Về quản lý môi trường
- Đánh giá các đặc điểm của tầng ôzôn trong không gian với các dự đoán có độ phân giải cao ở Trung Quốc đại lục, 2013–2019.
- Định lượng vai trò của khí tượng và phát thải do con người gây ra đối với ô nhiễm không khí bằng cách sử dụng phương pháp học máy: Một nghiên cứu điển hình về PM2.5 trong đợt bùng phát COVID-19 ở tỉnh Hồ Bắc, Trung Quốc.
- Ảnh hưởng của việc làm giàu nitơ và phốt pho đến phát thải N2O trong đất từ các hệ sinh thái tự nhiên: Một phân tích tổng hợp toàn cầu.
- Đánh giá về nước thải bệnh viện và phát sinh chất thải y sinh, các luật hiện hành, đánh giá rủi ro, quy trình xử lý và kịch bản trong COVID-19.
- Lượng khí thải gây hiệu ứng nhà kính từ xe chạy bằng điện và xe đốt từ năm 2018 đến năm 2030 ở Mỹ.
- Mất cân bằng kinh tế môi trường ở Trung Quốc - Mối liên hệ phát thải chất ô nhiễm không khí giữa các thành phố ở sự kết tụ đô thị Bắc Kinh – Thiên Tân – Hà Bắc (BTH).
- Cuộc chạy đua để không phát thải: Năng lượng tái tạo có thể là con đường dẫn đến trung hòa carbon?
- Nhắm mục tiêu giảm ô nhiễm nguồn phi trọng điểm: Tổng hợp các bài học kinh nghiệm, những thách thức còn lại và các cơ hội mới nổi.
- Ảnh hưởng của quá trình lão hóa đến các đặc tính của than sinh học và quản lý chất ô nhiễm.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Vận chuyển và số phận của màng nước tạo thành bọt ở vùng cửa sông đô thị.
- Đặc điểm, mối tương quan và rủi ro sức khỏe của PCDD / Fs và kim loại nặng trong đất bề mặt gần các nhà máy đốt chất thải rắn đô thị ở Tây Nam Trung Quốc.
- Đánh giá các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái của hệ thống thoát nước đô thị bền vững: Một thử nghiệm lựa chọn rời rạc để khơi gợi sở thích và sự sẵn sàng chi trả.
- Chất lỏng ion axit Brønsted polyme hóa lỏng qua trung gian chất thải rắn đô thị.
- Đánh giá hiệu suất của một thiết kế mới từ chất thải y tế thành năng lượng dựa trên khí hóa plasma và tích hợp với nhà máy đốt chất thải rắn đô thị.
- Rủi ro sức khỏe con người liên quan đến đất đô thị ở các khu vực khai thác.
- Tăng cường độ xanh cho đô thị liên quan đến cải thiện sức khỏe tâm thần ở người trung niên và lớn tuổi của Nghiên cứu dọc Canada về lão hóa (CLSA).
- Không gian xám đô thị có liên quan đến việc gia tăng tình trạng dị ứng trong cộng đồng dân cư nói chung.
- Đặc điểm nhiệt phân của các sản phẩm khô sinh học có nguồn gốc từ chất thải hữu cơ của thành phố: Tác dụng hiệp đồng của các chất tạo phồng và điều chỉnh quá trình phân hủy sinh học.
- Quản lý dân số tại một trung tâm đô thị bằng cách sử dụng giải pháp tích hợp năng động để có chất lượng môi trường khí quyển phù hợp.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Phân cụm theo không gian và rủi ro theo nguồn cụ thể của các chất ô nhiễm kết hợp trong đất từ một khu công nghiệp ở tỉnh Sơn Tây, Trung Quốc.
- Tác động môi trường của các mỏ chất thải khai thác Pb-Zn lịch sử ở Slovenia.
- Khám phá đặc điểm dư thừa công suất của ngành công nghiệp Trung Quốc và các lợi ích về môi trường và sức khỏe do giảm công suất.
- Các công nghệ bền vững và hiệu quả để loại bỏ và thu hồi các kim loại độc hại và có giá trị từ nước thải: Tiến bộ gần đây, thách thức và viễn cảnh tương lai.
- Tiền xử lý để giảm thiểu tắc nghẽn màng RO trong tái chế nước thải nhuộm.
- Hiệu quả và cơ chế xử lý xyanua từ đất bị ô nhiễm bằng cách sử dụng persulfate hoạt hóa nhiệt.
- Xử lý nước thải độc hại bằng vật liệu hấp phụ nanohybrid để ngăn ngừa ô nhiễm nước
- Thiết kế cấu trúc khung hỗn hợp laccase-kim loại-hữu cơ để loại bỏ xúc tác sinh học đối với thuốc nhuộm dệt.
