Về quản lý môi trường
- Phân tích hiệu quả và cơ cấu tiêu thụ năng lượng trong lĩnh vực công nghiệp ở các nước thuộc Liên minh Châu Âu từ năm 1995 đến 2019.
- Một cách tiếp cận mới cho các nghiên cứu xu hướng chất lượng không khí và ứng dụng của nó vào môi trường đô thị châu Âu: Dự án ICARUS.
- Đánh giá tình trạng xả rác bừa bãi trong môi trường đô thị và hàm ý chính sách: Trường hợp của Bangkok.
- Các chính sách và quy định về môi trường được kết hợp vào quản lý chuỗi cung ứng năng lượng sinh học: Một đánh giá tài liệu.
- Quy định về môi trường và quản lý thu nhập thực tế - Bằng chứng từ hệ thống buôn bán khí thải SO2 ở Trung Quốc.
- Tác động của quản lý nguồn nhân lực xanh và sự hỗ trợ của tổ chức đối với môi trường đối với kết quả của nhân viên khách sạn xanh và không xanh.
- Tác động của Công nghiệp 4.0 đối với tính bền vững môi trường doanh nghiệp: So sánh nhận thức của các học viên từ Trung Quốc, Brazil và Đức.
- Ảnh hưởng của các quy định về môi trường đối với năng suất tổng yếu tố xanh trong ngành công nghiệp của Trung Quốc.
- Những lo ngại về môi trường, bất bình đẳng thu nhập và việc mua các sản phẩm thân thiện với môi trường: Một nghiên cứu dài hạn về các quận của Hoa Kỳ (2010-2017).
Về môi trường đô thị
- Đánh giá rủi ro môi trường về tiềm năng "Bom hẹn giờ hóa học” của các nguyên tố đất hiếm kiểu hấp phụ ion trong các khu vực đô thị.
- Đóng góp của các khu chức năng đô thị vào sự phân bố không gian của môi trường nhiệt đô thị.
- Tác động về mặt không gian của quá trình chuyển đổi đất sinh thái đô thị sang thay đổi môi trường nhiệt trong quá trình tích tụ đô thị lớn.
- Mô phỏng toàn diện khả năng gánh chịu tài nguyên và môi trường đối với quá trình tích tụ đô thị: Phương pháp tiếp cận động lực học hệ thống.
- Suy nghĩ lại về mật độ đô thị, sức sống và môi trường trong lành ở thành phố hậu đại dịch: Trường hợp của Istanbul.
- Vai trò của cơ sở hạ tầng xanh xanh trong môi trường nhiệt đô thị qua các mùa và các vùng khí hậu địa phương ở Đông Phi.
- Đánh giá tác động của các cảnh quan đô thị khác nhau và các mô hình môi trường xây dựng đối với tiện nghi nhiệt và ô nhiễm không khí ở thành phố Erzurum, Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.
- Làm thế nào để đánh giá mức độ phù hợp động giữa mô hình cảnh quan và môi trường nhiệt đối với quá trình kết tụ đô thị?
- Liệu nhựa sinh học và vỉa hè trong suốt có thể cải thiện môi trường đô thị? Điều tra quang nhiệt tại hiện trường và đánh giá vòng đời.
- Khám phá cấu trúc cảnh quan mong muốn để giảm nhiệt đô thị: Phương pháp tiếp cận độ dốc thành thị-nông thôn cho một thành phố cổ của Trung Quốc.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe trong bầu khí quyển gần khu phức hợp công nghiệp hóa dầu: Đo khả năng oxy hóa và gánh nặng oxy hóa.
- Nồng độ thủy ngân trong trầm tích thay đổi do phản ứng của hoạt động công nghiệp gia tăng ở Vịnh Coronel, Chile.
- Độ bền cắt, khả năng thấm nước và cấu trúc vi mô của bùn đô thị biến tính dựa trên chất thải rắn công nghiệp có chứa canxi được sử dụng làm vật liệu che phủ bãi chôn lấp.
- Nghiên cứu khám nghiệm tử thi màng để xác định đặc điểm kiểu tắc nghẽn của màng RO được sử dụng trong nhà máy tái sử dụng nước thải khu công nghiệp.
- Số lượng vi khuẩn dập tắt được phân lập từ bùn nước thải công nghiệp để kiểm soát quá trình tạo màng sinh học.
- Đặc điểm ô nhiễm và tối ưu hóa tường ngăn thẳng đứng tại một khu công nghiệp bị ô nhiễm ở Trung Quốc.
- Phương pháp đánh giá rủi ro đối với hậu quả tai nạn công nghiệp và tính dễ bị tổn thương của con người ở các khu vực đô thị.
- Điều tra tổng hợp về sự phân bố kim loại nặng, các nguồn và đánh giá rủi ro của đất ở các khu vực công nghiệp thường phát triển.
- Đánh giá tổng hợp về năng lượng, kinh tế và biến đổi khí hậu của máy bơm nhiệt để thu hồi nhiệt thải công nghiệp.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Analysis of the efficiency and structure of energy consumption in the industrial sector in the European Union countries between 1995 and 2019
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 808, 20 February 2022, 152052
The industrial sector is one of the most important sectors of the global economy, having a huge impact on the development of individual countries and regions. This sector covers a wide and diverse range of activities, which makes it of key importance for the economy of the European Union (EU) countries. As a result, the processes related to energy transformation and climate policy are increasingly connected with the sector in question. The need to improve the competitiveness of the economy and the implementation of climate and energy strategies means that this sector, like the entire EU economy, must rapidly enhance its energy efficiency and the structure of energy consumption. The following paper addresses this problem by presenting the results of a comprehensive study of the structure and volume of energy consumed by this sector in the period between 1995 and 2019. Based on this study, quantitative changes and the structure of energy consumed in this sector in the studied period were determined for the entire EU and its individual countries. The use of the Gini coefficient and the Lorenz curves allowed for the determination of the inequality of energy consumption in the industrial sector. The coefficients of variation and the dynamics of changes in energy consumption, both in total and from individual sources, for the EU countries were also determined. The aim of this part of the study was to indicate directions and the intensity of changes related to the structure and consumption of energy in this sector. In the next stage, groups of similar countries were created and compared in terms of the structure of energy consumed by the industrial sector in 1995 and 2019 (using the Kohonen's neural network). Relationships between the amount of energy consumed by the industrial sector in the entire EU and the basic economic and climate parameters of the economy were also delineated. The energy intensity of this sector and the dynamics of its changes in individual EU countries over the analyzed period were also specified. The results proved a great diversity of the EU countries and the improving energy efficiency and structure of energy consumed by the industrial sector. The research, together with its results, significantly broaden the knowledge of changes in the volume and structure of energy consumption in the industrial sector for the EU countries. The results make it possible to assess the actions of individual countries and the current state of implementation of EU climate and energy policy. They should also be used to develop future assumptions of this policy.
2. Deep learning-based waste detection in natural and urban environments
Waste Management, Volume 138, 1 February 2022, Pages 274-284
Waste pollution is one of the most significant environmental issues in the modern world. The importance of recycling is well known, both for economic and ecological reasons, and the industry demands high efficiency. Current studies towards automatic waste detection are hardly comparable due to the lack of benchmarks and widely accepted standards regarding the used metrics and data. Those problems are addressed in this article by providing a critical analysis of over ten existing waste datasets and a brief but constructive review of the existing Deep Learning-based waste detection approaches. This article collects and summarizes previous studies and provides the results of authors’ experiments on the presented datasets, all intended to create a first replicable baseline for litter detection. Moreover, new benchmark datasets detect-waste and classify-waste are proposed that are merged collections from the above-mentioned open-source datasets with unified annotations covering all possible waste categories: bio, glass, metal and plastic, non-recyclable, other, paper, and unknown. Finally, a two-stage detector for litter localization and classification is presented. EfficientDet-D2 is used to localize litter, and EfficientNet-B2 to classify the detected waste into seven categories. The classifier is trained in a semi-supervised fashion making the use of unlabeled images. The proposed approach achieves up to 70% of average precision in waste detection and around 75% of classification accuracy on the test dataset. The code and annotations used in the studies are publicly available online1.
