Về quản lý môi trường
- Điều tra các xu hướng dài hạn và các nguồn chính của Atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) trong khí quyển ở Ấn Độ.
- Hệ thống phát triển bền vững về môi trường: Quy mô hệ thống tích hợp hỗ trợ các nhà quản lý cảng hàng hải giải quyết các mục tiêu bền vững về môi trường.
- Các mục tiêu về nạn đói và môi trường ở Châu Á: Hợp lực và đánh đổi giữa các mục tiêu SDG.
- Giám sát ô nhiễm sông qua lưu vực công nghiệp trong hệ sinh thái đô thị: Những thách thức và khung không gian địa lý được đề xuất.
- Rác thải điện tử: Đánh giá quan trọng về các tác động môi trường, luật pháp và chất ô nhiễm đang gia tăng.
- Tình trạng rác thải / rác biển và ô nhiễm nhựa trong Hệ sinh thái biển lớn Caribe (CLME): 1980–2020.
- Tác nhân thúc đẩy xu hướng ôzôn 2013–2020 ở lưu vực Tứ Xuyên, Trung Quốc: Tác động của khí tượng và thay đổi phát thải tiền chất.
- Dự đoán sự phân bố môi trường toàn cầu của polyme nhựa.
- Vai trò quyết định của việc kiểm soát sự hình thành ôzôn trong việc giảm thiểu PM2.5 vào mùa đông ở Thâm Quyến, Trung Quốc.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Một nghiên cứu điển hình về sự xuất hiện của hydrocacbon thơm đa vòng trong bụi trong nhà của các hộ gia đình ở Serbia: Phân bố, phân bổ nguồn và đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe.
- Đồng phân hủy chất thải rắn đô thị với chất thải lignoxenluloza trong môi trường ưa nhiệt.
- Ảnh hưởng của các kiểu thời tiết hàng ngày đến sự phát triển và cường độ của đảo nhiệt đô thị ở hai đô thị ven biển Địa Trung Hải.
- Sự phân bố không gian có độ phân giải cao của các đặc điểm hóa học của sol khí ở đô thị Lan Châu, miền Tây Trung Quốc, trong mùa đông: Thông tin chi tiết từ một thí nghiệm đo khối phổ sol khí di động trên đường.
- Sự thay đổi theo mùa và hàng năm của CO2 và CH4 tại Shadnagar, một khu bán đô thị.
- Diễn giải lượng chất hữu cơ và chất dinh dưỡng bình quân đầu người trong nước thải đô thị: Một nghiên cứu trên 168 kết quả của người Ý.
- Đánh giá về chất keo tụ như một phương pháp hiệu quả để tăng hiệu quả của quá trình tách nước bùn đô thị: Cơ chế, hiệu suất, các yếu tố ảnh hưởng và quan điểm.
- Chỉ số chất lượng đất dựa trên dịch vụ hệ sinh thái được điều chỉnh cho phù hợp với môi trường đô thị để đánh giá và quản lý đất.
- Bụi phóng xạ vi nhựa trong khí quyển ở môi trường ngoài trời và trong nhà ở siêu đô thị Sao Paulo.
- Mối liên quan giữa tăng huyết áp và tiền tăng huyết áp với độ xanh và PM2.5 trong môi trường đô thị.
- Mối quan hệ giữa cấu trúc cảnh quan đô thị và nhiệt độ bề mặt đất: Hệ thống phân cấp không gian và các tác động tương tác.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Chiến lược sử dụng dữ liệu giám sát dài hạn để xác định các hợp chất hữu cơ dễ bay hơi được quan tâm nhiều gần các khu công nghiệp hóa dầu.
- Sự thay đổi theo không gian và thời gian, xác định nguồn và đánh giá độc tính của các PAH được brom hóa / clo hóa / nitrat hóa / oxy hóa tại một khu vực công nghiệp hóa nặng ở miền đông Trung Quốc.
- Các chính sách và thực hành an toàn xây dựng công nghiệp với các tác động chi phí trong môi trường đại dịch COVID-19: Một nghiên cứu điển hình của Louisiana DOW.
- Chu trình Kalina hay Chu trình Rankine hữu cơ cho các ứng dụng thu hồi nhiệt thải công nghiệp? Phân tích toàn diện dựa trên hiệu suất, kinh tế và môi trường chi tiết.
- Quá trình đông tụ công nghiệp, đổi mới công nghệ và ô nhiễm môi trường ở Trung Quốc: Quan điểm vòng đời của quá trình đông tụ.
- Ứng dụng của màng gốm nano có nguồn gốc từ chất thải rắn khai thác giàu Fe / S / Si / Al / O trong tách dầu-nước và loại bỏ kim loại nặng trong nước thải công nghiệp có chất nhũ hóa cao.
- Ảnh hưởng của mối quan tâm đến môi trường công cộng đối với bất bình đẳng môi trường nông thôn - thành thị: Bằng chứng từ các doanh nghiệp công nghiệp Trung Quốc.
- Một hệ thống vòng kín để tái chế các nguyên tố đất hiếm từ bùn thải công nghiệp bằng cách sử dụng các chất rửa trôi màu xanh lá cây và hỗn hợp polyme β-cyclodextrin xốp.
- Kết hợp bùn từ nhà máy xử lý nước thải của một xưởng giặt là công nghiệp vào gốm sứ đất sét nặng.
- Những tiến bộ gần đây về xúc tác chất thải rắn công nghiệp để cải thiện chất lượng dầu sinh học từ quá trình cracking xúc tác sinh khối: Đánh giá.
- Ảnh hưởng của sự thay đổi theo mùa đối với đặc điểm nguồn VOCs tại khu công nghiệp Houston.
Ảnh minh hoạ
Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh:
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Investigation of long–term trends and major sources of atmospheric HCHO over India
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100477
Atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) has significant adverse health effects at higher concentrations. It is an unstable and inflammable organic compound, and is an index for atmospheric pollution. Although the ambient HCHO is due to methane oxidation, the localised enhancement in HCHO is mostly from the emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Therefore, assessment of spatial and temporal changes in NMVOCs are key for monitoring air quality and climate change. Here, we analyze two decades of atmospheric HCHO measurements and investigate the HCHO sources in India using satellite observations in 1997–2020. The measurements show very high HCHO concentrations in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and south and east India, about 8–12 × 1015 molec. cm−2. The northwest region shows moderate concentrations, but Kashmir and northern regions of northeast show very small values of about 1–2 × 1015 molec. cm−2. Our analyses reveal significant increase in HCHO over India in all seasons, with the highest trends during March–May, about 0.3–0.5 × 1015 molec. cm−2 yr−1; suggesting the spread of pollution even to rural regions. Many ports and mining areas exhibit high positive HCHO trends, which also show new source regions and transport pathways of pollution. Furthermore, the analyses for the COVID-19 lockdown period expose significant contributions from sources other than anthropogenic origin (e.g. biogenic and pyrogenic). Therefore, this study indicates the need of new policy interventions for controlling Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) pollution in rural and urban India, and at the international seaports of Indian Ocean.
2. Environmental sustainability maturity system: An integrated system scale to assist maritime port managers in addressing environmental sustainability goals
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100481
The environmental management structure adopted by port managers with management systems such as ISO 14,001 or EMAS certification provides the basic foundation of environmental sustainability. However, to manage the complexity and the specific characteristics of marine transport activities, port managers must utilize additional sustainability tools to build upon the port's basic management systems structure. This study demonstrates through a case study of Tanger Mediterranean Port Authority, Morocco, and the port of Aalborg, Denmark, two types of maritime ports, that the use of an environmental sustainability maturity system provides the needed integration tool to address specific sustainability issues based on port operational similarities. The identification of sustainability indicators by port managers in monitoring and assessment of environmental management systems for this study was first presented by the authors at an international conference in February 2021.The following study measures the previous identified indicators to demonstrate that as port operations expand to handle increased global trade, the use of an environmental sustainability maturity system guide will assist global port managers in identifying, assessing, prioritizing, and meeting environmental sustainable development goals. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of port managers using an environmental sustainability maturity system guide as a key operational tool in meeting environmental sustainability objectives, which includes port stakeholder input and assessing port operations that impact climate change. These results also provide a basis for continued research on how to optimize port operations to stay competitive in a growing global economy using environmental sustainability practices.