- Nước thải trong ngành công nghiệp thực phẩm: Công nghệ xử lý và tiềm năng tái sử dụng.
Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt của các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh:
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Evaluating the spatiotemporal ozone characteristics with high-resolution predictions in mainland China, 2013–2019
Environmental Pollution, Volume 299, 15 April 2022, 118865
Evaluating ozone levels at high resolutions and accuracy is crucial for understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of ozone distribution and assessing ozone exposure levels in epidemiological studies. The national models with high spatiotemporal resolutions to predict ground ozone concentrations are limited in China so far. In this study, we aimed to develop a random forest model by combining ground ozone measurements from fixed stations, ozone simulations from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, meteorological parameters, population density, road length, and elevation to predict ground maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations at a daily level and 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The model cross-validation R2 and root mean squared error (RMSE) were 0.80 and 20.93 μg/m3 at daily level in 2013–2019, respectively. CMAQ ozone simulations and near-surface temperature played vital roles in predicting ozone concentrations among all predictors. The population-weighted median concentrations of predicted MDA8 ozone were 89.34 μg/m3 in mainland China in 2013, and reached 100.96 μg/m3 in 2019. However, the long-term temporal variations among regions were heterogeneous. Central and Eastern China, as well as the Southeast Coastal Area, suffered higher ozone pollution and higher increased rates of ozone concentrations from 2013 to 2019. The seasonal pattern of ozone pollution varied spatially. The peak-season ozone pollution with the highest 6-month ozone concentrations occurred in different months among regions, with more than half domain in April–September. The predictions showed that not only the annual mean concentrations but also the percentages of grid-days with MDA8 ozone concentrations higher than 100/160 μg/m3 have been increasing in the past few years in China; meanwhile, majority areas in mainland China suffered peak-season ozone concentrations higher than the air quality guidelines launched by the World Health Organization in September 2021. The proposed model and ozone predictions with high spatiotemporal resolution and full coverage could provide health studies with flexible choices to evaluate ozone exposure levels at multiple spatiotemporal scales in the future.
2. The status of marine debris/litter and plastic pollution in the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (CLME): 1980–2020
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118919
Plastic pollution is one of several anthropogenic stressors putting pressure on ecosystems of the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (CLME). A ‘Clean Ocean’ is one of the ambitious goals of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. If this is to be realized, it is imperative to build upon the work of the previous decades (1980–2020). The objectives of the present study were to assess the state of knowledge about: (i) the distribution, quantification, sources, transport and fate of marine debris/litter and microplastics in the coastal/marine environment of the CLME and, (ii) the effects of plastics on biodiversity. Snapshots, i.e., peer-reviewed studies and multi-year (1991–2020) marine debris data from International Coastal Cleanup (ICC) events, indicated that plastic debris was a persistent issue in multiple ecosystems and environmental compartments of the CLME. Collectively, a suite of approaches (debris categorization, remote sensing, particle tracking) indicated that plastic debris originated from a combination of land and marine-based sources, with the former more significant than the latter. Rivers were identified as an important means of transporting mismanaged land-based waste to the marine environment. Oceanic currents were important to the transport of plastic debris into, within and out of the region. Plastic debris posed a threat to the biodiversity of the CLME, with specific biological, physical, ecological and chemical effects being identified. Existing data can be used to inform interventions to mitigate the leakage of plastic waste to the marine environment. Given the persistent and transboundary nature of the issue, further elucidation of the problem, its causes and effects must be prioritized, while simultaneously harmonizing regional and international approaches.
3. Quantify the role of anthropogenic emission and meteorology on air pollution using machine learning approach: A case study of PM2.5 during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hubei Province, China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118932
Air pollution is becoming serious in developing country, and how to quantify the role of local emission and/or meteorological factors is very important for government to implement policy to control pollution. Here, we use a random forest model, a machine learning (ML) approach, combined with a de-weather method to analyze the PM2.5 level during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hubei Province. The results show that changes in anthropogenic emissions have reduced PM2.5 concentrations in February and March 2020 by about 33.3% compared to the same period in 2019, while changes in meteorological conditions have increased PM2.5 concentrations by about 8.8%. Moreover, the impact of meteorological conditions is more significant in the central region, which is likely to be related to regional transport. After excluding the contribution of meteorological conditions, the PM2.5 concentration in Hubei Province in February and March 2020 is lower than the secondary standard of China (35 g/m3). Our estimates also indicate that under similar meteorological conditions as in February and March 2019, an emission reduction intensity equivalent to about 48% of the emission reduction intensity during the lockdown may bring the annual average PM2.5 concentration to the standard (35 g/m3). Our study shows that machine learning is a powerful tool to quantify the influencing factors of PM2.5, and the results further emphasize the need for scientific emission reduction as well as joint regional control measures in future.
