plasma yielded a detoxic potential for the absorbed F after digesting in small intestine, while effects of enzymes, sweat, and food on the oral bioaccessibility of F were insignificant. Different with metals, the major dissolving phase of F was the interstitial fluid in the deep lung instead of in the alveolar macrophages intracellular environment. A potentially major release of F in the exocrine sweat was noted than in the apocrine sweat. Risk assessments based on the daily exposure incorporated with the in-vitro bioaccessibility suggested that compared with inhalation and dermal contact, oral ingestion was the main exposure route of F in soil to human. Present findings provide insights into the bioaccessibility and health risk of F in soil by multiple exposure routes, which are crucial for the risk control of F contamination in soil.
4. Advancements in visible light responsive MOF composites for photocatalytic decontamination of textile wastewater: A review
Chemosphere, Volume 295, May 2022, 133835
Heterogeneous photocatalysis using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is expected to provide a pivotal solution for the remediation of toxic dyes and heavy metals from textile wastewater. However, MOFs often suffer from a low removal efficiency, due to the rapid recombination between holes and electrons, generated upon photoexcitation. Additionally, the MOFs exhibit poor water stability, which restricts their large-scale application. In this regard, various approaches (i.e. doping of metal nanoparticle, semiconductor, quantum dot, and ligand functionalization) have been adopted for the formation of multifunctional composites. The MOF-composites possess suitable photochemical, surface, optical, and electronic properties, resulting in enhanced water stability, visible light absorption, and reduced recombination between photogenerated species. This comprehensive review targets to provide an insight into the synthesis and subsequent application of various MOF composites for photocatalytic removal of organic contaminants (dyes) and inorganic (Cr(VI)) contaminants from water. MOFs/graphene oxide composites possess improved surface area and reusability whereas noble metal incorporated MOFs composites suffer from photocorrosion and are relatively costly. Zr and Ti based MOFs exhibit tuning from UV to visible light response and surpass the poor water stability upon binary/ternary composite formation. The role of the dopants in enhancing the efficiency of the composites; the effect of influencing factors such as solution pH, pollutant concentration; the mechanism, and the kinetics of reactions have been outlined. In spite of many advancements, the article also summarizes some roadblocks that need to be unraveled to achieve the energy-water-environment nexus and scope for future breakthrough research in this field.
5. Integrated physical-biological treatment system for batik industry wastewater: A review on process selection
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 152931
Batik is well known as one of the unique identifiers of the Southeast Asian region. Several countries that still preserve the batik heritage are Malaysia, Indonesia, China and India. The Batik industry holds a significant place in Malaysia's craft-based industry. In Malaysia, batik motifs and patterns are mostly hand-drawn and painted directly on fabric, therefore, each one is unique. The players in the Batik industry are mostly small businesses and cottage industries, particularly in the states of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Sabah and Sarawak. However, their market growth and contribution are not synchronized with the treatment system. The wastewater generated by this industry rarely meets standard effluent requirements and regulations, thus worrying the authorities. Batik wastewater is categorized as one of the highly polluted wastewaters. The toxicity of pollutants from batik may reduce environmental quality and pose a risk to human health. Batik wastewater needs extensive treatment, since no complete and appropriate treatment has been applied for so many years in specific batik industries. This paper reviews the batik industry in Malaysia, its wastewater generation and the available current treatment practices. It discusses integrated treatments of coagulation-flocculation and phytoremediation technology as a batik wastewater treatment process with potential utility in the batik industry. This review may become part of the guidance for the entire batik industry, especially in Malaysia.
6. Efficiency, by-product valorization, and pollution control of co-pyrolysis of textile dyeing sludge and waste solid adsorbents: Their atmosphere, temperature, and blend ratio dependencies
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 152923
This study aimed to quantify the co-pyrolytic synergistic effects of textile dyeing sludge (TDS) and waste biochar (WBC) for an optimal utilization of secondary resources and to mitigate environmental pollution and waste volume. TDS and WBC had a strong synergistic effect between 800 and 900 °C in the CO2-assisted atmosphere. With the increased TDS fraction, NH3 emission fell significantly regardless of the atmosphere type. The CO2 atmosphere changed S in TDS char and released SO2 in the range of 800–1000 °C. With the temperature rise, an unstable N structure turned into a more stable heterocyclic N structure in the CO2 and N2 atmospheres. Regardless of the atmosphere type and temperature, the C-containing functional groups in co-pyrolytic biochar existed mainly as C-C/C-H. In the CO2 atmosphere, inorganic S, aliphatic S, and thiophene S in the co-pyrolytic biochar disappeared and became more stable sulfones. The co-pyrolysis inhibited the formation of S-containing compounds. The retention ability of the co-pyrolytic biochar peaked for most of the heavy metals in the N2 atmosphere but was better for Pb and Zn in the CO2 than N2 atmosphere. Simultaneous optimization showed the co-pyrolysis of 10% TDS and 90% WBC at above 950 °C in the N2-CO2 or CO2 atmosphere as the optimal operational settings combined.