3. A comprehensive review on grain legumes as climate‐smart crops: Challenges and prospects
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100479
Global food production needs to be doubled by 50% by the middle of 21st century to ensure the food and nutritional security for 9 billion people explicitly in the challenging scenarios such as land degradation, water scarcity and environmental pollution. Climate change is evident worldwide due to exponential rise in atmospheric carbon-di-oxide (eCO2) and temperature (eT). It leads to more complexity in achieving the sustainable food security. Grain legumes are the major sources of dietary proteins with multifaceted impact on ecosystem services. Being the C3 crops climate change (more specifically eCO2) usually has positive impact on physiology and productivity of grain legumes as compared to C4 cereal crops. Grain legumes can allocate the above ground photosynthates into the below ground parts like roots and nodules resulting improvement in plant biomass, rhizospheric activities and higher input (water and nutrients) use efficacy. However, the impact of eT on grain legume is not always favourable. High temperature explicitly in the reproductive phase is extremely deleterious causing flower abortion and abnormal pod filling. Besides, eT impairs the performance of grain legumes because of higher evaporative demand, poor root-microbial association and pest severity. Therefore, both agronomic and genetic interventions must be integrated to raise successful grain legumes and to achieve the targeted yield in the changing climatic conditions. The targeted breeding programmes should be selection of high yielding, biotic stress resistant and abiotic stress tolerant grain legume genotypes that are adapted to eCO2 and eT conditions. Further, integrating the grain legumes with desirable traits to the food production system might impart resilience towards climate change. In this comprehensive review the impacts of climate change (eCO2 and eT) on above and below ground crop growth, productivity, water use efficiency and disease-pest severity are thoroughly discussed. Further, climate smart technologies which make grain legumes as a perfect candidate crop in the future climatic condition are also highlighted.
4. Hunger and environmental goals for Asia: Synergies and trade-offs among the SDGs
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100491
Rapid progress in hunger reduction in Asia has come at the cost of environmental degradation, while pursuing environmental conservation goals risk slowing further progress on hunger. Operationalizing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) shows us the complexity of achieving multiple societal goals simultaneously. The lack of coordination across sector-specific agencies responsible for various SDGs has aggravated the problem. This paper presents the challenge of seeking a nexus across the SDGs with particular reference to the SDG target 2.3., "Doubling productivity and Incomes”. A detailed assessment, with respect to South Asia, of the synergies and tradeoffs between SDG 2.3 and the other SDG targets is provided. High payoff interventions and policies for maximizing the positive linkages and minimizing the negative linkages with SDG 2.3 are discussed.
5. River pollution monitoring over an industrial catchment in urban ecosystem: Challenges and proposed geospatial framework
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100496
Urban river pollution is considered a ‘necessary evil’ consequence of disproportionate developmental expansion in metropolises. Unprecedented expansion and anthropic activities amongst other reasons lead to choking of urban rivers with municipal and industrial sewage. Urban rivers are dying while awaiting rescue, despite the hard efforts by civic authorities, largely due to lack of coordination amongst river authorities and stakeholders, underlying conflicts spanning across all levels, balkanisation, pluralization, scarcity of reliable technical data, and financial constraints. Challenges faced by stakeholders in river pollution management as revealed in informational interviews are foregrounded. In an attempt to reduce some of the overwhelm faced by officials on ground, a geospatial framework is proposed which if functionally implemented can transparentize river water quality (WQ) monitoring, and facilitate pollution control. The pollution situation in a persistently polluted urban river near Mumbai city, India was explored and assessed in the middle of a restoration battle waged by environmental activists. Following secondary river water quality data acquisition, primary sample collection campaign and WQ testing, multivariate statistical data analysis was performed under data- and resource-constraint situation. Spatiotemporal monitoring and visualization of river water quality data holds great promise for effectively controlling anthropic river pollution. A subsequent geospatial analysis of the study area was performed using digital elevation model (DEM) based watershed delineation, land use land cover (LULC) classification, mapping of WQ monitoring locations, mapping of industrial clusters, integration of spatial data, and identifying polluter industries. This steered us to formulate and propose the geospatial framework and supplementary recommendations on how better to save this dying river. The framework displays near real-time information on river water quality at different impaired river stretches in urban industrial ecosystem. Applicable universally for monitoring any river in urban industrial catchment, it can be used as a reference by stakeholders and research aspirants.
6. Electronic waste: A critical assessment on the unimaginable growing pollutant, legislations and environmental impacts
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100507
Electronic waste is an indirect and unimaginable waste which make adverse effects on the human, animals and environment by polluting the natural resources like air, soil and water. Accumulation and contamination of e-waste for a longer period may harshly affect the environmental resources. India and China are the largest consumers of electronic gadgets at the same time they are responsible for an increase in the waste electrical and electronic equipment. Therefore, this review article mainly focuses on the detailed explanation of the e-waste management system includes the recycling process and its effects in India. The uniqueness of this review article lies in the discussion of legal instruments and awareness programs in India at various periods of time. Also, it provides sufficient knowledge to the readers in various aspects of increasing e-waste and its controlling methods. As a result, it gives adequate information for reducing the utilization of e-product in consumer-side and control measures on the manufacturer-side. In addition to that, it will be helpful to the policymakers who are involving in framing the future policy of e-waste in India.
7. Is there any impact from ICT on environmental quality in Africa? Evidence from second‐generation panel techniques
Environmental Challenges, Volume 7, April 2022, 100520
Increased infrastructure resilience (SDG9) and reducing climate change's effects (SDG13) have been recognised as key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There is a growing argument suggesting the existence of a trade-off between enhancing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure and preserving the environment. The evidence suggests that countries may be required to sacrifice one goal to meet another. Based on an ICT index and the ecological footprint, the present study reinvestigated the impact of ICT on environmental quality for a sample of 47 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries from 1990 to 2017. In contrast to preceding studies, the present study employed superior econometric procedures to handle heterogeneities across nations and, thus, has produced more trustworthy and efficient results. The results obtained from Driscoll and Kraal's standard error, Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS), and Panel-Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE) techniques were consistent. They showed that the deployment of ICT services had a favourable but insignificant impact on the quality of the environment in the selected economies. The results also revealed that; renewable energy, education, and political institutions played significant roles in maintaining the quality of the environment. Likewise, the results confirmed the inverted U-shape as suggested in the EKC hypothesis. Overall, the results indicated no trade-offs between increasing infrastructure resilience and maintaining the quality of the environment in the SSA region.
8. The status of marine debris/litter and plastic pollution in the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (CLME): 1980–2020
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118919
Plastic pollution is one of several anthropogenic stressors putting pressure on ecosystems of the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (CLME). A ‘Clean Ocean’ is one of the ambitious goals of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. If this is to be realized, it is imperative to build upon the work of the previous decades (1980–2020). The objectives of the present study were to assess the state of knowledge about: (i) the distribution, quantification, sources, transport and fate of marine debris/litter and microplastics in the coastal/marine environment of the CLME and, (ii) the effects of plastics on biodiversity. Snapshots, i.e., peer-reviewed studies and multi-year (1991–2020) marine debris data from International Coastal Cleanup (ICC) events, indicated that plastic debris was a persistent issue in multiple ecosystems and environmental compartments of the CLME. Collectively, a suite of approaches (debris categorization, remote sensing, particle tracking) indicated that plastic debris originated from a combination of land and marine-based sources, with the former more significant than the latter. Rivers were identified as an important means of transporting mismanaged land-based waste to the marine environment. Oceanic currents were important to the transport of plastic debris into, within and out of the region. Plastic debris posed a threat to the biodiversity of the CLME, with specific biological, physical, ecological and chemical effects being identified. Existing data can be used to inform interventions to mitigate the leakage of plastic waste to the marine environment. Given the persistent and transboundary nature of the issue, further elucidation of the problem, its causes and effects must be prioritized, while simultaneously harmonizing regional and international approaches.
9. Fate of plastic in the environment: From macro to nano by macrofauna
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118920
Plastic ingestion has been widely investigated to understand its adverse harms on fauna, but the role of fauna itself in plastic fragmentation has been rarely addressed. Here, we review and discuss the available experimental results on the role of terrestrial and aquatic macrofauna in plastic biofragmentation and degradation. Recent studies have shown how biting, chewing, and stomach contractions of organisms shatter ingested plastic along their digestive tracts. Gut microbial communities can play a role in biodegradation and their composition can shift according to the type of plastic ingested. Shifts in molecular weights, chemical bond forming and breaking, and changes in thermal modification detected in the plastic debris present in the faeces also suggest active biodegradation. A few studies have also shown interactions other than ingestion, such as burrowing, may actively or passively promote physical plastic fragmentation by fauna. We suggest that further investigations into the role of fauna in physical fragmentation and chemical degradation linked to active ingestion and gut associated microbiota metabolism, respectively, should be conducted to better evaluate the impact of these mechanisms on the release of micro- and nano-plastic in the environment. Knowledge on macrofauna other than marine invertebrates and terrestrial soil dwelling invertebrates is particularly lacking, as well as focus on broader types of plastic polymers.