4. Drivers of 2013–2020 ozone trends in the Sichuan Basin, China: Impacts of meteorology and precursor emission changes
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118914
The Sichuan Basin (SCB) of China is known for excessive ozone (O3) pollution owing to high anthropogenic emissions combined with terrain-induced poor ventilation and weak wind fields against the surrounding mountains. While O3 pollution has emerged as a prominent concern in southwestern China yet variations in O3 levels during 2013–2020 are still unclear and the dominant factor in explaining the long-term O3 trend throughout the SCB remains elusive due to uncertainties in emission inventory and variability associated with meteorological conditions. Here, we use extensive basin-wide ambient measurements to examine the spatial pattern and trend of O3 and leverage OMI and TROPOMI satellites in conjunction with MEIC emission inventory to track emission changes. Sensitivity simulations are conducted by using WRF-CMAQ model to investigate the impacts of meteorological variability and emission changes on O3 changes over 2013–2020. O3 concentrations exhibit obvious interannual increases during 2013–2019 and a slight decrease in 2020. Both decreases in the MEIC emission inventory (−2.9% yr−1) and OMI NO2 column density (−3.1% yr−1) reflects the declining trend in NOx emissions over 2013–2020, while anthropogenic VOCs were not adequately regulated during 2013–2017, which explained the majority of deteriorated O3 pollution from 2013 to 2017. Furthermore, attribution analysis based on CMAQ simulations indicate that the unexpected aggravated O3 levels in 2019 is not only modulated by disproportional reductions in VOCs and NOx emissions, but also associated with unfavorable meteorological conditions featured by profound heatwaves and frequent stagnant conditions. In 2020, the abnormal meteorological conditions in May leads to substantial increase of O3 by 26.8 μg m−3 as compared to May 2019, while the considerable enhancement was fully offset by low O3 levels over the whole period which attributes to substantial emission reductions. This study reveals the long-term trend of O3 levels and precursor emissions and highlights the effects of meteorological variability and emission changes on O3 pollution over the SCB, with strong implications for designing effective O3 control measures.
5. Effects of urbanization on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China's estuarine rivers
Environmental Pollution, Volume 301, 15 May 2022, 119001
Estuarine rivers are the primary medium for transporting pollutants from human activities to the ocean. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have substantial toxicity and pose a significant risk to ecosystem and human health. However, the influences of urbanization on their distribution, particularly in China where urbanization is occurring rapidly, remain unclear. This study took three coastal economic circles of China as research areas, and investigated PAHs (16 species) in the estuarine river water. 95.9% of the sampling sites demonstrated moderate PAHs pollution and moderate ecological risk. Coal and petroleum combustion was the primary source of PAHs, but the source composition varied among the regions. Air pollution caused by energy emissions, particularly carbon emissions, has a critical and differential effect on PAHs distribution and deposition. With the increasing use of clean energy, PAHs emissions have been gradually reduced, which provides an effective option for PAHs reduction in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region.
6. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment on soil N2O emission from natural ecosystems: A global meta-analysis
Environmental Pollution, Volume 301, 15 May 2022, 118993
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) enrichment play an important role in regulating soil N2O emission, but their interactive effect remains elusive (i.e. whether the effect of P or N enrichment on soil N2O emission varies between ambient and elevated soil N or P conditions). Here, we conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis across the global natural ecosystems to determine this effect. Our results showed that P enrichment significantly decreased soil N2O emission by 13.9% at ambient soil N condition. This N2O mitigation is likely due to the decreased soil NO3−-N content (−17.6%) derived by the enhanced plant uptake when the P limitation was alleviated by P enrichment. However, this P-induced N2O (and NO3−-N) mitigation was not found at elevated soil N condition. Additionally, N enrichment significantly increased soil N2O emission by 101.4%, which was associated with the increased soil NH4+-N (+41.0%) and NO3−-N (+82.3%). However, the effect of N enrichment on soil N2O emission did not differ between ambient and elevated soil P subgroups, indicating that the P-derived N2O mitigation could be masked by N enrichment. Further analysis showed that manipulated N rate, soil texture, soil dissolved organic nitrogen, soil total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, soil pH, aboveground plant biomass, belowground plant biomass, and plant biomass nitrogen were the main factors affecting soil N2O emission under N enrichment. Taken together, our study provides evidence that P enrichment has the potential to reduce soil N2O emission from natural ecosystems, but this mitigation effect could be masked by N enrichment.