3. A novel approach for air quality trend studies and its application to european urban environments: The ICARUS project
Atmospheric Environment, Volume 273, 15 March 2022, 118973
Future climatic change is expected to have a significant impact on local scale air quality. The quantification of such an impact is not a straightforward task if one takes into consideration the inherent uncertainties due to lack of accurate enough input data. It is more reliable to look for trends rather than absolute values on the relevant parameterization.In the frame of the European Project ICARUS, the present study aims at providing heat-wave and concentrations trends for the period 2001-2050, following the moderate Representative-Concentration-Pathway (RCP4.5), on major air pollutants (PM10,PM2.5,NO2,O3) in Europe, focusing on nine cities: Athens, Basel, Brno, Copenhagen/Roskilde, Ljubljana, Madrid, Milan, Stuttgart and Thessaloniki. A novel approach, based on weather clustering is inaugurated to study climate change by inducing air quality trends, allowing to introduce proper trend indicators and focus on targeted weather and air quality local simulations. The adopted clustering approach has been applied utilizing daily weather data of 50-year period (2001-2050).The detailed weather data were obtained from the Coordinated-Regional-Climate-Downscaling-Experiment (CORDEX).The Regional-Climate-Model INERIS-WRF331F data have been selected, using the EUR11 (10km resolution) horizontal domain projection. Representative days have been identified per cluster, per five years period, where a detailed (2x2km) atmospheric modeling has been performed using WRFChem model. Concerning emissions input, the USTUTT High-Resolution (1kmx1km) data produced within ICARUS, have been postprocessed.The study has provided interesting city dependent results, revealing among others the correlation between weather patterns with higher heat-wave events and elevated O3 concentrations strengthening the hypothesis that the greenhouse effect leads to intensification of the atmospheric photochemical activity.
4. Assessing face mask littering in urban environments and policy implications: The case of Bangkok
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 806, Part 4, 1 February 2022, 150952
Face mask usage is one of the preventive measures encouraged worldwide to limit the transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Hence, production and mass use of face masks is on the rise due to the pandemic as well as government rules that mandate citizens to wear face masks. However, the improper disposal of face masks has been polluting the environment with enormous hazardous waste. In this study, a face mask littering assessment in an urbanized environment, Bangkok, was carried out. Three streets in the city were selected and observed for face mask littering for 5 h per day for 42 days. Moreover, a questionnaire from 605 participants was recorded to determine mask handling and disposal practices. The study found a total of 170 single-use face masks within a 13.30 km path. Furthermore, the highest (40) and lowest (17) cumulative litter were recorded on Sunday and Monday, respectively. Buffer analysis at 300 m showed 47% of mask litter was found within five mass transit stations, while 15% are within a single street market. Of 605 respondents, 82.15% used a single-use face mask. Surprisingly, most of them (70.58%) disposed of used face masks in regular bins along with their household waste. The results highlight three policy implications to tackle the growing problem: raising awareness, regulation, and provision of bins designed for used face masks in strategic places and supporting innovations and research for eco-friendly face masks.
5. Uncertainty analysis of ecosystem services and implications for environmental management – An experiment in the Heihe River Basin, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153481
Integrating the economic values of ecosystem services provided by different land uses into decision analysis is critical to achieving effective environmental management in endorheic basins. However, policymaking often ignores the uncertainty related to the variability of parameters in ecosystem service values. To this end, we identified sensitive parameters in the ecosystem service values under four land uses using the global sensitivity analysis method and quantified the potential monetary outcomes based on the Monte Carlo method. The results indicated that only a few sensitive parameters, such as water yield (Qi) and treatment costs per unit of nitrogen (Cost_N), were the primary sources of uncertainty. Therefore, we suggest that improving the precision of sensitive parameters is essential for reducing uncertainty in the total ecosystem service value. Additionally, the overall monetary outcomes for cropland exhibited negative values and had higher risk and lower benefits than those for forest from the standpoint of ecosystem services. In addition, the nonmarketed service of landscape aesthetic made the monetary outcomes of water bodies higher than those of cropland, yet the value of landscape aesthetic was highly uncertain. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve total monetary outcomes by decreasing the negative values in food provisioning of cropland and the uncertainty in landscape aesthetic for water bodies. The sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis provide important guidelines for quantifying and reducing the related uncertainty and provide policy information for environmental management based on a comprehensive consideration of the potential ecosystem service values for various land uses.
6. Analytics capabilities and organizational competitiveness: Unveiling the impact of management control systems and environmental uncertainty
Decision Support Systems, Volume 156, May 2022, 113744
In this study, we investigated how management control systems (MCS) aid in translating analytics capabilities (AC) generated insights into enhanced organizational competitiveness under conditions of environmental uncertainty. The survey data from 405 manufacturing firms offers several unique contributions. First, it reveals that the link between AC and organizational competitiveness is not necessarily direct and may occur through MCS. Thus, it offers interesting insights concerning the mechanisms through which AC can generate value and competitiveness. Second, this study borrows from Simons' [58,59] levers of control (LoC) framework and offers a holistic and more in-depth understanding of the connections between AC, MCS, and organizational competitiveness. Third, by considering the nonlinear moderating role of environmental uncertainty, it offers a response to recent calls for research on the circumstances under which AC-generated insights can lead to organizational competitiveness. It also provides a response to recent calls for further research on AC - MCS relationships. Fourth, the study draws on a dynamic capabilities perspective to analyze how MCS can help translate AC-generated insights into improved organizational competitiveness. While this perspective has proven its worth in the information systems literature, it has received less attention with regards to management control processes.
7. Environmental regulation and real earnings management—Evidence from the SO2 emissions trading system in China
Finance Research Letters, Volume 46, Part B, May 2022, 102418
This study investigates the effect of environmental regulations on the real earnings management and accrual earnings management of firms. Based on China's sulfur dioxide(SO2) emissions trading program, we adopt a difference-in-difference approach and find that the emissions trading program is negatively associated with real earnings management. The negative relation is stronger for firms with high information asymmetry and firms with poor corporate governance. Our findings suggest that market-based environmental regulations such as the cap-and-trade program can indeed incentivize firms to provide better earnings quality even in a weak institutional environment.
8. The incorporated environmental policies and regulations into bioenergy supply chain management: A literature review
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 820, 10 May 2022, 153202
Bioenergy, a means to reach a sustainable economy, is being driven by governments by devising incremental regulations and more instrumental policies in parallel. These constant-changing regulations bring uncertainty to bioenergy supply chain optimization problems. An increasing number of recent studies on bioenergy supply chain optimization addressing environmental concerns have highlighted the need for an overview indispensable. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the incorporated policies and regulations and to examine whether constraints or targets set by governments are fully met in optimizing of bioenergy supply chains. To this end, first, bioenergy policies and regulations enacted in the EU, the global leader in the energy transition, as a benchmark are reviewed based on the bioenergy supply chain steps. Then, the optimization problems employing policies and regulations are classified and discussed. The review reveals visible gaps between what policies demand and what is proposed in the literature, and underpin the regulations which need to be considered in future work. Examination of the literature also suggests that a globally drawn standard may lead to better bioenergy supply chain development considering other green energy developments.
Our key finds are
Many regulations limited to biomass supply management –CAP, GAECs, LULUCF, low ILUC-risk biofuels, and cascading principles –are overlooked.
Instrumental policies, such as FIT, FIP, TGC for electricity, Quota system for transportation, and Tariffs and subsidies for heating and cooling sector, mostly were not incorporated into the models.
Facing the variety and complexity of regulations, it seems conducive to introduce international standards for biomass supply and management.
9. The effects of green human resource management and perceived organizational support for the environment on green and non-green hotel employee outcomes
International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 103, May 2022, 103202
Research about green human resource management and perceived organizational support for the environment in the hospitality and tourism literature is in its development stage. Therefore, our paper tests the interrelationships of green human resource management, perceived organizational support for the environment, work engagement, task-related pro-environmental behavior, and quitting intentions. Data gathered from hotel employees with a time lag of one week in Taiwan were assessed tapping structural equation modeling. The empirical findings offer strong support for hypotheses and suggest that our model is viable. More precisely, green human resource management enhances employees’ perceptions of organizational support for the environment, while perceived organizational support for the environment fosters work engagement and task-related pro-environmental behavior and reduces quitting intentions. Perceived organizational support for the environment and work engagement sequentially mediate the effect of green human resource management on the aforesaid outcomes.