7. Microplastic occurrence in urban and industrial soils of Ahvaz metropolis: A city with a sustained record of air pollution
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 152051
This study investigates, for the first time, the concentration, distribution, fate and chemical composition of microplastics (MPs) in urban and industrial soils of Ahvaz metropolis, SW Iran. MP concentrations ranged from 100 to 3135 and 80 to1220 unit·kg−1 in urban and industrial soils, respectively, with corresponding means of 619 and 390 unit·kg−1. The most contaminated urban sites were located in the city center. Precisely these areas were affected by insufficient sanitation infrastructure including sewer systems, surface runoff collection and sewage treatment, and also high traffic loading in a commercial zone. MPs were found in various shapes, colours and sizes. In particular, microfibres (white-transparent and < 250 μm) were the most abundant MPs found in urban (70%) and industrial (55%) soils. Based on the weathering observed in the MPs, a large number of them originated from the fragmentation of other plastics and could have been photobleached. Polyethylene terephthalate and nylon were the dominant polymers in the MPs found in both industrial and urban soils and they could originate from textiles and tyres.
8. A review on anaerobic membrane bioreactors for enhanced valorization of urban organic wastes: Achievements, limitations, energy balance and future perspectives
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153284
Sustainable urban development is threatened by an impending energy crisis and large amounts of organic wastes generated from the municipal sector among others. Conventional waste management methods involve greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and limited resource recovery, thus necessitating advanced techniques to convert such wastes into bioenergy, bio-fertilizers and valuable-added products. Research and application experiences from different scale applications indicate that the anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) process is a kind of high-rate anaerobic digester for urban organic wastes valorization including food waste and waste sludge, while the research status is still insufficiently summarized. Through compiling recent achievements and literature, this review will focus on the following aspects, including AnMBR treatment performance and membrane fouling, technical limitations, energy balance and techno-economic assessment as well as future perspectives. AnMBR can enhance organic wastes treatment via complete retention of functional microbes and suspended solids, and timely separation of products and potential inhibitory substances, thus improving digestion efficiency in terms of increased organics degradation rates, biogas production and process robustness at a low footprint. When handling high-solid organic wastes, membrane fouling and mass transfer issues can be the challenges limiting AnMBR applications to a wet-type digestion, thus countermeasures are required to pursue extended implementations. A conceptual framework is proposed by taking various organic wastes disposal and final productions (permeate, biogas and biosolids) utilization into consideration, which will contribute to the development of AnMBR-based waste-to-resource facilities towards sustainable waste management and more economic-environmental benefits output.
9. Human activities affect the multidecadal microplastic deposition records in a subtropical urban lake, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153187
Microplastic deposition in subtropical lakes and the influences of human activities remain to be deeply and fully understood. Owing to the intensification of urban construction and population growth, urban lakes serving as significant freshwater resources for sustainable development of the regional economy are becoming degraded, especially due to microplastic pollution. To understand the deposition characteristics of microplastics in lake sediments from the China's subtropical city, six sediment core samples were collected from Xinghu Lake of Guangdong Province. Here, we analyzed the morphological characteristics of microplastics from the perspective of microstructure, and investigated the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of microplastics on the macroscopic scale. The deposition characteristics of microplastics in the past 64 years and the influence of socio-economic factors on the accumulation of microplastics were further clarified through the isotope composition of cesium-137 and lead-210 in the subtropical urban area with intense human activities. The results showed that the microplastic concentration of sediment cores in Xinghu Lake was 523 ± 140 particles/kg. The average sizes of microplastics in the five sub-lakes (i.e., Bohai, Zhongxin, Li, Qinglian, and Xiannü Lakes) of Xinghu Lake were 668, 642, 727, 708 and 646 μm, respectively. There were 25 polymers in sediment cores of Xinghu Lake. Rayon, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer were the main types, and the microplastics have the aging phenomenon or mechanical abrasion. The average deposition rates of sediment and microplastics were 0.6 cm/a and 106 particles/(kg·a) in Xinghu Lake, respectively. Meanwhile, the urban expansion and economic growth, as indicated by the increase in the urban area, population and gross domestic product, all played an essential role in the accelerated accumulation of microplastics in sediment cores of Xinghu Lake.