10. Drivers of 2013–2020 ozone trends in the Sichuan Basin, China: Impacts of meteorology and precursor emission changes
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118914
The Sichuan Basin (SCB) of China is known for excessive ozone (O3) pollution owing to high anthropogenic emissions combined with terrain-induced poor ventilation and weak wind fields against the surrounding mountains. While O3 pollution has emerged as a prominent concern in southwestern China yet variations in O3 levels during 2013–2020 are still unclear and the dominant factor in explaining the long-term O3 trend throughout the SCB remains elusive due to uncertainties in emission inventory and variability associated with meteorological conditions. Here, we use extensive basin-wide ambient measurements to examine the spatial pattern and trend of O3 and leverage OMI and TROPOMI satellites in conjunction with MEIC emission inventory to track emission changes. Sensitivity simulations are conducted by using WRF-CMAQ model to investigate the impacts of meteorological variability and emission changes on O3 changes over 2013–2020. O3 concentrations exhibit obvious interannual increases during 2013–2019 and a slight decrease in 2020. Both decreases in the MEIC emission inventory (−2.9% yr−1) and OMI NO2 column density (−3.1% yr−1) reflects the declining trend in NOx emissions over 2013–2020, while anthropogenic VOCs were not adequately regulated during 2013–2017, which explained the majority of deteriorated O3 pollution from 2013 to 2017. Furthermore, attribution analysis based on CMAQ simulations indicate that the unexpected aggravated O3 levels in 2019 is not only modulated by disproportional reductions in VOCs and NOx emissions, but also associated with unfavorable meteorological conditions featured by profound heatwaves and frequent stagnant conditions. In 2020, the abnormal meteorological conditions in May leads to substantial increase of O3 by 26.8 μg m−3 as compared to May 2019, while the considerable enhancement was fully offset by low O3 levels over the whole period which attributes to substantial emission reductions. This study reveals the long-term trend of O3 levels and precursor emissions and highlights the effects of meteorological variability and emission changes on O3 pollution over the SCB, with strong implications for designing effective O3 control measures.
11. Predicting the global environmental distribution of plastic polymers
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118966
This study represents the first quantitative global prediction of the mass distribution of six widespread polymers, plus plastic fibers and rubber across four environmental compartments and 11 sub-compartments. The approach used probabilistic material flow analysis for 2015, with model input values and transfer coefficients between compartments taken from literature. We estimated that 3.2 ± 1.8 Mt/year of polyethylene, 1.3 ± 0.8 Mt/year of polypropylene, 0.5 ± 0.3 Mt/year of polystyrene, 0.3 ± 0.15 Mt/year of polyvinyl chloride, 1.6 ± 0.9 Mt/year of polyethylene terephthalate and 2.4 ± 1.2 Mt/year of plastic fibers enter the environment. Combining all plastic, including rubber, 4.9 ± 1.3, 4.8 ± 1.9 and 1.8 ± 1.2 Mt/year accumulated in the soil, ocean, and freshwater, respectively. Urban soils and ocean shorelines were predicted as hotspots for plastic accumulation, accounting for 33% and 25% of total plastic, respectively. The floor of freshwater systems and the ocean were predicted as hotspots for high density plastic such as polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl chloride and plastic fibers. Furthermore, 59% of environmental rubber was predicted to accumulate in soil. The findings of this study provide baseline data for quantifying plastic transport and accumulation, which can inform future ecotoxicity studies and risk assessments, as well as targeting efforts to mitigate plastic pollution.
12. Decisive role of ozone formation control in winter PM2.5 mitigation in Shenzhen, China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 301, 15 May 2022, 119027
During the COVID-19 lockdown, atmospheric PM2.5 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) showed the highest reduction in China, but the reasons, being a critical question for future air quality policy design, are not yet clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationships among gaseous precursors, secondary aerosols and atmospheric oxidation capacity in Shenzhen, a megacity in the PRD, during the lockdown period in 2020 and the same period in 2021. The comprehensive observational datasets showed large lockdown declines in all primary and secondary pollutants (including O3). We found that, however, the daytime concentrations of secondary aerosols during the lockdown period and normal period were rather similar when the corresponding odd oxygen (Ox≡O3+NO2, an indicator of photochemical processing avoiding the titration effect of O3 by freshly emitted NO) were at similar levels. Therefore, reduced Ox, rather than the large reduction in precursors, was a direct driver to achieve the decline in secondary aerosols. Moreover, Ox was also found to determine the spatial distribution of intercity PM2.5 levels in winter PRD. Thus, an effective strategy for winter PM2.5 mitigation should emphasize on control of winter O3 formation in the PRD and other regions with similar conditions.
13. Beyond the UNFCCC North-South divide: How newly industrializing countries collaborate to innovate in climate technologies
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 309, 1 May 2022, 114425
While the Global North is historically responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs) are expected to overtake developed country emissions in the coming years. At the same time, NICs are climbing the ladder of the global economy, increasing their competitiveness on the global stage and catching up with technological competencies of developed economies. Against this background, this paper explores innovation and collaboration in Climate Change Mitigation Technologies (CCMTs) in NICs. The research question is whether the propensity to innovate and diffuse CCMTs is impacted by technological collaboration with two highly developed countries, Germany and The United States. The sample of NICs includes the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) plus Israel, Mexico, and Turkey, in a panel from 1995 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that collaboration with both Germany and the U.S. is highly significant for domestic CCMT innovation in NICs. These findings are important because, stepping beyond the literature on the merits and drawbacks of global climate governance tools such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and related UNFCCC processes, they show that collaboration for climate and environmental technologies could become a key tool to significantly improve the chances to stay in line with the Paris Climate Agreement. Finally, the policy advice for NICs and developing countries is to, above all else, focus on incubating strong technological innovation systems, including strengthening domestic Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), as well as to enhance technological collaboration with developed countries.
14. Understanding China's industrialization driven water pollution stress in 2002–2015—A multi-pollutant based net gray water footprint analysis
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 310, 15 May 2022, 114735
China produces a large amount of industrial effluent with multiple pollutants contained, along with a flourishing economy. This study aims to examine the dynamics between China's industrialization and accompanying environmental pressure based on the gray water footprint (GWF) concept. A newly proposed net GWF (NetGWF) and the decoupling index (DI) are applied to evaluate China's industrial activities during 2002–2015 in different modes considering typical, all, and individual pollutants. The NetGWF dynamics are further quantitatively decomposed into 17 effects of not only commonly assessed drivers but also industrial fixed capital formation, inventory variation, and import, using an advanced dynamic decomposition analysis approach. Results show NetGWF is an effective indicator measuring domestic water pollution stress from industrialization, with NetGWF-AllPlt (estimated using all pollutants) validated to be more reliable and sensitive than NetGWF-COD&NH3N (estimated using Chemical oxygen demand and Ammonia nitrogen). An overall decoupling between China's industrialization and wastewater pollution is identified with most of DIs less than 1.0 caused mainly by decreased (by around 40%) industrial NetGWFs for 2002–2015. Industrial fixed capital formation and export have caused main components of China's industrial GWF, with proportions of 37.3% and 30.8%, respectively, followed by urban household consumption (16.8%). Volatile phenol, Petroleum, and Ammonia nitrogen are recognized as three decisive contaminants to the industrial NetGWFs. Technological development is the dominant contributor (−50%) to decreasing China's industrial NetGWFs, while fixed capital formation (18%) and export (16%) are principal drivers increasing the NetGWFs. Based on these, we expect to provide informative findings for building a pollution-decoupled industrialization.
15. Do corporate governance mechanisms curb the anti-environmental behavior of firms worldwide? An illustration through waste management
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 310, 15 May 2022, 114707
Driven by the current surge in environmental and climate issues and the pressure of the government and regulatory bodies on corporations to diminish their carbon trails, this study uniquely examines the impact of distinct corporate governance mechanisms on the level of waste produced on a global sample of firms during 2002-2019. Our findings show that corporate governance mechanisms are important predictors of the level of waste produced by firms worldwide. In particular, the board size, board independence, and sustainability committees are linked to a higher level of waste produced. Conversely, the board gender diversity reduces the waste produced, and CEO duality is not associated with the level of waste produced. Our results are robust to alternate proxies of main variables, potential endogeneity concerns (using propensity score matching, two-stage least squares, and generalized system method of moments technique), and additional analyses. Further analysis shows that larger and gender-diverse boards improve the firm’s waste recycling behavior, whereas board independence and the presence of a sustainability committee are negatively related to waste recycling. The study has vital insinuations in developing efficient, ethical regulations and guidelines for corporate boards specifically from the perspective of waste management, environmental protection, and restoration.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. A case study on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust of Serbian households: Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment
Chemospher, Volume 295, May 2022, 133856
This study was conducted in order to obtain the first insight into the occurrence, potential sources, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust. Samples (n = 47) were collected from households in four settlements in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. Total concentrations of 16 EPA priority PAHs in the dust samples varied from 140 to 8265 μg kg−1. Mean and median values for all samples were 1825 and 1404 μg kg−1, respectively. According to the international guidelines for indoor environment, PAH content can be regarded as normal (<500 μg kg−1) for ∼6% of the samples, high (500–5000 μg kg−1) for ∼87% of the samples, and very high (5000–50000 μg kg1) for ∼6% of the samples. In all settlements, PAHs with 4 rings were the most prevalent (accounting for 40–53% of the total PAHs). They were followed by 3-ringed PAHs (29–40%), which indicates rather uniform PAH profiles in the analyzed dust. Based on diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA), and positive matrix factorization (PMF), pyrogenic sources, such as vehicle emissions and wood combustion were the dominant sources of PAHs in analyzed samples. Health risk assessment, which included incidental ingesting, inhaling and skin contact with PAHs in the analyzed dust, was evaluated by using the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model. Median total ILCR was 3.88E-04 for children, and 3.73E-04 for adults. Results revealed that major contribution to quite high total ILCRs was brought by dermal contact and ingestion. Total cancer risk for indoor dust indicated that 85% of the studied locations exceeded 10–4. This implies risk of high concern, with potential adverse health effects. The results are valuable for future observation of PAHs in indoor environment. They are also useful for regional authorities who can use them to create policies which control sources of pollution.