10. Impact of Industry 4.0 on corporate environmental sustainability: Comparing practitioners’ perceptions from China, Brazil and Germany
Sustainable Production and Consumption, Volume 31, May 2022, Pages 287-300
Industrial production needs to be fundamentally transformed if the UN Sustainable Development Goals shall be met. Digital technologies can potentially drive such a sustainable transformation, but two main objectives of environmental sustainability must be considered for achieving this target: decarbonisation and dematerialisation. We empirically investigate the potentials for these two objectives by employing a survey-based approach, investigating companies’ developments in China, Brazil, and Germany, in a variety of industrial sectors, and in companies of different sizes. These cases provide insight on a multi-country perspective into developments in digitalisation in countries with different pre-conditions for digital transformation, which is a novelty to this research field. We show that even though most industrial practitioners expect an improvement of the environmental sustainability of their respective company due to the application of Industry 4.0 technologies, factual improvements in resource efficiency and energy consumption are not expected to develop in a similarly optimistic fashion. These findings challenge the assumed effects of Industry 4.0 discussed in the vast majority of prior literature which expresses high hopes for positive impacts on resource efficiency and energy consumption . This can be interpreted as an indication that Industry 4.0 will not automatically lead to environmental improvements instead this transformation towards a more sustainable economy needs to be accompanied by supporting measures. On the positive side we find that the higher the current Industry 4.0 level of companies, the greater their ability to match their supply with the actual demand and their likelihood for participating in Demand Response schemes. This is an important prerequisite for the stabilisation and efficient use of future renewable energy systems. Our study provides insights to policy makers and practitioners but also fellow researchers regarding current trends in the implementation of Industry 4.0 and in how far they support the transformation towards more sustainability. We conclude that the implementation of the Industry 4.0 concept should always be critically evaluated against the background of the SDGs and must be supplemented by a combination of regulation and incentives through governing bodies, which includes setting binding targets for saving energy and material and reducing non-recyclable waste.
11. Perspectives on food waste management: Prevention and social innovations
Sustainable Production and Consumption, Volume 31, May 2022, Pages 190-208
Food waste is one of the challenging issues humans are facing. A third of the food produced in the world is wasted at various points along the food supply chain. Food waste can be reduced by developing technology that can be utilized in different parts of the food value chain and through education programs that focus on consumers' behavior on healthy lifestyles and sustainable consumption. This article examines the problem of food waste and provides insights into the approaches to food waste management. Different techniques, such as education-based or structure-based, are used to encourage food waste prevention and management. Therefore, highlighting the current development in food waste management becomes important. The paper uses a systematic review that supports screening of the literature to answer the research questions and find the research gaps. According to the findings, food is either thrown out during the supply chain or even at the last stages of preparation and consumption. The review shows that the current food waste management treatment methods may be effective, but they do not provide an environmentally sustainable solution for food waste management. Therefore, the proposed article deeply investigated food waste prevention and social innovations to reduce food waste. This review complements the previous reviews by adding social and economic innovation focus on food waste management. The article recommends a course of action for future food waste management research.
12. The effect of environmental regulation on green total-factor productivity in China's industry
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 94, May 2022, 106757
Employing both the meta-frontier and the non-radial directional distance function methods, we estimate the industrial GTFP and its decomposition from 2000 to 2019 in 30 Chinese provinces. Following this, a dynamic spatial panel model is employed to test the effects of the policy, the mechanisms of action and the channels of two sorts of environmental regulations on GTFP. The results show that, compared with a single policy, a combination of policies is more conducive to GTFP growth. Further analyses of the mechanisms indicate that command-and-control (management) environmental regulations will boost the expansion of GTFP. This is mainly achieved by improving technical efficiency and narrowing the technical gap. Market-based environmental regulations can also accelerate the growth of GTFP, principally through improvements in the advancement of technology and a narrowing of the technological gap Increased GTFP growth can be achieved via these three effects by using a policy mix.
13. How an incineration tax changes waste management practices among firms
Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 180, May 2022, 106172
Sustainable management of industrial plastic waste is crucial in the transition to a circular economy. Today, most industrial plastic waste is incinerated, whereas it could be recycled. As a consequence, governments increasingly make use of incineration taxes to improve current waste management practices. This paper presents an econometric panel analysis that studies the effects of an incineration tax on industrial plastic waste in Flanders (Belgium). Not only is this study the first econometric analysis on industrial plastic waste management in which firm heterogeneity is explicitly taken into account by including firm-specific characteristics, but this study also provides policymakers with insights into the effectiveness of an incineration tax to change current waste management practices. Empirical estimates imply that heterogeneous firms generate industrial plastic waste in different ways and that heterogeneous firms reduce their waste generation in different ways after the incineration tax rate increases. The estimates also show that the unique decrease of the incineration tax in 2007, did not change waste management practices. These estimates show that firms do not disinvest or indicate that loss aversion theory, i.e. a preference for avoiding losses over acquiring equivalent gains, might apply to firms that are faced with environmental taxation in a waste management context.
14. Urban watershed management prioritization using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM-UWMAP), GIS and field survey
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 94, May 2022, 106759
Urban growth when badly planned and poorly sustainable linked with climate change, brings negative impacts to the cities. In the environment, erosion, landslide, floods, water pollution, illegal solid waste disposal, damaged drainage structures with disconnected parts, clandestine sewage or effluent discharge, among others, can be cited as impacts of urbanization. In this context, watersheds can be used as a foundation for urban development with certain scales of prioritization. In literature, the discussion for watershed prioritization was mostly found based only on computational methods and models, and does not include the important influence of field investigation and analysis of the headwaters. This is an option for urban areas, since most urban rivers are considered as headwaters (order 1). Also, erosion and poorly managed drainage systems can be obstructed by vegetation and may not be seen from satellite images. The aim of this work was to integrate on a GIS environment a Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Matrix analysis with data based on basin morphology and field investigation of vegetation, erosion, drainage infrastructure, and presence of solid waste and wastewater in the urban headwaters of a medium size city in Brazil to create an urban watershed management prioritization order. A field survey was carried in 27 urban headwaters and digital analysis of the physical characteristics of the watersheds was using the QSWAT+ tool with SRTM data, land cover and use by MapBiomas and pedology by ITCG. Results showed that higher levels of prioritization (lowest value of the environmental score – es) were most related to poorly managed vegetation, drainage structure problems and urbanization, for example headwaters 2b (es = −390), 3b (es = −330), 4a (es = −354), 5b (es = −346) and 5c (es = −322). On the other hand, when the surroundings were primarily rural activities, the environmental score were positive. With the RIAM map, municipal decision makers may allocate financial resources to points of urgency and thus avoiding the waste of time and money in locations where management was not necessarily as urgent. Also, the RIAM is an excellent diagnostic tool for urban watershed management.
15. Raman technology application for plastic waste management aligned with FAIR principle to support the forthcoming plastic and environment initiatives
Waste Management, Volume 144, 1 May 2022, Pages 479-489
Plastic production and worldwide use of plastic materials have continued to rise due to their convenience and excellent marketing advantages. This is generating an environmental crisis and global scale pollution which is one of the greatest threats to our planet. One of the best responses could be accomplished by improving recycling and waste management strategies. In this paper we conducted Raman analyses of representative stock of plastics aged in terrestrial or aquatic environments spanning in age up to 15 years. We aimed to establish any potential influence of the aging conditions on the Raman signature of specific plastics. This information is further used to build up a Raman logic gate for automatic sorting of plastic waste recovered from environment. Pigments and aging introduced indeed small changes in the Raman signature of the respective plastics. However, we were able to identify unique spectral ranges characteristic for the main plastic types and intensity threshold of fingerprint bands sufficiently strong for building robust Raman barcodes for sorting. Waste plastics Raman data handling and the proposed methodology for sorting complies with the FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) principles of scientific data, being useful for researchers, policymakers and stakeholders. Our spectral characterization of solid plastic waste comes in support of improved waste plastic management and could have economic and environmental positive impact.
16. Environmental concerns, income inequality, and purchase of environmentally-friendly products: A longitudinal study of U.S. counties (2010-2017)
Research Policy, Volume 51, Issue 4, May 2022, 104443
Environmentally-friendly products are being introduced at a rapid pace, making it critical that we understand the conditions that affect the degree to which they are accepted in a market. We investigate how two community characteristics—environmental concerns and income inequality—shape the demand for environmentally-friendly products and how the community influence depends upon the product's degree of visibility. We test our hypotheses by examining conspicuous purchases of electric vehicle (EV) and inconspicuous energy-saving equipment installment for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2017. We find that (1) environmental concerns are positively related to inconspicuous environmentally-friendly purchases only and (2) income inequality negatively affects inconspicuous environmentally-friendly purchases, but has a more positive influence on conspicuous purchases. Moreover, we find a positive interactive effect of environmental concerns and income inequality on inconspicuous environmentally-friendly purchases. Our study provides a more nuanced understanding of how environmental concerns and income inequality influence the acceptance of environmentally-friendly products. These findings can inform the management of policies related to environmental protection and eco-innovations, calling for attention to these community characteristics as well as the important attribute of environmentally-friendly product—i.e., visibility.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Environmental risk assessment of the potential "Chemical Time Bomb” of ion-adsorption type rare earth elements in urban areas
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 822, 20 May 2022, 153305
Ion-adsorption type rare earth elements (REEs) located in tropical and subtropical zones have abundant movable and bioavailable ion-exchangeable REEs and could be an environmental hazard. However, our understanding of their environmental risk in urban areas is limited. We aimed to determine whether ion-adsorption type REEs in Guangzhou represent a kind of potential "Chemical Time Bomb” (CTB) and assess the environmental risk. We conducted a comprehensive survey of REEs in 181 samples including regolith (n = 70), surface water (n = 55), sediment (n = 25), vegetables (n = 22) and rhizosphere soil (n = 9), collected from five regions around Guangzhou, as a representative city of ion-adsorption type REEs in tropical and subtropical zones. The existing environmental risk was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of REEs through vegetable consumption, and leaching simulation experiments were used to discuss the factors affecting the long-term stability of REEs. The average REEs concentrations (ΣREEs) in the regolith and sediment were 458.5 and 218.6 μg·g−1, respectively, which were higher than the background values of regolith (197.3 μg·g−1) and sediment (173.3 μg·g−1), and large proportions of ion-exchangeable REEs were observed in regolith and sediment, indicating that ion-adsorption type REEs in Guangzhou are a kind of potential CTB. The average ΣREEs in surface water (3.9 μg·L−1), rhizosphere soil (466.9 μg·g−1) and vegetables (25.0 μg·g−1·dw) suggest that REEs have migrated to the supergene environment even organisms. The average EDI (55.4 μg·kg−1·d−1) close to the safety limitation (70 μg·kg−1·d−1) suggests that the existing health risk is very worrisome. Human factors, including acid rain, mining and farming, probably ignite the CTB, causing the release of REEs to the urban environment on a large scale. This prospective study demonstrated that REEs exposure problems in urban areas of ion-adsorption type REEs should not be ignored.