7. An assessment of hospital wastewater and biomedical waste generation, existing legislations, risk assessment, treatment processes, and scenario during COVID-19
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114609
Hospitals release significant quantities of wastewater (HWW) and biomedical waste (BMW), which hosts a wide range of contaminants that can adversely affect the environment if left untreated. The COVID-19 outbreak has further increased hospital waste generation over the past two years. In this context, a thorough literature study was carried out to reveal the negative implications of untreated hospital waste and delineate the proper ways to handle them. Conventional treatment methods can remove only 50%–70% of the emerging contaminants (ECs) present in the HWW. Still, many countries have not implemented suitable treatment methods to treat the HWW in-situ. This review presents an overview of worldwide HWW generation, regulations, and guidelines on HWW management and highlights the various treatment techniques for efficiently removing ECs from HWW. When combined with advanced oxidation processes, biological or physical treatment processes could remove around 90% of ECs. Analgesics were found to be more easily removed than antibiotics, β-blockers, and X-ray contrast media. The different environmental implications of BMW have also been highlighted. Mishandling of BMW can spread infections, deadly diseases, and hazardous waste into the environment. Hence, the different steps associated with collection to final disposal of BMW have been delineated to minimize the associated health risks. The paper circumscribes the multiple aspects of efficient hospital waste management and may be instrumental during the COVID-19 pandemic when the waste generation from all hospitals worldwide has increased significantly.
8. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions of electric versus combustion vehicles from 2018 to 2030 in the US
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114592
Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given the planned electric grid decarbonization. Regulations can also reduce internal combustion engine vehicle's (ICEVs) emissions by mandating increased fuel economies or ethanol-gasoline mixes. Factors such as fuel economy, electricity grid mix, vehicle choice, and temperature affect EV GHG emissions relative to ICEVs, and successfully decarbonizing the transportation sector depends on understanding their combined effects. We use life-cycle assessment to compare the EV and ICEV well-to-wheel GHG emissions in the United States and four other states from 2018 to 2030. We found lower emissions for EVs than ICEVs in most conditions considered. In New York state, where natural gas power plants replace nuclear energy, GHG emissions of electricity generation increase over time after 2020. Future ICEVs can have comparable emissions to EVs due to fuel economy increase. Therefore, EV and ICEV can together lower transportation GHG emissions at a faster pace.
9. Cost of raising discharge standards: A plant-by-plant assessment from wastewater sector in China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114642
China has implemented increasingly stringent effluent standards for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to protect the aquatic environment, but at the cost of more resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. To elaborate tradeoffs between the elevated standard and the additional burden, we compile a 10-year inventory of 6032 WWTPs across China to estimate the impacts of changes in effluent pollutant concentration on operating costs and electricity consumption. Coupled with the increasing demand for wastewater treatment, upgrading standards to the Special Discharge Limit (SDL) by 2030 would increase electricity consumption and operating costs of the wastewater treatment sector by 86.59% and 70.44% compared to the status quo in 2015. The electricity consumption-induced GHG emissions would also increase by 72.21%, which accounts for 29.16% of total emissions in the domestic wastewater treatment sector. Substantial regional differences exist in terms of upgrade-induced resource burden. Less developed regions generally suffer more stress when encountering similar standards elevation. With large-scale microdata, our findings deepen the understanding of the potential cost of raising standards and provide insights into region-customized pollutant effluent standards implementation.
10. Economic environmental imbalance in China - Inter-city air pollutant emission linkage in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) urban agglomeration
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114601
Production fragmentation makes the air pollution policy no longer at the local scale but requires accounting more about embodied emissions cross-region through supply chains. Here, we map the consumption-driven NOx networks of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration (BTH) in China using the city-level multi-regional input-output model. The results show that the construction, service, and equipment manufacturing sectors in Beijing and Tianjin indirectly drive more than half of BTH NOx emissions (54%). Moreover, 75% of NOx flows in the supply chains are traded from cities with low efficiency (high intensity) to cities with high efficiency (low intensity), which reflects the economic environmental imbalance in BTH. Especially, for the metals smelting and pressing sector and nonmetal mineral products sector, there is a wider gap in emission intensity between production-oriented cities (1.03–4.43 Mt/million yuan) and consumer-oriented cities (0.08–0.45 Mt/million yuan), which leads to additional emissions of air pollutants to increase. At the same time, for the provinces in the south and north China, the role of BTH in the supply chain is different, which leads to an economic environmental imbalance between the north and the south.