2. Co-digestion of municipal solid waste with lignocellulosic waste in mesophilic Environment
Chemosphere, Volume 295, May 2022, 133852
The present study deals with the dual problem of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic waste in which authors tried to use these two waste materials as clean and renewable energy source. In the present study, anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic waste in varying combinations was carried out. Five-set of experiments (S1, S2, S3, S4, and S5) under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch reactors. From all the combinations, reactor S3 (organic fraction of municipal solid waste: lignocellulosic waste, 1:1 ratio) was observed to be the best combination producing 70.09 ml concentration of methane out of 78.76 ml of biogas as compared to all other combinations. The increase in methane production rate was observed by 53.67% due to the addition of lignocellulosic waste. The decline in methane production at the end of the 50th day was observed due to a fall in pH, which created acidic conditions, thus inhibiting the conversion process. It was found that the mesophilic condition acted as a governing factor in the process of digestion.
3. The influence of daily weather types on the development and intensity of the urban heat island in two Mediterranean coastal metropolises
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 153071
In this study we investigated the association between daily weather types (WTs) and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in two Mediterranean coastal metropolises. For this purpose, we employed an existing weather type classification scheme and examined which WTs influence or drive the intensity of the UHI. We used the gridded weather typing classification (GWTC), in which meteorological conditions at a single location are categorized in daily WTs. We compared these WTs with the maximum temperature differences between urban centers and rural areas in the two major metropolises of Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki). These metropolises have dissimilar geography and spatial planning as well as their urban climate characteristics have differences. We used two groups of temperature time series on a daily basis. One with high and the other with low temperature differences (upper 5% and lower 5% of the maximum temperature differences (ΔΤmax)) which reported the WTs that contribute to increase of UHI Intensity. We found that urban overheating was amplified during daytime under Humid, Humid Warm and Warm conditions in both Athens and Thessaloniki. As for nighttime, urban overheating is associated with Warm, Dry and Dry Warm conditions in Thessaloniki while in Athens increased under Humid, Humid Warm and Warm conditions.
4. High-spatial-resolution distributions of aerosol chemical characteristics in urban Lanzhou, western China, during wintertime: Insights from an on-road mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurement experiment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 153069
The high-spatial-resolution distributions of the mass concentration and chemical composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) across four different functional districts in Lanzhou, a typical northwestern city in China, were studied during the winter haze pollution period using an on-road real-time mobile monitoring system. The purpose of this study is to characterize the spatial variation in the sources and chemical formation of aerosols at the intra-urban scale. A higher PM1 mass concentration (63.0 μg m−3) was observed in an industrially influenced district (XG) with major contributions (70.4%) from three secondary inorganic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) and two oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) components with different oxygenation levels. Compared with the densely populated district (CG), sulfate and more-oxidized OOA were the two most distinct contributors to the elevated PM1 mass in XG during the daytime (30.9% in XG vs. 17.5% in CG), whereas nitrate and less-oxidized OOA dominated (41.4% in XG vs. 30.6% in CG) during the nighttime. A lower PM1 mass (44.3 μg m−3) was observed in CG and was contributed predominantly by primary organic aerosols emitted from traffic, cooking, and heating activities. The chemical formation mechanisms of secondary PM1 species in the two different districts during the daytime and nighttime are further examined, which indicated the important photochemical formations of nitrate in CG but sulfate in XG during the daytime, whereas favorable aqueous-phase formations of nitrate and LO-OOA in both districts during the nighttime. The stronger atmospheric oxidation capability might be a key factor leading to the more significant formations of secondary species in XG than CG. These results illustrate city-scale aerosol loading and chemical processes and are useful for local policy makers to develop differentiated and efficient mitigation strategies for the improvement of air quality in Lanzhou.
5. Seasonal and annual variations of CO2 and CH4 at Shadnagar, a semi-urban site
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 153114
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their significant role in anthropogenic global climate change. The spatio-temporal variations of their concentration are characterized by the terrestrial biosphere, seasonal weather patterns and anthropogenic emissions. Hence, to understand the variability in regional surface GHG fluxes, high precision GHGs measurements were initiated by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) of India. We report continuous CO2 and CH4measurements during 2014 to 2017 for the first time from Shadnagar, a suburban site in India. Annual mean CO2 and CH4 concentrations are 399.56 ± 5.46 ppm and 1.929 ± 0.09 ppm, respectively, for 2017. After the strong El Niño of 2015–2016, an abnormal rise in CO2 growth rate of 5.5 ppm year−1 was observed in 2017 at the study site, compared to 3.03 ppm year−1 at Mauna Loa. Thus, the repercussion of the El Niño effect diminishes the net uptake by the terrestrial biosphere accompanied by increased soil respiration. Seasonal tracer to tracer correlation between CO2 and CH4 was also analyzed to characterize the possible source-sink relationship between the species. We compared CO2 and CH4 concentrations to simulations from an atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM). The seasonal phases of CH4 were well captured by the ACTM, whereas the seasonal cycle amplitude of CO2 was underestimated by about 30%.
6. Real-time chemical characterization of single ambient particles at a port city in Chinese domestic emission control area — Impacts of ship emissions on urban air quality
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 153117
The domestic emission control area (DECA) policy has been implemented in China since 2017. However, its impact on ship emissions and in turn urban air quality is still unclear. In this study, real-time single particle measurements were carried out at a site in urban Guangzhou, about 1 km downwind of Huangpu Port, the largest maritime transport hub in southern China, in the summer of 2020 using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS). During the campaign, the hourly averaged number fraction of ship emitted particles, using vanadium as a chemical indicator, varied from 0 to 14% with an average of 2 ± 1%. Ship emitted single particles contain organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, sulfate and nitrate. More than 95% of ship emitted particles were sulfate-containing particles and the relative peak areas (RPAs) of sulfate and vanadium in the hourly average mass spectra of ship emitted particles were highly correlated (R2 = 0.85), suggesting the potential contribution of ship emissions to sulfate production in coastal cities. The relative abundance of OC and EC-related components in ship emitted particles varied and it was likely attributed to the different blending fluids used in the production of low sulfur fuels. The results from this study provide evidence for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations and guidance for future policy-making regarding the low sulfur fuel quality regulation and multiple-component control strategies.
7. Behaviour of 27 selected emerging contaminants in vertical flow constructed wetlands as post-treatment for municipal wastewater
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 153234
Six substrates (i.e. sand enriched with activated or non-activated biochar or zeolite in different ratios) were tested in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands (VFCWs) planted with Phragmites australis and Iris pseudacorus for the removal of 27 emerging contaminants from municipal wastewater. The laboratory investigation under controlled conditions (spiked constant concentrations in synthetic wastewater) lasted 357 days and proved VFCWs being able to provide excellent effluent quality in terms of both macro - and micropollutant elimination. Because overall removal efficiencies exceeded 90% in most of the cases, significant differences among the substrates were not detectable. For compounds with medium elimination (i.e. AMPA) the type of substrate seemed to play a strong role and the maximum amount of active ingredient adsorbed per amount of substrate has been quantified (i.e. 0.77 μg of AMPA per g of 30% biochar mixed with sand). Three of the most promising substrates from laboratory where thus selected to be tested under real conditions (fluctuation in concentration, variable temperature). As result, VFCWs with 15% activated biochar mixed with sand proved to be effective in the removal of 18 emerging contaminants and complying with national discharge standards for 4 selected compounds.
8. Interpreting per capita loads of organic matter and nutrients in municipal wastewater: A study on 168 Italian agglomerations
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 153236
The size of an agglomeration is expressed in population equivalent, referring to the maximum average weekly load during the year according to the European Directive 271/91. This quantity, multiplied by the daily biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) produced by one population equivalent (which is 60 g d−1 PE−1, by definition), yields the design biodegradable organic load of the wastewater treatment plant. The same agglomeration size is compared against the capacity of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for plant conformity verification by the European Commission. However, field observations show remarkable fluctuations of the daily mass flows entering a WWTP, often considerably below or above the expected load calculated according to the Directive prescriptions. A wrong estimation of the real influent load adversely affects the plant design and operation, and may lead to a misleading verification of its conformity to the agglomeration. In this work, a statistical data analysis on 168 agglomerations was performed, aiming at verifying the consistency between the expected loads of BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and phosphorus and the mass flows measured at the treatment plant inlet. Only 30–40% of the total analysed cases were found having an actual load compatible with the expected one. In these cases, the average per capita daily loads of BOD, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus, calculated over 2–3 years data pools, resulted: 44.6 ± 5.9, 82.4 ± 11, 9.4 ± 1.1, and 1.08 ± 0.13 g d−1, respectively, while the daily BOD per capita production of 60 g represented a value in between the 70th and the 90th percentiles of the actual daily load distributions. For the remaining 60–70% of the total cases, variably-remarkable positive or negative discrepancies between the nominal pollutant loads generated by the agglomeration and those measured at the plant inlet could be detected and possible causes were pointed out.