2. Projected urban exposure to extreme precipitation over South Asia
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 822, 20 May 2022, 153664
Urbanization is one of the pivotal aspects of socioeconomic advancement which is critically vulnerable to climatic extremes. Extreme precipitation and urbanization are largely interlinked. Estimating the extreme precipitation-induced urban area exposure is the fundamental aspect of urban risk assessment for precipitation-related floods. In this study, future urban area exposure to extreme precipitation and associated influential factors are investigated over South Asia under 1.5 °C, 2.0 °C, 3.0 °C, and 4.0 °C global warming thresholds. In this regard, we used newly released 20 up-to-date climate models outputs, and five Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) based urban land-use products under four combined scenarios of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and Representative Concentration Pathways (SSP1–2.6, SSP2–4.5, SSP3–7.0, and SSP5–8.5) from the sixth phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Extreme precipitation is characterized by adopting 20-, 50-, and 100-year return periods of annual maximum daily precipitation. Results reveal a massive urban area expansion over South Asia which is the utmost by 186.4% under SSP3–7.0 than the reference period (1995–2014). The variations in projected urban areas mainly occur in Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region among scenarios. In relative terms, extreme precipitation frequency and associated urban area exposure are prospective to increase with continued global warming. The exposed urban area varies 4.5- to 7.4-fold higher under different warming thresholds than the reference period. The leading increase is estimated (7.4-fold) under 4.0 °C. Notably, for global warming targets set out by the Paris Agreement (1.5 °C, and 2.0 °C), exposed urban area is intended to be 10.2% higher under 2.0 °C than 1.5 °C. Spatially, the exposed urban area will be dominant in the southeast region relative to the reference period. Importantly, the interaction effect (simultaneous change in climate-urban land) is the principal contributor to the changes in urban area exposure to extreme precipitation over South Asia. However, this study's findings strongly support the accomplishment of the Paris Agreement target and provide a scientific basis for formulating urban land-use policy interventions.
3. Urban form centrality and thermal environment: An empirical study of Chinese megacities
Sustainable Cities and Society, Available online 20 May 2022, 103955
This paper examines the response of the urban thermal environment to the centrality of urban spatial development. By investigating 27 cases of Chinese megacities, the study quantified the urban form centrality and the spatial pattern of land surface temperature (LST) within built-up areas. Specifically, urban form centrality was measured using the concentric-ring partitioning model, and the landscape metrics and Moran's I were employed to characterize the LST pattern. Then, the correlation between urban form centrality and the LST pattern was examined through ordinary least squares models and global and local bivariate Moran's I. There are three significant findings. First, the urban form centrality dominates the LST centrality along the urban-rural gradient. Second, stably concentric urban forms were inclined toward shape agglomerative and autocorrelated hot areas. Third, enhancing the intensity and reducing the stability of the urban form centrality are preferable to mitigate the urban thermal environment. Fourth, the green space should be embedded around the edge of the built-up area to increase the energy exchange surface. In general, this study has developed a nuanced understanding of the urban form and urban thermal environment and provide climate change adoption strategies for urban planning and public health policies.
4. Contribution of urban functional zones to the spatial distribution of urban thermal environment
Building and Environment, Volume 216, 15 May 2022, 109000
With the accelerated rate of urbanization, reasonable identification of urban functional zones has been increasingly important to urban development. In this study, we used OpenStreetMap and point of interest data combined with the classification standard of urban construction land, to identify the urban functional zones. In addition, Landsat 8 remote sensing images were utilized to retrieve land surface temperature, and the random forest algorithm was used to evaluate the contribution of different types of urban functional zones to the urban thermal environment. The results showed that the land surface temperature along Hunhe River in the central area of Shenyang gradually decreased. The temperature was high in the center of the experimental area and low in the north and south. Furthermore, in the main city zone of Shenyang, single functional zones accounted for 65.71% of the total study area, whereas mixed functional zones accounted for 34.29%. Among the various types of urban land, public service facility land contributed the most to the urban thermal environment with an impact of 21.65%, followed by residential, industrial, and commercial service facility lands, with impacts of 19.89%, 18.44%, and 17.58%, respectively. Additionally, the impact of road traffic land was 14.92%, whereas that of green square land was the lowest at 7.51%, 14.14% lower than that of public service facility land.
5. Spatiotemporal effects of urban ecological land transitions to thermal environment change in mega-urban agglomeration
Science of The Total Environment, Available online 21 May 2022, 156158
Urban ecological land transitions (UELTs) have far-reaching effects on the thermal environment, but their dynamic effects in urban agglomerations remain poorly understood. This study defines the UELT concept and quantifies its spatiotemporal effects and driving mechanisms on land surface temperature interdecadal variations (LSTIVs) in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area using remote sensing, fuzzy overlay, shape-weighted landscape evolution index, and Geodetector methods. The results showed that UELTs shifted from degradation, increasing pressure, and decreasing vegetation proportion in the central city to scattered restoration, pressure relief, and increasing vegetation proportion in 2010–2020. LSTIVs simultaneously transitioned from rapid growth and contiguous expansion to reduction and dispersion. Moreover, the contribution of UELTs to LSTIVs increased by 19.49% from 2000 to 2020, and gradually shifted from being driven by dominant transition (isolating and adjacent degradation) (mean q = 0.58) to recessive transition (increased population and construction land pressure) (mean q = 0.62), where q is the determinant power. Interactions between edge-expansion and infilling restoration with the blue–green ratio (BGR; i.e., ratio of waterbodies to vegetation), habitat quality, and population layout had significant effects on LSTIVs. In addition, the relative magnitude of the effect of UEL restoration–degradation and BGR on LSTIVs was not fixed, but rather related to their interaction effect and the urban agglomeration development stage. Therefore, in addition to promoting an increase in UEL, optimizing the landscape structure of UEL (e.g., increasing aggregation and connectivity, adjusting BGR) and UEL distribution with other human factors are also crucial to reduce the urban thermal environment.
6. Comprehensive simulation of resources and environment carrying capacity for urban agglomeration: A system dynamics approach
Ecological Indicators, Volume 138, May 2022, 108874
Resources and environment carrying capacity (RECC) is an important concept for regional and urban sustainable development. This study constructs a comprehensive RECC indicator and a system dynamics (SD) model to simulate its historical conditions and future scenarios, stressing the nexus between the socio-economic and eco-environmental factors. This methodology is applied to Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban agglomeration (BTH) for the period of 2000–2030. The results show that, in the business-as-usual scenario, BTH’s RECC will present an "S” curve and increase from 100.26 million in 2000 to 129.65 million in 2030. Although it is greatly improved, the risk of population overload will increase, especially in Beijing, Baoding and Langfang city. Moreover, water resources carrying capacity will be the key constraining factor of RECC for BTH and its most cities. Compared with the economic-oriented and ecological-oriented development mode, to maintain the "business-as-usual” development mode is recommended for the whole BTH. However, the south-central cities should take the ecological-oriented development mode to overcome population overload. This research presents a framework to assess RECC under different scenarios for urban agglomeration. The results might provide an important guidance for sustainable urban planning and coupled human-environment system analysis.