10. Challenges, solutions and prospects of mainstream anammox-based process for municipal wastewater treatment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153351
Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) process has a promising application prospect for the mainstream deammonification of municipal wastewater due to its high efficiency and low energy consumption. In this paper, challenges and solutions of mainstream anammox-based process are summarized by analyzing the literature of recent ten years. Slow growth rate of anammox bacteria is a main challenge for mainstream anammox-based process, and enhancement of bacteria retention has been recognized to be necessary. Compared with directly increasing sludge retention time (SRT) with membrane bioreactors or sequencing batch reactors, culturing anammox bacteria in the form of biofilm or granule sludge is more promising for its feasibility of eliminating nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Besides, adding external electron donors or conductive materials and enriching the concentration of ammonia with absorption materials have also been proved helpful to improve the activity of anammox bacteria. Other challenges include the elimination of NOB and achieving ideal ratio of NH4+ and NO2−. To solve these problems and achieve stable partial nitrification, composite control strategies based on low SRT and limited aeration are needed based on the special characteristics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB. When treating actual wastewater, interference of low temperature and components in the influent is another problem. Relatively high activity of anammox bacteria has been realized after artificial acclimation at low temperature and the mechanism was also preliminary explored. Different pre-treatment sections have been designed to reduce the concentration of COD and S2− from the influent. As for the nitrate produced by the anammox reaction, coupling processes are useful to reduce the concentration of nitrate in the effluent. In brief, suitable reactor and coupling process should be selected according to the temperature, influent quality and discharge targets of different regions. The future prospects of the mainstream anammox-based process are also put forward.
11. City-wide model-based analysis of heat recovery from wastewater using an uncertainty-based approach
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153273
Around 90% of the energy requirement for urban water systems management is for heating domestic tap water. In addition, the energy content of wastewater is mainly in the form of heat (85%). Hence, there is an obvious interest in recovering a large portion of this heat. However, city-wide scenario analyses that evaluate heat recovery at various locations while considering impacts on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) performance are currently very limited. This study presents a comprehensive model-based city-wide evaluation considering four different heat recovery locations (appliance, household, precinct and WWTP effluent) for a Swedish city with varying degrees of implementation using an uncertainty-based approach. Results show that heat recovery at the appliance level, with heat exchangers installed at 77% of the showers at domestic households, leads to a mean energy recovery of 127 MWh/day with a 0.25 °C reduction in mean WWTP inlet temperature compared to the default case without heat recovery. The highest mean temperature reduction compared to the default case is 1.5 °C when heat is recovered at the precinct level for 77% of the domestic wastewater flow rate. Finally, the impact on WWTP nitrification capacity is negligible in this case due to its large existing capacity and design.
12. A re-analysis and review of elemental and polycyclic aromatic compound deposition in snow and lake sediments from Canada's Oil Sands Region integrating industrial performance and climatic variables
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153254
Much of the research from Canada's oil sands region (OSR) shows contaminants of concern (CoCs) throughout the ambient environment surrounding the industrial facilities. While there are some well-established sources of the CoCs, there is also spatial and temporal variability suggesting activity intensity, changes in technology, types and amounts of fuels combusted at the facilities, and climate may affect the results of deposition studies. This study re-analysed published data on the deposition of elements and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in snow and the sediments of some lakes by incorporating production data from facilities and climate. Using the Elastic Net (EN) regularized regression, variables describing potential associations between facility-specific activity and climate on the deposition of CoCs were identified. Among the selected variables, the combustion of delayed petroleum coke at the Suncor Basemine was associated with the deposition of CoCs, including elements in snow and in some lakes. Similarly, combustion of petroleum coke at Syncrude Mildred Lake was also identified in some models. In both cases, the effects of petroluem coke combustion are likely associated with the emission and deposition of fly ash. The mass of stored petroleum coke was not selected in snow CoC models, but the speed of the wind was a common driver for PACs. However, the mass of stockpiled petcoke was more closely associated with both elements and PACs in lake sediments. While the potential influence of other variables on the occurrence of CoCs in the OSR was also identified, including the production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude, the use of process and natural gases, temperature, and precipitation, these analyses support much of the earlier work and provides additional nuance. While more work is required, these results suggest facility-specific production and climatic data can be coupled with existing approaches to improve the identification of sources of CoCs in Canada's OSR and practices associated with their release.