9. Estimates of population exposure to atmospheric pollution and health-related externalities in a real city: The impact of spatial resolution on the accuracy of results
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 819, 1 May 2022, 152062
Health impacts of atmospheric pollution is an important issue in urban environments. Its magnitude depends on population exposure which have been frequently estimated by considering different approaches relating pollutant concentration and population exposed to it. However, the uncertainties due to the spatial resolution of the model used to estimate the pollutant concentration or due to the lack of representativeness of urban air quality monitoring station (AQMS) have not been evaluated in detail. In this context, NO2 annual average concentration at pedestrian level in the whole city of Pamplona (Spain) modelled at high spatial resolution (~1 m) by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations is used to estimate the total population exposure and health-related externalities by using different approaches. Air pollutant concentration and population are aggregated at different spatial resolutions ranging from a horizontal grid cell size of 100 m × 100 m to a coarser resolution where the whole city is covered by only one cell (6 km × 5 km). In addition, concentrations at AQMS locations are also extracted to assess the representativeness of those AQMS. The case with a spatial resolution of 100 m × 100 m for both pollutant-concentration distribution and population data is used as a reference (Base case) and compared with those obtained with the other approaches. This study indicates that the spatial resolution of concentration and population distribution in the city should be 1 km × 1 km or finer to obtain appropriate estimates of total population exposure (underestimations <13%) and health-related externalities (underestimations <37%). For the cases with coarser resolutions, a strong underestimation of total population exposure (>31%) and health-related externalities (>76%) was found. On the other hand, the use of AQMS concentrations can induce important errors due to the limited spatial representativeness, in particular in terms of population exposure.
10. A review of flocculants as an efficient method for increasing the efficiency of municipal sludge dewatering: Mechanisms, performances, influencing factors and perspectives
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153328
Mechanical sludge dewatering is one of the stages of the municipal wastewater treatment process, which allows the amount of generated sludge and the cost of its transport and management to be reduced. Achieving a high degree of dewatering is possible thanks to the use of flocculation technology. The article presents issues related to the theory of flocculation, sewage sludge, and its dewatering. The main mechanisms of flocculation, the kinetics of the process, the division of flocculants, and flocculation in dual systems are discussed. The influence of particular parameters on the efficiency of flocculation and the dewatering of sewage sludge was analyed. The assessed parameters are: pH, the presence of salt, the mixing process, the structure and ionicity of chains, and the dose. The results of experimental studies on the dewatering of various types of sludge were compared. The literature review included in the paper helps to better understand the process of flocculation and sludge dewatering, and presents the progress to date and the possible directions for further development in this field.
11. Ecosystem services-based soil quality index tailored to the metropolitan environment for soil assessment and management
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153301
The soils in urban greenery provide essential ecosystem services. However, only a few studies have assessed urban soil quality based on a comprehensive view of ecosystem services and soil multi-functionality. In this study, we suggest an urban soil quality index (uSQI) to evaluate soil status in various spatial types of urban greenery. Our objectives are 1) to develop an uSQI incorporating a range of urban soil ecosystem services in metropolitan environments and 2) to test the efficacy of the developed uSQI by applying it to nine different sites. To fully consider ecosystem services provided by the urban soil, a DPSC (drivers and pressures, state, and changes) framework was constructed. Drivers and pressures are influencing factors that continuously alter the state of the urban greenery, eventually leading to changes in ecosystem services and soil functions. The six soil functions considered were physical stability and support, water storage and infiltration, habitat provision, organic matter stabilization, nutrient supply and retention, and pollutant immobilization and decomposition. These functions were measured using ten soil indicators which can be quantified: bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, litter-layer depth, mineral-associated organic matter, clay+silt content, fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity, cation exchange capacity, inorganic nitrogen concentration, pH, and concentrations of potentially toxic elements. The uSQI was calculated as the arithmetic mean of the scores of the six soil functions, obtained through the fuzzy logic functions. The uSQI successfully identified the low soil quality sites among nine urban greeneries with different spatial types (point, line, and polygon). In addition, we could examine the degraded soil function of each site and suggest a management guideline using our uSQI. Our novel index can help urban stakeholders evaluate and monitor the soil quality of urban greenery.
12. Influences of landform and urban form factors on urban heat island: Comparative case study between Chengdu and Chongqing
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153395
Although the degraded urban thermal environment has been widely concerned, whether monocentric or polycentric urban development can alleviate urban heat island (UHI) is still debatable, particularly considering different types of cities in plain and mountainous settings. To fill the gap, this study chose the cases of Chengdu on alluvial flatlands and Chongqing on mountainous landforms in China for comparison. Adapting to natural landforms, Chengdu has a dominated monocentric urban form, whereas Chongqing has a naturally polycentric urban form. This study found that areas with high UHI intensity were located in the urban center and peripheral suburbs in Chengdu, while those were located in the peripheral industrial zones in Chongqing. The spatial error model and random forest regression results showed that natural elements such as vegetation and water had similar influences and contributions to UHI. However, distinct landforms and urban forms played critical roles in UHI differences among the two cities. Impervious surface and building density were the dominant variables to UHI of Chengdu, while sky view factor and industrial zones were the main contributors to UHI of Chongqing. The findings called for corresponding policy strategies to optimize urban form and improve the urban thermal environment.
13. Differing perceptions of the youth and the elderly regarding cultural ecosystem services in urban parks: An exploration of the tour experience
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153388
Parks have become important spaces for supplying cultural ecosystem services (CESs) in cities, and satisfying various needs of different age groups in parks has become a critical issue. Many studies focused on the environmental preferences and behaviours of different age groups in parks. However, results revealing the differences in value demand and acquisition between elderly and youth from a landscape spatial environmental perspective are limited. In this study, the same number of youth and elderly volunteers were recruited, according to the value-labelled photo fed back after their self-driven tour in the Huanhuaxi Urban Forest Park in Chengdu, China. In addition, this study explored the relationship between the perceived CES needs of the youth and elderly and the landscape spatial environment in the urban park ecosystem with the help of the Social Values for Ecosystem Services model. Results showed that, in comparison, to obtain recreation value, playgrounds, pavilions and squares were more important for the elderly, whereas topography, rivers, landscape sketches and trails were more important for the youth. Moreover, in terms of the sense of place, lakes and wetlands were more important for the elderly, whereas landscape sketches and playgrounds were more important for the youth. Furthermore, for the delivery of therapeutic value, squares were more important for the elderly. Spatially, the areas of lakes or wetlands with geographical combinations of landscape sketches and flowers were the high-value spots for supplying multiple CESs in urban parks. Then, squares, rivers, playgrounds and forests were the focus areas where the value identification of the two age groups diverges. This study emphasises the differences in demand and acquisition of cultural added value provided by the environment between the young and the old. The study provides a basis for more targeted land management and landscape planning of urban parks.
14. Atmospheric microplastic fallout in outdoor and indoor environments in São Paulo megacity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153450
Plastics are widely used by society, and their degradation into millimetre fragments, called microplastics (MPs), has become a global environmental threat to ecosystems and human health. However, airborne MPs' presence and fallout fluxes from the atmosphere are poorly understood and can vary significantly by different conditions, especially in megacities of low- and middle-income countries, where high levels of vehicular air pollution, a high-density population, high plastic use, and inadequate disposal are environmental threats related to airborne MPs. In this study, we investigate the amount, chemical composition, and morphological characteristics of outdoor and indoor airborne MPs fallout in the megacity of São Paulo and assess the influence of weather and seasons on airborne MPs fallout. The results were as follows: MPs were found in all samples with an average fallout rate of 309.40 ± 214.71 MPs/m2/day in the indoor environment, and 123.20 ± 47.09 MPs/m2/day in the outdoor environment; MPs concentrations were higher in the indoor environment than the outdoor environment, with more fibres than particles; polyester fibres (100%), polyethylene (59%) and polypropylene (26%) particles were the dominant polymers indoors, while in outdoors, polyester fibres (76%) and polyethylene (67%) and polyethylene terephthalate (25%) particles were dominant. Fragment was the dominant morphology of particles found in indoor and outdoor samples (64% and 74%, respectively). Outdoor MPs fallout correlated positively with rainfall, wind velocity, and relative humidity. This evidence is the first on airborne MPs in a Latin America megacity and highlights the relevant role that this source plays in different environments.
15. The association of hypertension and prehypertension with greenness and PM2.5 in urban environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153526
The interplay of air pollution and urban greenness on hypertension (HTN) is not fully understood.
We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the role of greenness and PM2.5 on HTN for 40,375 adult residents in the New Taipei City, Taiwan. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) defined greenness and land use regression derived exposures of PM2.5 were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of HTN in logistic regression models and common OR of normal to stage 3 HTN in ordinal logistic regression models. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between NDVI and blood pressures, including systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) pressures. The mediation and moderation analysis were used to assess the mediation and moderation effect of PM2.5 on the association between greenness and SBP.