7. Rethinking urban density, vitality and healthy environment in the post-pandemic city: The case of Istanbul
Cities, Volume 124, May 2022, 103598
The present study aims to examine the relationship between urban vitality, healthy environment and density through the city of Istanbul, which is going through the Covid-19 outbreak. In this context, an online survey was conducted to measure the assessments of the residents living in districts with different density categories regarding the neighborhoods and the city they live in. The evaluations made by the citizens in the dimensions of vitality, mobility, safety, healthiness, cleanliness, orderliness were reduced to two main factors as "urban vitality” and "healthy environment” using Principal Components Analysis. Then, the evaluations regarding these six variables and two factors were subjected to cross-inquiries with the personal, residential and district characteristics. Urban residents were also asked to evaluate the city life before and after the Covid-19 outbreak. The main findings of the study reveal that there is a statistically significant difference between the density levels of the districts in terms of the perception of urban vitality and some sub-variables of healthy environment. Also, there is an observed change in the thoughts about urban life in Istanbul due to the outbreak.
8. The role of blue green infrastructure in the urban thermal environment across seasons and local climate zones in East Africa
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 80, May 2022, 103798
Rapid urbanisation and climate change are two major trends in Africa in need of further investigation. In this paper, the urban thermal environment and vegetation abundance in four East African cities (Khartoum, Addis Ababa, Kampala and Dar es Salaam) were characterised, providing new insights into the role and potentials of blue green infrastructure in differing climate regions. The Local Climate Zone (LCZ) framework was employed to detect the seasonal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from Landsat-8 data. Significant LST differences between LCZs in dry and rainy seasons were confirmed using a Welch's T test. The LCZs were found to offer potentially new approaches to investigating issues pertaining to urban heating in data-scarce regions. Greater surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensity during the rainy season was apparent in Khartoum and Addis Ababa, emphasising the importance of seasonality in urban thermal studies. Spatial correlations between EVI and LST within each LCZ were analysed through Moran's I and further illustrated the complex relationships of vegetation and thermal behaviour in urban areas. Despite these complexities, urban blue green infrastructure was found to moderate the SUHI, with different types of intervention required across different LCZs.
9. Assessing the effects of different urban landscapes and built environment patterns on thermal comfort and air pollution in Erzurum city, Turkey
Building and Environment, Available online 21 May 2022, 109210
Urban environmental issues have a negative impact on urban quality of life in cities. Erzurum city is a very special place in the world because it has a very high altitude, harsh, long winter period, and high air pollution that affects the human thermal comfort sensation and the quality of life negatively. The purpose of this research is to assess the effects of different landscapes and built environmental patterns on thermal comfort and air pollution. The urban microclimate factors were recorded by field measurement weather stations and the air pollution data was collected from Turkish government monitoring stations. The thermal comfort was evaluated by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PETºC) index. The results show that there is an extreme variation in the city's climate during the year. In August, the maximum temperature is 33.0 °C and the maximum average temperature is 23.0 °C, while in December the lowest temperature is −35.0 °C and the maximum average temperature is −11.4 °C. At the Ata Botanical Garden (wooded area) and in rural open areas, the temperature is 13.0 °C lower in the summer and 10.0 °C–15.0 °C lower in the winter than in urban areas. The highest average values (PETºC) were found in the city center (11.2 °C) and wooded areas (10.0 °C), while the lowest average values of PET were found in the open rural area (4.7 °C) in both seasons. Seasonal wetland (7.1 °C) and industrial (9.6 °C) areas experienced moderate thermal comfort. The Taşhan area, located near the city center and surrounded by an industrial zone, is the most polluted in the city. The statistical analysis shows that there is a significant correlation between the Ozone (O3) and the PET ºC values, with R2 = 0.47 in this area. The wooded areas were found to be advantageous in raising thermal comfort and lowering air pollution.
10. How to evaluate the dynamic relevance between landscape pattern and thermal environment on urban agglomeration?
Ecological Indicators, Volume 138, May 2022, 108795
Landscape management and planning is an important way to mitigate climate change. Previous studies have proved landscape pattern (composition and configuration) was correlated to thermal environment based on a single image data in time, but the static results were inconclusive and contradictory. In this study, a framework to investigate the dynamic relevance between landscape pattern change and near surface air temperature (NST) difference was constructed through the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and geospatial methods including landscape metrics. The landscape pattern change of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) urban agglomeration from 2000 to 2020 were examined and their impacts on NST were simulated. Results showed it was dominant that cropland, water and grass land urbanized in the landscape evolution process, which led BTH average NST rise by 0.05℃ and 0.177℃ in January and July, respectively. The dynamic relevance (DR) between landscape composition and configuration and NST of all land classifications over the two decades were investigated quantitatively. Results indicated the DR between the change of landscape pattern and NST in different periods was different and it was seasonal various. DR of composition metric was more significantly correlated than non-area related spatial configuration metrics. In this twenty years, the DR of urban land (UBL) was positive, and it was negative for cropland (CPL). The landscape pattern of water (WTR) was positively correlated with NST in winter and negatively in summer. The DR of green space was an opposite correlation with DR of WTR in winter and summer, due to the newly added green space was mainly transformed from WTR. The dynamic perspective of relevance based on WRF and landscape indicators can enhance the understanding the effects of landscape pattern on thermal environment and provide a methodological framework for evaluating the dynamic relationship of landscape indicators and thermal effects.
11. On the study of the psychological effects of blocked views on dwellers in high dense urban environments
Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 221, May 2022, 104379
This paper studies the effects of neighbourhood views of densely packed high-rise buildings on human perceptions of oppressiveness and noise annoyance. Earlier studies have found that views containing close-by tall buildings would not only negatively affect annoyance induced by road traffic noises but also develop an oppressive feeling. However, there is very limited understanding about the extent to which views blocked by buildings with tight spacing and separation distance affects the responses of oppressiveness and noise annoyance. Moreover, few studies have explored the potential of vertical greening and façade condition on attenuating those responses. This study aimed at formulating multivariate models to predict the probability of evoking perceived oppressiveness and noise annoyance when exposed to blocked views from indoors in a canyon-like setting conditioned by those spatial and façade attributes at road traffic noise levels between 55 and 65 dBA. Sixteen audio-visual composite scenarios were presented to 53 participants through immersive virtual reality for annoyance and oppressiveness ratings. The results showed that the probability of high noise annoyance responses could be significantly lowered with a larger separation distance, the presence of vertical greening, and maintenance on building façades. In addition, decreasing noise level, increasing separation distance, presence of building spacing, vertical greening and well-maintained building façades were likely to reduce oppressive feeling. Further, the model revealed that participants had higher sensitivity to vertical greening than to the openness of view when perceiving noise annoyance. The effect of separation distance was significantly stronger on perceived oppressiveness than on noise annoyance.
12. Could a bio-resin and transparent pavement improve the urban environment? An in field thermo-optical investigation and life-cycle assessment
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 79, April 2022, 103597
Pavements affect the urban microclimate and the overall quality of the outdoor environment. Cool pavements, in particular, can guarantee lower surface temperature than conventional ones, e.g. asphalt and concrete. These solutions often comprise reflective coatings placed above existing pavements or more complex configurations, i.e. evaporative and heat harvesting solutions. This study investigates in-field the thermo-optical profiles of cool paving systems made with a novel modified epoxy resin binder. Unlike classic binders, the presented binder is transparent and, when combined with the proper aggregate minimizes its contribution to local surface overheating phenomena. The two novel fields presented herein were found to maintain up to 9.2 °C and 6.4 °C lower surface temperature during daytime and up to 8.4 °C and 4.6 °C lower surface temperature during nighttime as compared to the asphalt and concrete fields, respectively. A cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment showed that the novel binders may also decrease pavements’ footprint on human health and ecosystems, while the application of a CO off-set model showed their good potentiality to decrease the corresponding emissions. The novel binders, that unlike typical cool paving applications are an integral part of the pavement, are ready to be integrated in real life applications.
13. A dark target Kalman filter algorithm for aerosol property retrievals in urban environment using multispectral images
Urban Climate, Volume 43, May 2022, 101135
Natural and anthropogenic aerosol atmospheric emissions play a fundamental role in directly modulating the incoming solar radiation and affecting the air quality, especially in large metropolitan regions. Likewise, aerosols indirectly impact cloud lifetime, atmospheric column thermodynamics and precipitation patterns. For these reasons, it is of particular importance to assess the aerosol spatial and temporal variability in the first instance to reduce the associated global climate models uncertainty to correctly forecasting future scenarios and then to react fast in applying mitigation strategies. In this paper, an aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithm for high-spatial resolution images in the blue wavelength range for urban environments is developed for the first time. The proposed approach is completely blind because does not use look-up-tables or complex radiative transfer models, which require the setting/estimation of many parameters. The multi-wavelength (exploiting the coastal and the blue bands) AOD retrieval permits to retrieve also important aerosol micro-physical properties, e.g., the size. The proposed method leverages on the use of Kalman filters to deal with the unavoidable sensor's noise improving the accuracy of the estimation of the AOD. The approach is assessed on four different test cases acquired by Landsat 8 involving two metropolitan areas. A strong agreement to ground-based AERONET measurements is observed on several performance metrics. Clear advantages in comparison with the baseline approach relied upon the simple inversion of the explored model are pointed out.