11. The race to zero emissions: Can renewable energy be the path to carbon neutrality?
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114648
When taking into account the general terms on which the global green and low-carbon transition takes place, it can be affirmed that the use of clean and renewable energy, including wind, hydro, solar, etc., is an alternative to the traditional energy sources. The renewable energy industry possesses considerable potential, and has recently become the centre of the global energy landscape. Therefore, this article refers to the rolling-window Granger causality test, in order to explore the role of renewable energy (RE) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By studying the interactions that take place between RE consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, we find that the negative impact of RE on CO2 indicates that the replacement role of RE has become increasingly prominent, for it to effectively contribute towards the realization of carbon emission reduction. The results in this regard are consistent with the energy-environment model, suggesting that RE has an excellent performance in achieving carbon neutrality. In fact, CO2 usually exhibits a negative effect on RE, which indicates towards the predictability of environmental quality to the development potential of renewable energy. Carbon emission reduction has become a game of interest among the countries around the world. And hence, in relation to these turn of events in the last few decades, RE is now expected to usher in the required acceleration. While eventually it is believed that the green energy competition will reshape the geopolitics of the world.
12. Targeting for nonpoint source pollution reduction: A synthesis of lessons learned, remaining challenges, and emerging opportunities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114649
The ability to identify, target, and treat critical pollution source areas on a landscape is an ongoing challenge for water quality programs that seek to address nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. In this article, we develop a conceptual framework for targeting program design, and review recent experience with the implementation of targeting programs that corresponds with a wide range of program characteristics. Through this review, we emphasize that the complex and locally dependent nature of NPS generation and transport makes it impossible to define a narrow set of rules to guide targeting programs everywhere. Instead, we evaluate key features of NPS targeting in several different contexts, highlighting lessons learned from recent experience. This synthesis of targeting program design and implementation points toward several areas of opportunity for improved NPS policy, however more research is needed to systematically document changes in behavior and pollutant loads. The lack of monitoring data at refined scales presents a major obstacle to targeting program success. This paper synthesizes new opportunities and ongoing challenges for the implementation of targeting in NPS water quality programs.
13. Effect of ageing on biochar properties and pollutant management
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133427
Biochar is a carbon-rich pyrogenic material for multifunctional environmental applications such as carbon sequestration, soil amendment, and pollutant management, etc. Owing to long-term existing in the soil, biochar would inevitably suffer from natural geochemical weathering. Such ageing process could pose nonnegligible impacts on the physicochemical property and functionality of biochar. For an object-oriented design of biochar under different application ageing conditions, the latest research progress on ageing methods, biochar properties, and pollutant sorption performance needs to be fully understood. Specifically, the effect of soil components on biochar ageing is critically reviewed, which is of importance but not fully explored so far. The decrease of ash in aged biochar can inhibit the adsorption of heavy metals. The loss of aromatic components and the formation of three-dimensional water clusters during the ageing process have a negative impact on high-temperature biochar (>500° C) for organic pollutants adsorption. For long-term soil remediation, these results remind us to carefully use high-ash biochar for heavy metals and high-temperature biochar for organic pollutants. The interaction between soil minerals and biochar can form organometallic complexes and change functional groups to enhance the oxidation resistance of biochar. In the present review, the current research on biochar ageing are critical reviewed, and the further researches are prospected including developing advanced artificial ageing methods, exploring the impact of soil components on biochar ageing, and clarifying the long-term environmental behavior of modified biochar.
14. Challenges in Environmental Science/Engineering and fate and innovative treatment/remediation of emerging pollutants
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133497
Minimizing the generation of pollution should be one of the prime changes that we need to practice. Why? For example, while pandemics like COVID-19 could be devastating to human race, they force us to be innovative in our style of living. It may be highly likely that the existence of the pathogens encouraged by the pollutants present in air, water and soil environments. Thus, we are also forced to find innovative solutions to treat and remediate the pollutants that we generate. Modern life is constantly introducing various types of new and hazardous contaminants which require novel treatment and remediation techniques. This special collection contains articles which deal with identifying and modelling the fate as well as providing innovative treatment and remediation of emerging contaminants and contains 46 articles disseminating research outcomes relevant to the theme. The articles are based on the presentations delivered at the 13th International Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering, CESE-2020. The conference was held online on the 7th and the 8th of November, 2020. This special issue covers the following areas: 5 articles on sensors/detection of pollutants and 41 articles on various aspects such as characterization, synthesis of treatment materials, treatment and modelling the fate of pollutants.