We found 37.3%, 21.4%, 8.2% and 2.7% of prehypertension and stage 1–3 hypertensions, respectively, for our study participants with annual PM2.5 exposures of 10.96–43.59 μg/m3 living in an urban environment with NDVI within 500 m buffer ranging from −0.22 to 0.26. The ORs of HTN were 0.744 (95% CI: 0.698–0.793) for NDVI (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) and 1.048 (1.012–1.085) for each IQR (8.69 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5, respectively. The common OR of the higher level of 5 categories of BP was 1.1310 (1.241–1.383). With each IQR increase of NDVI (0.03), we found SBP, DBP and MBP were decreased by 0.78 mm Hg (−0.93–0.64), 0.52 mm Hg (−0.62–0.43) and 0.61 mm Hg (−0.71–0.51), respectively, in linear regression models. Stratified analysis found greenness effect was more prominent for people who are younger, female, never smoking, and without chronic diseases. PM2.5 is moderated rather than mediated the association between greenness and SBP.
Greenness was associated with lower prevalence of prehypertension and all stages of HTN and this relationship was moderated by PM2.5.
16. Relationship between urban landscape structure and land surface temperature: Spatial hierarchy and interaction effects
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 80, May 2022, 103795
Urban landscape structure has profound impacts on the urban thermal environment (UTE), however, the spatial hierarchy and interaction effects of the relationship between them are limitedly explored. Taking Xi'an Metropolitan area as the case, this study applies satellite imageries, local contour tree algorithm, and XGBoost model to identify the spatial hierarchy of UTE represented by nested heat centers, and then elaborate the relationship between landscape structure (landscape metrics) and land surface temperature (LST) across the spatial levels of UTE. We identify 21 main urban heat island (UHI) areas and their UTE's hierarchy, among which the Xi'an main urban district has the most complex structure (six levels) and is the core area. Then, in the core area, we found that the discussed relationship varies across the levels of UTE. Specifically, the importance of impervious surface increases from the local heat center with the lowest level (40.7%) to the entire UHI area with the highest level (62.0%), whereas that of urban green space has opposite trend (from 41.4% to 25.6%). Besides, landscape metrics within specific range of values show significant interaction effects on LST. Our results imply that differential landscape optimisation criteria should be considered in the different spatial levels of UTE.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. An integrated strategy by using long-term monitoring data to identify volatile organic compounds of high concern near petrochemical industrial parks
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153345
Exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is associated with a risk of cancer in the residents living near petrochemical facilities. However, research on the contribution of different VOCs to the lifetime cancer risk remains inconclusive. The variability in source emissions, geographical locations, seasons, and meteorological conditions can be assessed through long-term measurement of ambient VOCs with a wide spatial distribution, thus reducing the uncertainty of health risk assessment from source emissions. This study analyzed comprehensive measurement data of 109 VOCs at 17 monitoring stations around petrochemical industrial parks, collected once every six days during 2015–2018 by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. We calculated the annual mean concentration of selected VOCs and then integrated the probability risk assessment (PRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models to identify the sources of VOCs of high concern. First, we prioritized 12 out of 23 carcinogenic VOCs based on the PRA results. Further, the results obtained from the PMF model revealed that petrochemical industrial parks contributed to more than 50% of the emissions of six VOCs, namely 1,3-butadiene, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, chloroform, vinyl chloride, and acrylonitrile, measured at a few monitoring stations. This integrated approach can help regulatory agencies to efficiently propose control strategies on the emissions of VOCs of high concern, thereby reducing the population's health risk.
2. Recovery, regeneration and sustainable management of spent adsorbents from wastewater treatment streams: A review
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 822, 20 May 2022, 153555
Adsorption is the most widely adopted, effective, and reliable treatment process for the removal of inorganic and organic contaminants from wastewater. One of the major issues with the adsorption-treatment process for the removal of contaminants from wastewater streams is the recovery and sustainable management of spent adsorbents. This review focuses on the effectiveness of emerging adsorbents and how the spent adsorbents could be recovered, regenerated, and further managed through reuse or safe disposal. The critical analysis of both conventional and emerging adsorbents on organic and inorganic contaminants in wastewater systems are evaluated. The various recovery and regeneration techniques of spent adsorbents including magnetic separation, filtration, thermal desorption and decomposition, chemical desorption, supercritical fluid desorption, advanced oxidation process and microbial assisted adsorbent regeneration are discussed in detail. The current challenges for the recovery and regeneration of adsorbents and the methodologies used for solving those problems are covered. The spent adsorbents are managed through regeneration for reuse (such as soil amendment, capacitor, catalyst/catalyst support) or safe disposal involving incineration and landfilling. Sustainable management of spent adsorbents, including processes involved in the recovery and regeneration of adsorbents for reuse, is examined in the context of resource recovery and circular economy. Finally, the review ends with the current drawbacks in the recovery and management of the spent adsorbents and the future directions for the economic and environmental feasibility of the system for industrial-scale application.
3. Spatial and temporal variation, source identification, and toxicity evaluation of brominated/chlorinated/nitrated/oxygenated-PAHs at a heavily industrialized area in eastern China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 822, 20 May 2022, 153542
Some derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as chlorinated and brominated PAHs (Cl/BrPAHs), nitrated and oxygenated PAHs (N/OPAHs) have attracted significant concern due to their high toxicity. Knowledge of the profiles, formation mechanisms, and potential sources of these toxic chemicals near the industrial complexes is essential for their pollution control and management. In this study, we monitored Cl/BrPAHs, N/OPAHs, and PAHs at 24 sampling sites near a heavily industrialized area (steel, chemical, and rubber plants) using passive air samplers during the heating period (7 December 2019 to 15 April 2020) and the non-heating period (2 June 2020 to 4 October 2020). The total average concentrations of 16 BrPAHs, 8 ClPAHs, 17 NPAHs, 6 OPAHs, and 18 PAHs during both sampling periods were 471 pg/m3, 229 pg/m3, 312 pg/m3, 2120 pg/m3, and 63.1 ng/m3, respectively. Except for NPAHs, BrPAHs, ClPAHs, OPAHs, and PAHs all showed higher levels during the heating period. The spatial distributions of Cl/BrPAHs, N/OPAHs, and PAHs exhibited a similar pattern, with the highest concentrations detected in the vicinity of the steel industry. Congener profiles of PAH derivatives indicated that mono-substituted low molecular weight compounds (2–3 rings) were dominant. The major formation mechanisms of halogenated PAHs were discussed by correlation analysis and relative Gibbs free energies, and direct bromination of parent PAHs could be the major formation mechanism of BrPAHs in this study. Diagnostic ratios showed that NPAHs were mainly derived from primary emissions, but the contribution of secondary formation was increased at heavily contaminated sites. The positive matrix factorization model extracted four Cl/BrPAHs, three N/OPAHs, and four PAHs factors, and the result showed that PAHs and their derivatives mainly derived from industrial and combustion sources, photochemical reactions, vehicle emissions, and crude oil volatilization, etc.
4. Life cycle flaring emissions mitigation potential of a novel Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid microreactor technology for synthetic crude oil production
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 822, 20 May 2022, 153647
This paper compares the environmental impacts of the operation of a novel Gas-to-Liquid (GtL) process for synthetic crude oil production with conventional crude oil production. This process uses novel microreactor technology (NetMIX) applied in Steam Methane Reforming and Fischer-Tropsch (FT-SMR) for the conversion of associated gas originated on offshore Oil and Gas exploration.
Data from literature for Oil and Gas extraction together with data obtained from Aspen Plus ® simulations was used to build the life cycle inventory. An attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to compare the FT-SMR pathway to conventional crude oil production, using 1 MJ LHV as the functional unit. An additional assessment was also conducted by reporting the impact to 1 barrel. This is done to assess the effect that the add-on technology may have on the impact of current crude production.
Converting associated gas using the FT-SMR pathway produces a synthetic crude with negative net GWP impacts. This is because the amount of avoided emissions is larger than the emissions due to the operation of the pathway. The remaining impact categories increase since the FT-SMR has additional intermediary steps, with added fuel energy needs, and additional process emissions. Moreover, the amount of natural gas required to produce 1 MJ of synthetic crude oil (abbreviated in the text as syncrude) results in larger impacts in the extraction phase, than those associated with the extraction of 1 MJ of conventional crude.
The obtained syncrude has a GWP impact of −0.34 [−0.62, −0.14] kg CO2 eq/MJ, in comparison to 0.012 [0.009, 0.017] kg CO2 eq/MJ of conventional crude. A reduction of 8% to the impacts per daily barrel of crude (70.3 kg CO2 eq/barrel and 64.6 kg CO2 eq/barrel before and after using the FT-SMR pathway) was observed for a reduction of 34% of the total flared gas mass.
5. Industrial construction safety policies and practices with cost impacts in a COVID-19 pandemic environment: A Louisiana DOW case study
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 76, May 2022, 104723
There are always significant challenges in improving the safety culture by changing and adding additional safety protocols. The unknown impacts of COVID-19 and how it quickly spreads led the industry to institute essential safety protocols. This paper addresses two problem statements. The first problem statement is: what are the additional safety protocols for process safety, construction & maintenance, and personal protective equipment requirements? The second problem statement is: what are the cost and schedule impacts of industrial construction projects resulting from implementing safety protocols and process safety during construction with the added PPE?