14. Associations of park features with park use and park-based physical activity in an urban environment in Asia: A cross-sectional study
Health & Place, Volume 75, May 2022, 102790
Park use is associated with health, yet our understanding of park features related to their use is limited. Singapore's parks were audited for 30 micro-features, then geospatial analysis characterized micro-features scores for parks nearest to participants' homes. Adults (3,435) reported their park use and park-based physical activity. Using linear regression models, we found living near a park with higher micro-features scores was associated with more time in parks and park-based physical activity. Specific micro-features were associated with more park time (wildlife areas, water features, forested areas, unpaved trails (2–2.6 h/month, p < 0.05)) and with physical activity in parks (water features, forested areas, large playground, open green spaces (1.8–2.2 h/month, p < 0.05)). These findings could inform parks planning to support population-health.
15. Rapid urbanization and climate change significantly contribute to worsening urban human thermal comfort: A national 183-city, 26-year study in China
Urban Climate, Volume 43, May 2022, 101154
Urban residents are gradually being exposed to increasing urban high temperatures and extreme heatwave events under rapid urbanization and global warming. Although there is an increase in air and surface temperatures observed, spatiotemporal changes in urban human thermal comfort and their drivers are rarely considered when assessing the urban thermal environment, especially at a national scale in China. Based on weather stations, we combined daily meteorological data, including air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, and humidity, to comprehensively assess the annual dynamics of urban thermal comfort and their relationship with rapid urbanization and climate change in 183 Chinese cities from 1990 to 2016. Our results show that urban air temperature and solar radiation have increased, and urban humidity and wind speed have decreased at the national scale. Following these changes, urban residents' thermal comfort is deteriorating, with physiological equivalent temperature and uncomfortable days increasing in 68% and 59% of cities, respectively, during summer in China, predominantly located in temperate monsoon and continental climatic zones. The worsening of urban thermal comfort was largely explained by climate change, and rapid urbanization contributed 10.9% in our study. Climate change (e.g., global warming, precipitation, and wind speed decrease) and rapid urbanization had positive effects (P < 0.05) on the deteriorative urban thermal environment. Our findings could enrich the knowledge on spatiotemporal changes in the urban thermal environment under climate change and rapid urbanization.
16. Discover the desirable landscape structure for mitigating urban heat: The urban-rural gradient approach for an ancient Chinese city
Cities, Available online 14 May 2022, 103737
Urban heat is one of the most prominent challenges of urbanization. The nature of extraordinarily spatially heterogeneous landscape in cities may provide nature-based solutions to solving the urban heat problems. Here we aimed to discover the most desirable landscape structure vividly demonstrated in urban areas that we can adopt for heat mitigation. We conducted our study in Xi'an, an ancient capital of China, using land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from Landsat8, landscape features interpreted from SPOT6 along with the urban-rural gradient. We found that large LST variability (as high as 18.11 °C) existed within the same urban intensity (UI) and it is very promising to see that potential of heat mitigation broadened with increasing urbanization. This is very likely thanks to the archaic urban design of Xi'an, which incorporates and preserves the wisdom of the ancients in the urban landscape layout. We revealed two landscape composition associated desirable cooling landscape structure models (i.e., the enhancement of blue spaces and the enhancement of green spaces) generally applicable for all urban environments, and three landscape configuration related desirable cooling models, that are the complex grey infrastructure model, the aggregated green space model, and the connected and regular model of both grey and green infrastructures, which can be exquisitely adopted at low, high and intermediate urban intensity gradients.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. A combined experimental and numerical study of coal briquettes pyrolysis using recycled gas in an industrial scale pyrolyser
Powder Technology, Volume 404, May 2022, 117477
Low-rank coal pyrolysis plays a significant role in clean coal utilisation in various coal-based industries. Using recycled gas or exhaust gas as heat carrier in the pyrolyser is a promising way for improving its energy efficiency and reducing carbon emission. In this study, an experimental and numerical combined study is conducted to cost-effectively investigate the effect of utilising the recycled gas on coal pyrolysis in an industrial scale gas-heat-carrier pyrolyser. First, a lab-scale two-stage pyrolyser is employed to pyrolyze the low-rank coal samples to obtain the gas products composition. The experimental results are subsequently used in the CFD pyrolyser model as operating conditions to simulate the pyrolysis process of utilising the recycled gas as the heating carrier gas in an industrial scale pyrolyser. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena evolution during the pyrolysis are illustrated, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and pyrolysis characteristics. The effects of two carrier gases – hydrocarbon-rich recycled gas and CO2-rich exhaust gas are examined and compared on the pyrolysis performance. The results indicate that compared to the exhaust gas, the employment of the pre-heated recycled gas as the heat carrier could significantly reduce the direct carbon emission (58%); improve pyrolysis efficiency (33%) and produce more valuable hydrocarbon gases (71.4%).
2. Two-Stage Cooperative/Non-Cooperative Game DEA Model with Decision Preference: A Case of Chinese Industrial System
Big Data Research, Volume 28, 28 May 2022, 100303
Decision preference, the most common constraint in the decision-making process, is essential in efficiency evaluation and decision making. Therefore, quantitatively setting the weight of decision-making preference is critical to the field of data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency research. This study introduces a decision preference between desirable and undesirable outputs, the order and ratio of the decision preference between sub-stages, and constructs a two-stage cooperative/noncooperative game DEA model. The model is used to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the Chinese regional industrial system over the period 2011–2015 from the perspective of a two-stage cooperative/noncooperative game. Research on introducing desirable/undesirable output preference relation constraints reveals the following: (1) In the noncooperative game evaluation framework that considers undesirable outputs, (i) determining a set of common optimal output preference weights can help decision makers verify the initial subjective decision preference or quantitatively set better decision preference weights to obtain more reliable evaluation results, and that (ii) the method of setting the proportion preference weights between stages based on the perspective of output proportion can effectively avoid the efficiency deviation of the input proportion method in the disposal of undesirable outputs. (2) The efficiency of the Chinese industrial system (i) under the non-cooperative game relationship during the study period is mainly affected by low pollution control efficiency components, in conformity to the "Cannikin Law,” and (ii) there are marked differences in the overall efficiency and substage efficiency of China's industries under the cooperative game relationship; and the imbalance in industrial development among regions is significant.
3. The bacterial community structure in epiphytic biofilm on submerged macrophyte Potamogetom crispus L. and its contribution to heavy metal accumulation in an urban industrial area in Hangzhou
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 430, 15 May 2022, 128455
Submerged macrophytes and their epiphytic biofilms are important media for metal transport/transformation in aquatic environment. However, the bacterial community structure and the contribution of the epiphytic biofilm to the heavy metal accumulation remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, water, sediment, submerged macrophyte (Potamogeton crispus L.) and its epiphytic biofilm samples in three sites of the moat in the industrial area of Hangzhou were collected for analyzing. The bacterial community structure was significantly impacted by the TN concentrations, and Genus Aeromonas (24.5–41.8%), Acinetobacter (16.2–29.8%) and Pseudomonas (12.6–23.6%) dominated in all epiphytic biofilm samples, which had the heavy metal pollutant resistibility. The contents of Cr in biofilms (7.4–8.3 mg/kg, DW) were significantly higher than those in leaves (1.0–2.4 mg/kg, DW), while the contents of Cu (11.0–13.9 mg/kg, DW) in leaves were significantly higher than those in biofilms (0.7–3.9 mg/kg, DW) in all the three sites. The BCF values of metals in the biofilm were followed the order of YF < IC < ETS. The results indicated that the epiphytic biofilm had positive effects on the metal bioaccumulation, and the metal accumulation ability increased with the hydrodynamic forces. Bioaccumulation by the epiphytic biofilm may be an effective way for metal (especially Cr) remediation.