15. A review on biomass and wind as renewable energy for sustainable environment
Chemosphere, Volume 293, April 2022, 133579
As the population is increasing at a rapid pace, we now find ourselves in a position where cities are using a growing amount of renewable energy. Renewable energy is the key to help avert climate change and this approach must be sustainable. At the juncture, this review analyses the potential of wind, biomass and hybrid systems in the field of renewable energy production. Initially, the manuscript addressed the feedstocks and their potential for different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biomethane, biohydrogen and biohythane from the biomass. With a focus on long-term energy sustainability, this article investigates performance analysis and sustainability of wind energy systems and biomass-based hybrid configurations with wind and its various design factors, problems, and gaps were examined. According to the findings, biomass-based hybrid energy systems can provide a cost-effective and environmentally beneficial alternative, particularly for off-grid rural electrification. The study provides designers, academicians, and policymakers with vital information on the most recent design restrictions and other factors related to biomass-wind hybrid energy systems.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Transport and fate of aqueous film forming foam in an urban estuary
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300, 1 May 2022, 118963
The deployment of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) used for firefighting during emergencies and training often releases per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) into the environment. In October 2018, first responders in Providence, RI, USA applied an AFFF during a fuel spill. Due to the proximity of the incident to the upper reaches of Narragansett Bay (NB), an unknown quantity of gasoline and AFFF entered the estuary via surface runoff and stormwater drains. Water samples near the spill were collected approximately 15 h after the incident and analyzed for 24 PFAS. Minor increases in measured PFAS concentrations were observed relative to pre- and post-spill samples at monitoring sites near the incident, except 6:2-fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2-FTS) that peaked post-spill (max 311 ng/L). After performing the total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay on water samples and the AFFF concentrate, significant increases in perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were observed. One compound, 6:2 fluorotelomer mercaptoalkylamido sulfonate (6:2-FTSAS), was identified as a major component of the AFFF used. Peak areas of 6:2-FTSAS and the degradation product 6:2-FTSAS-sulfoxide corresponded to observed increases in the TOP assay results and were useful as tracers of AFFF in surrounding waters. Elevated levels of PFAS at the time of sampling were limited to a confined area of the Providence River due to river flow and tidal action. Observed concentrations were also compared to hydrodynamic model results, and results confirmed rapid dissipation of AFFF components with distance from the spill. However, modeled results did not capture possible secondary releases of AFFF from local municipal stormwater and sewer infrastructure, as observational data suggest. The multiple lines of evidence of PFAS present in surface waters permitted a better assessment of the potential environmental impacts from products such as AFFF for which the chemical composition is largely unknown.
2. Spatial distribution, pollution characterization, and risk assessment of environmentally persistent free radicals in urban road dust from central China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 298, 1 April 2022, 118861
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have aroused widespread concern due to their potential adverse health effects. Research on EPFRs in road dust is still very limited. In this study, 86 road dust samples were collected using vacuum sampling in a rapidly developing city in central China. The pollution characterization and health risk of EPFRs in the urban road dust were then systematically analyzed. The results showed the average concentrations of EPFRs in urban road dust and fraction of particle with aerodynamic diameters lower than 10 μm (PM10) were 2.24 × 1017 to 3.72 × 1019 spins·g−1 and 6.02 × 1017 to 1.41 × 1020 spins g−1, respectively. The concentrations of EPFRs in dust from expressways, arterial roads, and secondary trunk roads were significantly higher than those found in the remaining road types. The g-factors of 2.0032–2.0039 indicated that the EPFRs have consisted of oxygen-centered and carbon-centered radicals or carbon-centered radicals with nearby oxygen or halogen atoms. Moreover, three decay patterns of EPFRs were observed: a fast decay followed by a slow decay, a single slow decay, and the slowest decay. In addition, a comparative evaluation was made for probabilistic risk assessments of exposure to the EPFRs in road dust and the PM10 fraction. Compared with road dust, the probability of the number of equivalent cigarettes to exceed the 100 and 200 cigarettes for inhaling EPFRs in the PM10 fraction increased by 27.0% and 25.0%, respectively. The simulation results showed the PM10 fraction were primarily deposited in the upper respiratory tract regions (57.1%) and pulmonary regions (28.8%). The findings of this study suggest a potential risk of EPFRs in inhalable particles and provide a new insight for further exploration of the EPFRs in fine particles of road dust.