While complying with added safety protocols, the industrial construction industry cannot forget that it has a distinct reputation for high incident rates and less than desirable safety performance. In 2017, the construction industry suffered 971 fatalities. This alarming number is compared to 1123 total fatalities in 2017 for the Gulf Coast States. The objective is to share the rationale and practices of social distancing, required additional PPE, and personal hygiene practices to reduce spreading and outbreaks during a pandemic within an industrial construction environment. Before any construction work, the process safety teams must clear, isolate, and tag out process lines, equipment, and instruments to be repaired or replaced. The information presented demonstrates the significant cost and schedule impacts that industrial construction companies will encounter during a pandemic like COVID-19.
This paper aims to improve safety processes, cost & schedule impacts, and prescribe additional personal protective equipment in industrial construction during a pandemic such as COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic spread globally in a very short period. The reactions in mitigating the spread were suggestive, with little to no data on safety protective equipment and practices. The contribution this paper addresses are how to employ efficient safety practices and policies during a pandemic in an industrial construction environment.
6. Is Kalina Cycle or Organic Rankine Cycle for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications? A detailed Performance, Economic and Environment Based Comprehensive Analysis
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Available online 21 May 2022
Contrary to the increase in energy demand throughout the world, fossil fuels, which are the main energy source, is now more difficult to reach because of the pandemic, transport or bilateral relations, etc. These obstacles in obtaining fossil fuels reveal the need to minimize energy wastage by utilising low-temperature waste heat sources releasing the atmosphere without use. Especially for the industrial fields usage of advanced heat recovery systems is necessary. In addition, it is a remarkable point that the evaluation of low-temperature thermal energy potential will contribute significantly to the reduction of carbon emissions, which is one of the most important goals in developed and developing countries. In this study, Kalina and Organic Rankine cycles, which are the most important low-temperature energy conversion systems in the utilization of low-temperature industrial waste heat with a temperature of 250 ºC and a mass flow of 10 m/s, were examined and compared to each other in terms of energy, exergy efficiency, economic outlook, and environmental effects. During the study, the turbine inlet pressure of the Kalina cycle was selected as 60, 90 and 120 bar, while the turbine inlet pressure of the organic Rankine cycle increased from 10 bar to the critical pressure of the fluid. For all selected pressure levels, the turbine inlet temperature was increased from the saturated vapour temperature of the fluid to 240 ºC. As a result, although the Kalina cycle was found economically better than the organic Rankine cycle (3.93 years), the organic Rankine cycle using n-Pentane showed a better performance than the Kalina cycle in terms of energy, exergy, and CO2 emission reduction. The thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, payback period, and CO2 emission reduction value of the organic Rankine cycle with n-Pentane were calculated as 25.95%, 71.77%, 4.03 years, and 207.17 kg-CO2/h, respectively.
7. Industrial coagglomeration, technological innovation, and environmental pollution in China: Life-cycle perspective of coagglomeration
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 19 May 2022, 132280
The coagglomeration of manufacturing and producer service industries and technological innovation plays an essential role in China's booming economy. Considering the coordinated development goal of the environment and the economy, from the life-cycle perspective of industrial coagglomeration, this study empirically examines whether industrial coagglomeration has dynamic influences on environmental pollution and verifies the direct and indirect impact mechanisms based on the panel threshold model and mediation model. Panel data for China's 30 provinces from 2008 to 2019 are employed. The results suggest that the impact of industrial coagglomeration on environmental pollution is positive and has significant threshold effects. As industrial coagglomeration deepens, its aggravating effect on environmental pollution presents an inverted S-shaped trend. The impact of industrial coagglomeration on technological innovation is negative. With the deepening of coagglomeration, the adverse effect gradually decreases. Additionally, technological innovation is conducive to the reduction of environmental pollution. It acts as a vital mediator between industrial coagglomeration and environmental pollution, and its mediating effect varies with the dynamic evolution of industrial coagglomeration. These conclusions show the importance of increasing industrial coagglomeration efficiency and stimulating the effective play of positive environmental and innovative externalities to realize the sustainable pursuit of economic and ecological benefits.
8. Application of nanoporous ceramic membrane derived from Fe/S/Si/Al/O-rich mining solid waste in oil-water separation and heavy metal removal of industrial high concentrated emulsifying wastewater
Separation and Purification Technology, Available online 21 May 2022, 121317
Ceramic membranes are widely used in industrial wastewater treatment due to their excellent chemical stability, thermal stability, high oil cut-off rate, and long-term recyclability. However, its application range is limited because of the high price of commercial ceramic membranes. In this study, a low-cost environment-oriented ceramic membrane was prepared from gold mine tailings and SiO2-rich granite waste slag by sintering method. The Fe/S/Si/Al/O enriched ceramic membrane prepared by sintering in an atmospheric atmosphere was beneficial to the application of oil-water separation and heavy metal removal of industrial high concentrated emulsifying wastewater. At lower sintering temperature (1000 ℃), adding 33.3% gold tailings (M3), the membrane had good oil cut-off performance (96.1%) and stability. 29.47 MPa mechanical strength and 2.75% mass loss of 1000-M3 was confirmed under extreme acidic and alkaline conditions, and even in high-temperature environments, the mass loss was only 2.5%. After 16 cycles of performance test, the oil cut-off rate only decreased by 0.01%. The developed membrane exhibited good chemical stability and thermal stability. Based on the analysis of membrane contamination behavior, the ceramic membranes prepared could restore nanoporous channels only by ultrasonic treatment. In addition, 100% removal performance of iron and copper was obtained, and 78.6% removal efficiency was achieved for Chromium and cadmium. These fascinating characteristics make the novel ceramic membrane an excellent candidate with a high oil-water separation ability. More importantly, the inexpensive materials from recyclable solid waste and low-energy consumption preparation technique make it possible to scale up production. Thus, the as-prepared nanoporous ceramic membrane prepared from gold mine tailings with biological toxicity as hazardous waste has the potential of waste resource utilization for treating industrial grade high load emulsion wastewater.
9. The effects of public environmental concern on urban-rural environmental inequality: Evidence from Chinese industrial enterprises
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 80, May 2022, 103787
Pollution emissions may differ between urban and rural areas owing to inefficient allocation of regulatory resources. Based on the Chinese Industrial Enterprise Pollution Emission Database, this study reveals the urban-rural environmental inequality brought by China's rapid urbanization and industrialization at the enterprise-level, and highlights the role of public environmental concern (PEC) in urban-rural environmental inequalities. Through a set of moderating and instrumental variable regressions, we find that (1) Industrial enterprises in rural areas are widely dispersed and tend to have higher air and water pollution intensity (PI) than that in urban areas. (2) Enterprises in good financial condition, stated-owned, and foreign-owned enterprises tend to have lower PI, and industrial agglomeration reduces each enterprise's PI. (3) PEC can alleviate urban-rural pollution intensity disparities by affecting government regulation behavior, including drawing the government's attention to environmental issues, raising governmental investment in environmental management, and improving governmental regulation. This study provides a series of policy implications for reducing industrial enterprises’ PI. More importantly, we shed light on the significant role of informal regulation in improving industrial sustainable performance in rural areas where formal regulations are absent or ineffective.
10. A closed-loop system to recycle rare earth elements from industrial sludge using green leaching agents and porous β-cyclodextrin polymer composite
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 180, May 2022, 106152
Industrial sludge is classified as hazardous waste as well as a resource of valuable metals and needs to be adequately treated for the sake of the environment and economy. This study reports a green approach for extracting and purifying rare earth elements (REEs) from industrial sludge using environmentally friendly washing solutions ((NH4)2SO4, N, N-Bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid (GLDA), tetrabutylammonium bromide ionic liquid (TBAB), and water) and a porous β-cyclodextrin polymer composite (PCDP-M-SHM) respectively. The results showed that there is no significant difference between used extracting solutions. However, the speciation study indicated that most REEs in the sludge sample were bounded to a water-soluble fraction. Therefore, for economic reasons, water was used for further studies. Furthermore, the recycling efficiencies after the purification of leached REEs with PCDP-M-SHM were in the range of 76.0 % (Gd) to 87.3% (Pr), except for Ce (8.29%).
Moreover, cost evaluation and sensitivity analysis studies were performed to investigate the applicability of the reported method at the industrial level. The cost evaluation results estimated $3676 as the cost of processing 1 ton of sludge with revenue of $710/ton of sludge. Finally, the sensitivity analysis test affirmed the profitability to depend on the cost of PCDP-M-SHM. Based on the future market price of REEs, the proposed closed-loop recycling approach could be a promising green solution for environmental problems related to mining, processing, and conservation of REEs resources as well as industrial sludge disposal.