4. Health risk assessment in atmosphere near a petrochemical industrial complex: Measuring oxidative potential and oxidative burden
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Available online 18 May 2022, 101457
Particulate matter (PM) can cause hazards associated with air pollution. Oxidative potential (OP) and oxidative burden (OB) can be useful to access health risk. The population living in the area surrounding an industrial complex in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (Brazil) has presented higher frequencies of health impacts, such as thyroid diseases, which highlighted the authors' attention. In the present study, total suspended particles (TSP) and fine PM (PM2.5) were collected between 2015 and 2018. Then, OP and OB related to PM exposure at this industrial complex neighborhood were determined, using newly methods which measure the oxidation of lung antioxidants, glutathione (GHS), and ascorbic acid (AA), and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. TSP samples (2015 mean = 49 ± 21 μg m−3) showed higher concentrations than PM2.5 (2018 mean = 32 ± 18 μg m−3). PM2.5 campaigns presented high OP and OB for ascorbate (AA), and glutathione (GSH), while OP and OB for dithiothreitol (DTT) was higher in TSP. There are associations between OPAA and PM, for both TSP and PM2.5. However, no associations were found for PM and OPGSH and OPDTT indicating that PM concentration did not reflect health risk exposure. The air masses trajectories indicated influences from industrial, vehicular emissions over the years. In conclusion, OP results may reveal critical health risks better than PM mass at the industrial complex region.
5. Sediment mercury concentration changes as a response to increased industrial activity in Coronel Bay, Chile
Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 178, May 2022, 113630
Among the main sources of atmospheric mercury emissions are thermoelectric plants that use coal to generate electricity. This heavy metal is transported by air from its origin to neighboring coastal areas, where it is deposited in the sediment record. This research evaluated the content and temporal distribution of Hg in the coastal sediments of Central Chile, Coronel Bay, industrialized zone with two operative thermoelectric plants, and Coliumo Bay, reference zone free of industry. To this end, sediment cores from the centers of the two bays were obtained. Laboratory results show that the greatest Hg contents were found in the surface strata of the Coronel Bay core, with concentrations up to an order of magnitude greater than those obtained in the same strata in Coliumo Bay. This increase in Hg concentration coincides with the beginning of industrial activity in Coronel, with greater concentrations observed from 2012 on, the year in which the industrial operation of two coal-fired thermoelectric plants on the bay began. Based on 210Pb activity and the relationships between Hg content and organic matter, it was established that the main pathway of Hg to sediment is atmospheric deposition, while Coliumo presented inputs that reflect local non anthropogenic sources.
6. Shear strength, water permeability and microstructure of modified municipal sludge based on industrial solid waste containing calcium used as landfill cover materials
Waste Management, Volume 145, 15 May 2022, Pages 20-28
In order to prepare a new type of landfill covering material for closure, we used industrial calcium-containing waste (slag, desulfurised gypsum and fly ash) to modify the municipal dewatered sludge. Shear, infiltration and rainfall infiltration model tests were performed to obtain the shear strength parameters of the modified sludge, the hydraulic conductivity during the wet-dry cycle, and the service performance against rainfall breakdown to evaluate the service performance of the modified sludge cover (MSC). Comprehensive characterisation of the modified sludge was analysed by XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDS to revealed the mineral structure, microstructure, and modification mechanism of the sludge. The MSC samples had high shear strength and shown the characteristics of evolving from plasticity to brittleness. After curing for 14 d, the values of cohesion c and internal friction angle φ reached 150.75–384.69 kPa and 37.60–57.29°, respectively. The MSC exhibited excellent anti-seepage service performance under dry and wet cycle conditions. Compared with traditional compacted clay, its hydraulic conductivity dropped by an order of magnitude, and after six wet and dry cycles, the hydraulic conductivity of the modified sludge reached stability at 1.4–7.2 × 10−7 cm/s. The 60-cm-thick MSC layer can completely withstand the impact of long-term rainfall during the rainy season in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Analysis results also show that the modification mechanism of the sludge could be ascribed to the generation of dense blocks and clusters of C-S-H and C-A-S-H gels originated from SiO2, Al2O3, and CaO phases in industrial calcium-containing waste and sludge by the activation of the alkali.
7. Membrane autopsy study to characterize fouling type of RO membrane used in an industrial zone wastewater reuse plant
Desalination, Volume 529, 1 May 2022, 115648
In recent years, it has become very important to reuse wastewater as an alternative water source in industrial zones. Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are the most used membrane technology for wastewater reuse due to their remarkable divalent and monovalent ions removal efficiencies. However, membrane fouling is a serious problem in RO plants which hinders the membrane performance and shortens the membrane lifespan. In this study, a detailed membrane autopsy study was carried out in fouled RO membrane to characterize the type of membrane fouling obtained from a full-scale industrial zone wastewater reuse plant in Turkey. The autopsy analysis results of the fouled membrane showed that the membrane surface was covered dominantly by inorganic scaling of CaCO3. Also, there was a remarkable amount of molybdenum (Mo) element on the membrane surface which was attributed to wastewater discharges of automotive industries. Lastly, an appropriate chemical cleaning protocol was proposed. More effective membrane cleaning efficiency was achieved for more acidic agents which was attributed to the presence of inorganic fouling. This study helps to understand the possible fouling formations on the membrane surface used in industrial zone wastewater reuse plants and gives an idea to take necessary precautions for fouling control strategies.
8. Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from industrial wastewater sludge to control membrane biofouling
Bioresource Technology, Volume 352, May 2022, 127077
N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based bacterial communication through quorum sensing (QS) is one of the main causes of biofouling. Although quorum quenching (QQ) has proven to be an effective strategy against biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment, its applicability for industrial wastewater treatment has rarely been studied. This is the first study to isolate QQ strains from the activated sludge used to treat industrial wastewater containing toxic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. The two QQ strains from genus Bacillus (SDC-U1 and SDC-A8) survived and effectively degraded QS signals in the presence of TMAH. They also showed resistance to toxic byproducts of TMAH degradation such as ammonium and formaldehyde. They effectively reduced the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and mixed community of activated sludge. The strains isolated in this study thus have the potential to be employed to reduce membrane biofouling in MBRs during the treatment of TMAH-containing
9. Pollution characteristics and vertical cutoff wall optimization at an industrial contaminated site in China
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 235, 15 April 2022, 113435
Vertical cutoff walls have been widely used in the remediation of contaminated sites. However, determining the best method for evaluating the long-term barrier performance of vertical cutoff walls presents a major difficulty in actual projects. Here, a case study is presented for a typical electroplating, medical, and chemical industrial park in China. Based on the analysis of groundwater pollution characteristics at the site, pollutants included metals (Ni, Al), ammonia nitrogen, and 1,2-dichloroethane. Finite element model simulations of Ni transport at the site showed that a vertical cutoff wall with a thickness of 60 cm and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 × 10−8 cm/s could significantly attenuate pollutant transport in the horizontal direction. Compared with other methods such as reducing the hydraulic conductivity or increasing the adsorption retardation factor of the vertical cutoff wall, increasing the thickness was more effective in controlling pollutant transport at the study site. Doubling the thickness would cause the Ni leakage concentration to decrease by more than 98% and the breakthrough time to increase by more than 47 years. It is recommended that the thickness of cutoff walls be maximized to optimize their effects on pollutant transport.
10. Risk assessment method for industrial accident consequences and human vulnerability in urban areas
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 76, May 2022, 104745
The rapid development of chemistry in the past years has caused not only serious environmental pollution but also other disastrous accidents to certain local areas, especially those densely populated areas. Therefore, to prevent the disastrous consequences of those accidents on vulnerable areas effectively, the local government should determine the sensibility of different regions to potential risks. An integrated risk assessment procedure, which considers accident consequences and the vulnerability of local population, is presented and then applied to a small town in China. In this procedure, a hazard map is obtained from the footprint of regional hazards. The population vulnerability is determined on the basis of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability of residents. Population exposure indicators include population density and dwelling environment. Population sensitivity indicators consist of health status, gender, age, and educational level. Adaptability indicators include emergency supplies, medical resources, and traffic convenience. The ArcGIS mapping software is used to overlay the hazard map and the population vulnerability map to generate a composite risk map. The synthesized human vulnerability index system in combination with regional features, overlapping with possible accident ranges, clarifies the visualization of regional risks. This regional risk map can assess the existing land utilization condition; provide a reference for future land planning, transportation line improvement, and medical service configuration; and benefit emergency plan design and material input.