3. Characteristics, correlations and health risks of PCDD/Fs and heavy metals in surface soil near municipal solid waste incineration plants in Southwest China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 298, 1 April 2022, 118816
As primary anthropogenic emission source of toxic pollutants such as heavy metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration has caused worldwide concern. However, a comprehensive analysis of the pollution characteristics and health risks of PCDD/Fs and heavy metals in soils around MSW incineration plants is lacking. In this study, 17 PCDD/Fs and 11 heavy metals in soil samples collected near MSW incineration plants in Sichuan province were investigated to evaluate their pollution characteristics and potential health risk. Sichuan was selected as the study area because the MSW incineration amount in this province ranks first among all inland provinces in China. The PCDD/Fs concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 7.50 ng I-TEQ/kg, which were significantly below risk screening and intervention thresholds. Regarding heavy metals, principal component analysis suggested that Hg, Pb and Zn were the primary metals emitted from the MSW incineration plants. Cluster analysis of PCDD/Fs and heavy metals showed that of PCDD/Fs homologs and heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd) were clustered into one group, indicating the coexistence and coaccumulation of heavy metals (especially Hg, Pb, Zn, and Cd) and PCDD/Fs in soil. These heavy metals are thus candidate tracers for PCDD/Fs in soil near MSW incineration plants. A health risk analysis found that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of PCDD/Fs and heavy metals (except for Ni) in the soil samples were all within acceptable levels. This study provides new insights into correlations and health risks of PCDD/Fs and heavy metals in surface soil near MSW incineration plants. The findings have implications for future studies of environmental and human health risk analysis related to waste incineration.
4. Valuing ecosystem services of sustainable urban drainage systems: A discrete choice experiment to elicit preferences and willingness to pay
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 307, 1 April 2022, 114508
Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) address stormwater management issues and provide a variety of benefits to residents in terms of ecosystem services. Economically valuing the non-monetary ecosystem services often proves difficult, as limited markets for SUDS measures exist, rendering revealed preference methods inapplicable. We conducted a discrete choice experiment to elicit the preferences and willingness to pay of the ecosystem services of SUDS in Berlin, Germany. Results from a latent class model indicated how residents weigh the different ecosystem services and that they garner the highest utility in improved water quality from reduced fish die-offs. With these results, practitioners and policy makers can better prioritize measures and make strong economic arguments for SUDS implementation and increasing the provision of ecosystem services.
5. A polymeric Brønsted acid ionic liquid mediated liquefaction of municipal solid waste
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 307, 1 April 2022, 114532
The rapid industrialization and population explosion continuously generate massive amounts of municipal waste. Several conventional processes are in practice for the treatment of municipal waste, but the requirement of stringent operating conditions, incomplete conversion, longer processing time and emission of toxic gases, etc., are the major associated barriers. Thus, there is an urgent requirement for a sustainable, environmentally feasible process that can process waste into energy and fuel products. In the present manuscript, polyethylenimine functionalized polymeric Bronsted acid ionic liquid (PolyE-IL) catalysts have been explored for the Catalytic Thermo Liquefaction (CTL) of organic biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW). A series of PolyE-IL catalysts with variable counter ions were examined for CTL of MSW. Of all the tested PolyE-IL catalysts, the integration of [PEI]+[HSO4]- gave excellent MSW conversion (>85%) and yield (>80%) of liquefied products (CTL-Oil) under non-stringent reaction conditions and without any formation char and gases. The influence of reaction conditions such as catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, time, slurry concentration, and type of feedstock of conversion and yield are studied. The column adsorption and membrane separation process was integrated to facilitate the catalyst and CTL-Oil separation. A series of commercially available hydrophobic resins were tested to separate catalyst and CTL-Oil. ICT005 showed the highest adsorption efficiency of all tested resins with 35.46 mg/mL of binding capacity and Kd of 0.02159. The physicochemical properties of CTL-Oil were studied in detail by using various analytical tools, which exhibited that CTL-Oil comprises a mixture of small and large molecular weight organic compounds and has a calorific value of 4000 kcal/kg; hence it could be used for further energy and fuel applications. Thus, the reported CTL process can be beneficial to resolve both environmental and fossil fuel dependency issues simultaneously by converting MSW into CTL-Oil.
6. Tertiary treatment of a mixture of composting and landfill leachates using electrochemical processes
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133379
The study investigated the treatment efficiency of coupled electrocoagulation (EC) and electrooxidation (EO) processes for landfill leachate treatment in batch and continuous mode. The EC process (iron anode and graphite cathode) at 18.2 mA/cm2 for 2.5 min resulted in COD, turbidity, total phosphorus, total coliforms and fecal coliforms removal of 58.1, 72.9, 98.5, 97.9, and 97.2% respectively. Under the same operating conditions, the coupled EC/EO (Ti-Pt anode, bipolar iron electrode, and graphite cathode) processes showed that the COD, turbidity, total phosphorus, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms removal of 56.5%, 78.3%, 96.3%, 97.2% and fecal coliforms 72.7%, respectively. The energy costs associated with the EC and EC/EO were 0.11 and 0.25 $/m3, respectively. Compared to the batch configuration, the continuous configuration of EC resulted in similar processing performance. However, the EC/EO process resulted in the production of chlorates, perchlorates, and trihalomethanes as by-products. Moreover, the continuous process slightly increases the pH and ammonia concentration of the leachate and also resulted in the metallic sludge production with an average dryness of 4.2%. The toxicity tests determined that the treated effluent was not toxic to Rainbow trout and Daphnia.