11. Is information and communications technology effective for industrial energy conservation and emission reduction? Evidence from three energy-intensive industries in China
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 160, May 2022, 112344
Information and communications technology (ICT) can significantly contribute to industrial energy conservation and emission reduction by improving production and management efficiency. However, few studies have analyzed the technical mechanisms nor quantified the effects of ICT in the industrial sector, hence, existing studies cannot fully support the technology promotion strategy. To overcome this research gap, a nationwide industrial ICT system is built for the first time. Taking China's iron and steel, cement, and coal-fired power industry as case study, this paper has adopted bottom-up modeling approaches to simulate the material and energy metabolism of industrial production process, divided ICTs into six types based on their application units, and then quantified their energy conservation and emission reduction potential. In addition, Conservation Supply Curves, Latin Hypercube Sampling, and HSY algorithm methods are used to analyze their technical performance. Results show: (1) The application of ICT has considerable effects, as it can enlarge the industrial energy conservation and emission reduction potential by 10.7–21.7% in the next 15 years; (2) The differences between the technical costs of ICTs are significant, meanwhile more than 70% of this potential is cost-effective; (3) Uncertainty factors will affect technical potential and cost by 4–15%, amongst which technical popularity is the most sensitive factor. These findings reveal the significant effects of ICT and put forward policy suggestions on their promotion strategy in industrial energy conservation and emission reduction.
12. Incorporation of sludge from effluent treatment plant of an industrial laundry into heavy clay ceramics
Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 47, 15 April 2022, 103451
The textile sector, in particular the laundries, is one of the industrial sectors that generates large quantity of wastes that require an appropriate treatment before their disposal in the environment. In addition to productive costs increasing, the deposition of wastes in appropriate sanitary landfills is the least noble alternative as regards the inverted pyramid for solid waste management hierarchy. In this context, the traditional ceramics industries which produce primarily bricks and roofing tiles represents one of the best alternatives to use a huge variety of industrial solid wastes. The main objective of this work is to assess the technical, environmental and the economic feasibility to use the dried textile sludge as raw material for the traditional ceramic industry. The results demonstrated that the presence of organic matter in the waste resulted in a high loss on ignition, which increased the ceramic porosity, generating an increase in water absorption and firing linear shrinkage and a mechanical strength reduction. However, although this waste has impaired the properties, the values of all of them were within the limits required by Brazilian standards for bricks. In addition, heat release occurred during the volatilization of the organic compounds in the dried textile sludge, which may contribute to energy saving during the ceramic firing stage. In relation to the environmental analysis, it can be concluded that this waste can be used as by-product for traditional ceramics industries without causing significant damage to the environment.
13. Challenges on waste-to-energy for the valorization of industrial wastes: Electricity, heat and cold, bioliquids and biofuels
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, Volume 17, May 2022, 100615
In light of legislative requirements and circular economy principles, valorization of wastes is the best strategy for its management. The biodegradable fraction of industrial wastes is a sustainable source of biomass, thereby optimizing its management by energy valorization, decreasing the quantity of waste that needs to be managed (and its economic costs), minimizing the environmental impact and health risks, and reducing the high dependence of industries on primary sources and fossil energy. Although traditional biomass sources, such as wood, crops, agricultural and forestry residues, and food and municipal wastes, are renewable, sustainable and cost-efficient, they compete with food and their energy processes release waste into the environment. Waste to Energy (WtE) is a recent, efficient and sustainable method of waste management based on the idea that energy sustainability involves both sustainable energy sources and sustainable energy systems. This paper reviews studies that propose industrial waste and by-products as sustainable, renewable and unlimited sources of biomass for use in sustainable energy systems to generate electricity, heat and cold, bioliquids and biofuels. The advantages and disadvantages of various types of resources are presented, and their limitations and the challenges that must be overcome are analyzed and compared.
14. Receptor model-oriented sources and risks evaluation of metals in sediments of an industrial affected riverine system in Bangladesh
Science of The Total Environment, Available online 17 May 2022, 156029
Toxic metals in river sediments may represent significant ecological concerns, although there has been limited research on the source-oriented ecological hazards of metals in sediments. Surface sediments from an industrial affected Rupsa River were utilized in this study to conduct a complete investigation of toxic metals with source-specific ecological risk assessment. The findings indicated that the average concentration of Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, As, Cu, Mn and Pb were 50.60 ± 10.97, 53.41 ± 7.76, 3.25 ± 1.73, 147.76 ± 36.78, 6.41 ± 1.85, 59.78 ± 17.77, 832.43 ± 71.56 and 25.64 ± 7.98 mg/kg, respectively and Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn concentration were higher than average shale value. Based on sediment quality guidelines, the mean effective range median (ERM) quotient (1.29) and Mean probable effect level (PEL) quotient (2.18) showed medium-high contamination in sediment. Ecological indexes like toxic risk index (20.73), Nemerow integrated risk index (427.59) and potential ecological risk index (610.66) posed very high sediment pollution. The absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model indicated that Zn (64.21%), Cd (51.58%), Cu (67.32%) and Ni (58.49%) in APCS-MLR model whereas Zn (49.5%), Cd (52.7%), Cu (57.4%) and Ni (44.6%) in PMF model were derived from traffic emission, agricultural activities, industrial source and mixed sources. PMF model-based Nemerow integrated risk index (NIRI) reported that industrial emission posed considerable and high risks for 87.27% and 12.72% of sediment samples. This work will provide a model-based guidelines for identifying and assessing metal sources which would be suitable for mitigating future pollution hazards in Riverine sediments in Bangladesh.
15. Recent advances on industrial solid waste catalysts for improving the quality of bio-oil from biomass catalytic cracking: A review
Fuel, Volume 315, 1 May 2022, 123218
In this review, the research progress on the effect of industrial solid waste as catalyst on the quality of bio-oil in the process of biomass pyrolysis. Industrial solid waste contains metals, such as Fe, Al, and K, and has a suitable porous structure and a high specific surface area. The catalysts or catalyst carriers prepared using industrial solid waste as a raw material have appropriate catalytic effects on biomass pyrolysis. For example, industrial solid waste catalysts or catalyst carriers can increase the yield of bio-oil, effectively improve the quality of bio-oil by increasing its calorific value and reducing its O content, acidity, and viscosity, and improve the feasibility of bio-oil as a liquid fuel. Catalytic pyrolysis can increase the contents of phenols, aromatics, and olefins in the bio-oil and facilitate the application of this oil in the chemical industry. Herein, the progress in the synthesis of high-quality bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis catalyzed by industrial solid waste was reviewed from the aspects of biomass pyrolysis mechanism and reaction pathway, catalytic pyrolysis conversion mechanism, and product regulation mechanism. Moreover, the pyrolysis characteristics, product composition, and conversion mechanism of biomass during catalytic pyrolysis were elucidated, and the future development direction was prospected to provide a basis and reference for the efficient conversion and utilization of biomass. The results of this review show that industrial solid waste is used as a catalyst in the process of biomass pyrolysis, which can effectively improve the quality of bio-oil. This method is a simple and efficient way of resource utilization of industrial solid waste. It can realize effective industrial solid waste management and reduce dependence on fossil fuels, so as to ensure national energy security.
16. Influence of seasonal variability on source characteristics of VOCs at Houston industrial area
Atmospheric Environment, Volume 277, 15 May 2022, 119077
We studied the seasonal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Houston metropolitan area in the summertime and wintertime of 2018. The analysis of hourly measurements obtained from the automated gas chromatograph (auto-GC) network showed the total VOC average concentrations of 28.68 ppbC in the summertime and 33.81 ppbC in the wintertime. The largest contributions came from alkane compounds, which accounted for 61% and 82% of VOCs in the summer and winter, respectively. We performed principal component analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and identified seven factors in the summertime and six factors in the wintertime, among which alkane species formed three factors according to their rate of reactions in both seasons: (1) the emissions of long-lived tracers from oil and natural gas (ONG long-lived species), (2) fuel evaporation, and (3) the emissions of short-lived tracers from oil and natural gas (ONG short-lived species). Two other similar factors were (4) emissions of aromatic compounds and (5) alkene species of ethylene and propylene. Summertime factor 6 was associated with acetylene, and one extra summertime factor 7 was influenced by the biogenic emissions. The factor 6 of wintertime was affected by vehicle exhaust. Higher nighttime and lower daytime values of the ethylene/acetylene ratios indicated a stronger rate of photochemical degradation during the summertime. Higher reactivities of alkenes and aromatics with radicals make seasonal differences of these compounds less variant. Also, the exploration of the photochemical processes of the VOCs showed that the ethylene and propylene had the highest contributions to the summertime and wintertime ozone formation as well as the emissions of the isoprene, which showed a high impact on summertime ozone. Our results acknowledged that ethylene and propylene continue to be significant emissions of VOCs, and their emissions control would help the mitigation of the ozone problem in downwind areas related to emissions at the Houston Ship Channel (HSC). Based on trajectory analysis, we localized the main VOC emission sources in HSC near local industrial areas and regions south of the HSC. Ambient concentrations of VOC in both seasons revealed compounds that measured at the HSC were influenced by the emissions from the petrochemical sectors and industrial complexes, especially from the Baytown refinery and Bayport industrial district next to the HSC and Galveston Bay refineries at the south of the study area.
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