11. Integrated survey on the heavy metal distribution, sources and risk assessment of soil in a commonly developed industrial area
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 236, 1 May 2022, 113462
The Jiangzhe Area was relatively common area that rely on industrial process for rapid development with serious heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the spatial, vertical and speciation distribution, correlation of heavy metals, as well as assessed pollution and health risks in three representative contamination industries at Jingjiang (electroplating site), Taizhou (e-waste recycling site) and Wenzhou (leather production site) in the Jiangzhe Area. The results indicated that the Cr(VI) pollution was serious in all three sites and there was a tendency to gradually decrease with depth. As for other heavy metals, not only the total concentration, but also the addition of acid soluble and reducible speciation generally decreased with soil depth at Jingjiang and Taizhou sites. Significantly positive correlations supported by correlation analysis were detected between the following elements: Cu-Ni (p < 0.01), Cr(VI)-Ni (p < 0.05) and Cr(VI)-Cu (p < 0.05) at Jingjiang site, Cu-Ni (p < 0.01), Cu-Cd (p < 0.01) and Ni-Cd (p < 0.05) at Taizhou site indicating possibly the same sources and pathways of origin, while the significantly negative correlation of Cd-Ni (p < 0.05) at Wenzhou site meaning the different sources. As regards the pollution assessment of topsoil, the mean PI value indicated that Cr(VI) contaminated severe in all three sites. In general, Jingjiang site was severe pollution (4.06), while Taizhou and Wenzhou (2.27 and 2.66) were moderate pollution, as NIPI value shown. In terms of health risk assessment that received much attention, non-carcinogenic risks caused by Pb contamination were significant for children at Jingjiang and Taizhou sites, with the HI values of 3.42E+ 00 and 2.03E+ 00, respectively. Ni caused unacceptable carcinogenic risk for both adults and children at all three sites. The present study can help to better understand the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in the commonly developed industrial area, and thus to control the environmental quality, so as to truly achieve the goal of "Green Deal objectives ".
12. Combined energetic, economic and climate change assessment of heat pumps for industrial waste heat recovery
Applied Energy, Volume 313, 1 May 2022, 118854
The recovery of waste heat represents a promising opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors. The current development of heat recovery technologies can provide industries with several options for retrofitting their heat generation systems. Although past studies estimated the resulting savings in GHG emissions for specific industries or facilities, work is still needed to fully substantiate the expected benefit and the competitiveness of these alternatives, taking into account data at country scale (e.g. long-term reduction targets, energy cost, etc.). Hence, in this study, a new methodology is developed to determine the minimum conditions for waste heat recovery solutions to enable compliance with the targets from the Paris Agreement, taking 2030 and 2050 as reference years. It is applied to several industrial sectors for 24 EU countries, focusing on mechanical heat pump solutions (MHPs). Results indicate that all countries are compliant in 2050 for MHP integration with low temperature lift (like ammonia production) and 21 countries are compliant for high temperature lift (like food industry). The main constraint to the development of the MHP technology in 2030 is found to be economic, while in 2050, the main barrier for countries that do not reach the reduction targets is a too high carbon intensity of electricity generation. To accommodate the relatively long lifetime of the heat production system, the future MHP roadmap should therefore anticipate these potential barriers including carbon footprint of electricity network, working fluids and gas to electricity price ratio. In addition to meeting the 2030 requirements by a large margin, this strategy would factor in constraints associated with the long-term investments in MHPs. To further expand such foresight analysis, our methodology can be duplicated to other technologies than MHPs, so it can help industry decision-makers select the most suitable waste heat recovery options for a given industrial process in a specific country.
13. Detoxifying SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs from model and real wastewaters by industrial waste-derived multiphase photocatalysts
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 429, 5 May 2022, 128300
The use of antiviral drugs has surged as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in higher concentrations of these pharmaceuticals in wastewater. The degradation efficiency of antiviral drugs in wastewater treatment plants has been reported to be too low due to their hydrophilic nature, and an additional procedure is usually necessary to degrade them completely. Photocatalysis is regarded as one of the most effective processes to degrade antiviral drugs. The present study aims at synthesizing multiphase photocatalysts by a simple calcination of industrial waste from ammonium molybdate production (WU photocatalysts) and its combination with WO3 (WW photocatalysts). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that the presence of multiple crystalline phases in the synthesized photocatalysts. UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra reveal that the synthesized multiphase photocatalysts absorb visible light up to 620 nm. Effects of calcination temperature of industrial waste (550–950 °C) and WO3 content (0–100%) on photocatalytic activity of multiphase photocatalysts (WU and WW) for efficient removal of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs (lopinavir and ritonavir) in model and real wastewaters are studied. The highest k1 value is observed for the photocatalytic removal of ritonavir from model wastewater using WW4 (35.64 ×10–2 min–1). The multiphase photocatalysts exhibit 95% efficiency in the photocatalytic removal of ritonavir within 15 of visible light irradiation. In contrast, 60 min of visible light irradiation is necessary to achieve 95% efficiency in the photocatalytic removal of lopinavir. The ecotoxicity test using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos shows no toxicity for photocatalytically treated ritonavir-containing wastewater, and the contrary trend is observed for photocatalytically treated lopinavir-containing wastewater. The synthesized multiphase photocatalysts can be tested and applied for efficient degradation of other SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs in wastewater in the future.
14. Real-time sensitive detection of Cr (VI) in industrial wastewater and living cells using carbon dot decorated natural kyanite nanoparticles
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Volume 273, 15 May 2022, 121061
This article reports a facile strategy to detect hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) using a naturally formed mineral (kyanite) based fluorometric sensor. Nitrogenous carbon dots have been incorporated into natural kyanite (KYCD) nanoparticles causing a stable bright blue fluorescence compared to its pristine counterpart. This sensing probe structurally stabilizes and resists the agglomeration of carbon dots, thus retaining fluorescence quality for a longer period. The promising bright blue fluorescence has been utilized further to detect Cr (VI) in wastewater and living cells. Ease of synthesis, low cost, and stability of the system offers the benefit for large-scale production, which is convenient for industrial production the sensing probe. The sensor shows high selectivity and sensitivity (LOD and LOQ of 0.11 µM and 0.36 µM respectively in case of linear fitting, whereas 0.26 µM and 0.88 µM respectively for full range plot) towards hexavalent chromium in presence of other interfering elements. A detailed study of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mediated rapid 'turn off' sensing mechanism was carried out using Time-Dependent Density functional (TDDFT) calculations. The sensing efficacy of the probe remains unaltered under a wide range of pH and can be effective in various water types. Onsite sampling and probing of Cr (VI) in tannery wastewater has been performed to validate its real-life efficiency that yields excellent results. The sensor can effectively detect chromium at a cellular level (HeLa cells) in a similar way as the bright blue fluorescence diminishes in presence of the quenching ion. Experimental in vitro studies along with theoretical docking analysis has been conducted to substantiate such issues and a higher possibility of fluorophore binding was found for Isoleucine (2.9 Å), Serine (2.96 Å), and Glycine (3.16 Å). This biocompatible sensor rapidly senses hexavalent chromium in living cells, which makes this efficient probe a true heavy metal-induced carcinogen sensor.
15. A new idea for industrial safety in magnesium grinding: Prevention of hydrogen generation in wet dust collectors
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Available online 10 May 2022, In Press, Corrected ProofWhat are Corrected Proof articles?
Magnesium alloy waste dust particles will be generated during alloy grinding, which undergoes a hydrogen production reaction in wet dust removal systems and introduces the risk of hydrogen explosion. The inhibition of hydrogen evolution from waste ZK61 alloy dust by decyl glucoside (DG) and sodium tungstate (ST) in simulated industrial water was studied. The adsorption of a single inhibitor on ZK61 alloy dust exhibited inefficient inhibition. However, when DG and ST were combined, they synergistically inhibited hydrogen evolution, and the sustained-release rate reached 91.6%. The SEM, XRD, FT-IR and XPS results showed that a dense protective film composed of [DG-Mg] and MgWO4 formed on the surface of the ZK61 particles. This film resulted from the synergistic inhibition of hydrogen evolution from ZK61 dust particles by DG and ST.
16. Unexpected enrichment of thallium and its geochemical behaviors in soils impacted by historically industrial activities using lead‑zinc carbonate minerals
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 821, 15 May 2022, 153399
Thallium is a trace metal with severe toxicity. Contamination of thallium (Tl) generated by steel and non-ferrous metals industry is gaining growing concern worldwide. However, little is known on Tl contamination owing to industrial activities using carbonate minerals. This study revealed abundant geochemical mobile/bioavailable Tl (> 65.7%, in average; mostly in oxidizable fraction) in soils from a carbonate-hosted Pbsingle bondZn ore utilizing area in China for the first time. Unexpected Tl enrichment was observed in soil accompanying with 3655, 7820, 100.1, 27.3 and 29.9 mg/kg (in average) of Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Sb, respectively. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis further confirmed that historical industrial activities impose anthropogenic catastrophic effects on the local agricultural soil system. The ecological and health risk assessment of heavy metal(loid)s in soils proclaimed serious potential non-carcinogenic risks of Pb and V to adults, and Pb, Tl and As to children. Sequential extraction analysis showed that Tl, as well as Pb, Zn, Mn, Co, and Cd, mainly existed in the mobile fractions (exchangeable/acid-extractable, reducible and oxidizable), indicating an ecological risk of biological accumulation of multiple metal(loid)s in this area. These findings provide a theoretical basis for taking appropriate remediation measures in order to ensure safety of soils in such industrial areas likewise.
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