13. Solving two industrial waste issues simultaneously: Coal gasification fine slag-based hierarchical porous composite with enhanced CO2 adsorption performance
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153347
The coal gasification fine slag (FS) is industrial waste consisting of residual carbon (RC) and slag particles (SP). High-performance hierarchical porous composite (HPC) was synthesized by chemical activation followed by hydrothermal treatment from FS. It has been realized that SP could play the positive role in developing pore structure of HPC which makes CO2 uptake have a sharp increase. Through taking the advantage of SP, HPC has an obvious increase in surface area and pore volume from 914 to 1932 m2/g and 0.617 to 1.332 cm3/g, respectively. The changes of pore structure were mainly attributed to the two factors in a synergetic way. First, hydrothermal treatment could decrease the content of SP which acted as a ballast to reduce the surface area of activated carbon. Second, the formed silicate/aluminosilicate deposits on the carbon surface and forms silicate/aluminosilicate film on internal surface of carbon particles. This makes the meso-macropores change to micro- mesopores leading to the increase of the surface area and pore volume. The porous composites also showed high CO2 adsorption performance. The 4-FSAC-HPC sample exhibits the highest CO2 uptake of 3.25 mol/kg and 1.41 mol/kg at 25 and 50 °C, respectively, which is an increase of around 52% and 83% comparing with that of FSAC sample. Besides, CO2 adsorption up to saturation can be achieved in less than 3 min. CO2 uptake of the 4-FSAC-HPC sample was well regeneration efficiencies above 98% after 10 cycles adsorption/desorption. This work provides a new approach to prepare high-performance porous compositions using the material which contains not only carbon component but mineral matters. Furthermore, it realizes solving two industrial waste issues (fine slag and CO2) simultaneous.
14. Removal of chloride from water and wastewater: Removal mechanisms and recent trends
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153174
Increased chloride concentration can cause salinization, which has become a serious and widespread environmental problem nowadays. This review aims at providing comprehensive and state-of-the-art knowledge and insights of technologies for chloride removal. Mechanisms for chloride removal mainly include chemical precipitation, adsorption, oxidation and membrane separation. In chemical precipitation, chloride removal by forming CuCl, AgCl, BiOCl and Friedel's salt. Adsorbents used in chloride removal mainly include ion exchangers, bimetal oxides and carbon-based electrodes. Oxidation for chloride removal contains ozone-based, electrochemical and sulfate radical-based oxidation. Membrane separation for chloride removal consists of diffusion dialysis, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. In this review, we specifically proposed the factors that affect chloride removal process and the corresponding strategies for improving removal efficiency. In the last section, the remaining challenges of method explorations and material developments were stated to provide guidelines for future development of chloride removal technologies.
15. Simultaneously enhanced treatment efficiency of simulated hypersaline azo dye wastewater and membrane antifouling by a novel static magnetic field membrane bioreactor (SMFMBR)
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153452
Operation performance and membrane fouling of a novel static magnetic field membrane bioreactor (SMFMBR) for treatment of hypersaline azo dye wastewater was investigated. The results showed that SMFMBRs possessed higher efficiency of dye decolorization, COD removal and detoxification than the control MBR without SMF. The (3#) SMFMBR equipped with 305.0 mT (the highest intensity) SMF displayed the best treatment performance among all the four reactors (named as 0#–3#, equipped with SMFs of 0 mT, 95.0 mT, 206.3 mT and 305.0 mT, respectively). Potentially effective microbes belonging to Rhodanobacter, Saccharibacteria genera incertae sedis, Defluviimonas, Cellulomonas, Cutaneotrichosporon, Candida and Pichia were enriched in three SMFMBRs, in both of suspended sludge and bio-cakes. The relative abundance of Candida and Pichia in suspended sludge of 3# SMFMBR was the highest among all the four reactors, suggesting their successful colonization and potentially persistent effect of bioaugmentation. On the other hand, SMF of higher intensity effectively mitigated membrane fouling. Less production of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), lower protein/polysaccharide (PN/PS) ratio in SMP and EPS, looser structure of bio-cakes on membrane surface, as well as lower relative abundance of potential fouling causing microbes (mainly bacteria) in microbial communities were determined in 3# SMFMBR than the other three groups.
16. Incorporating machine learning for thermal engines modeling in industrial waste heat recovery
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 181, May 2022, Pages 239-252
This paper proposes a methodology for efficient, accurate, and sustainable waste heat recovery, where the energy needs of an industrial plant allow the installation of thermal engines. In this methodology, pinch analysis, mathematical equations, machine learning models, and an optimization algorithm are combined for the first time. To satisfy the industrial requirements, the selected thermal engines are the steam Rankine cycle, the organic Rankine cycle, and the absorption refrigeration cycle, which are modeled by using multilayer perceptron neural networks. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-III is used to solve the optimization problem. Moreover, multi-objective trade-offs between economic, environmental, and social aspects are studied. A case study is presented to show the applicability of the proposed methodology. The multilayer perceptron models of the thermal engines were created with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results show that with this methodology it is possible to find the optimal operating conditions of thermal engines and solutions that allow the use of different fuels to fulfill the three objective functions.
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