7. Performance assessment of a novel medical-waste-to-energy design based on plasma gasification and integrated with a municipal solid waste incineration plant
Energy, Volume 245, 15 April 2022, 123156
A novel medical-waste-to-energy design combining plasma gasification (treating medical waste) and municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration has been developed. In the integrated system, the syngas generated by the plasma gasification of medical waste is first burned and drives the gas turbine for power generation, subsequently, the gas turbine exhaust is taken to heat the live steam and feedwater of the MSW incineration plant, improving the power cycle of the incineration plant. Consequently, medical waste can be converted into electricity efficiently in the meantime of harmless management. The hybrid design was investigated by multiple approaches including energy analysis, exergy analysis, and economic analysis. It is found that the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of medical-waste-to-electricity can reach up to 37.83% and 34.91% with a net total power of 4.24 MW yielded from medical waste, while the net power generated from MSW is considered fixed. Besides, the proposed medical-waste-to-electricity project has a short dynamic payback period of 3.75 years and the relative net present value can achieve 45,239.90 k$. These results demonstrate that the novel concept is efficient, feasible, and advantageous, which is promising to be implemented in the field of waste-to-energy.
8. Human health risks associated with urban soils in mining areas
Environmental Research, Volume 206, 15 April 2022, 112514
We studied the chemical composition of As and Pb in total (<2 mm) and fine fractions (<50 μm) of 52 urban soil samples from Minas de Riotinto (mining area) and Aracena (non-exposed area) in SW Spain. In addition to a soil phytotoxicity bioassay using Lactuca Sativa L., we modelled and performed carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risk assessment, later comparing our data with relative cancer mortality rates reported at the municipal level.
This study demonstrates that mineralized bedrock and natural soil-forming processes affect the geochemistry of natural (in-situ) urban soils, which in many cases surpass the regulatory levels for As (36 mg/kg) and Pb (275 mg/kg). Fine fractions of in-situ and mixed urban soils —susceptible of inhalation— are significantly enriched in As and Pb with respect to fine fractions of aggregate materials (ex-situ soils of chalky sands and gravel) in Minas de Riotinto. The soils in Minas de Riotinto are significantly enriched in As (total and fine fractions) and Pb (total fraction) with respect to Aracena. Despite elevated bulk concentrations of As and Pb, only one in-situ sample exhibits phytotoxic effects of the soil-water extracts on Lactuca Sativa L. seeds. Health risk assessment of these towns as exposure areas indicates that the soils of Minas de Riotinto are indeed a health risk to the residents, whereas there is no potential risk in Aracena. The reported relative mortality rates in Minas de Riotinto show a greater mortality of carcinogenic tumors potentially related to As and Pb exposure, including lung cancer.
Both soil type and use must be considered when administrators or policy-makers evaluate health risks involved in urbanistic decision-making. To minimize exposure risk and adverse health outcomes, we recommend that in-situ soils surpassing regulatory levels for As and Pb in public playgrounds and passing areas should be covered with aggregate materials.
9. Frequent occurrence of respiratory symptoms in children is associated with exposure to air pollution, land use types, and parental mental health in the Greater Taipei area
Environmental Research, Volume 206, 15 April 2022, 112567
Although studies have investigated the individual effects of air pollution, land use types, and parental mental health on children's respiratory health, few studies have examined the effects of these risk factors simultaneously in children aged <2 years. We investigated the effects of exposure to air pollution, land use types surrounding residences, and parental mental health on the frequent occurrence of respiratory symptoms in children aged <2 years in the Greater Taipei area. Participants were recruited from an ongoing Taiwanese birth cohort study. We analyzed the data of the participants who had been recruited from January 2011 to April 2014 and had responded to the follow-up questionnaires at 6, 12, and 24 months. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect participants' sociodemographic background and health, such as respiratory symptoms, and parental mental health. Pre- and postnatal pollution levels were estimated using the spatial interpolation technique (ordinary kriging) at children's residential addresses. Land use types surrounding participants' homes were evaluated by performing buffer analysis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of risk factors on the frequent occurrence of child respiratory symptoms in children aged 6, 12, and 24 months. We included 228, 360, and 441 children aged 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Our results indicated that postnatal exposure to PM2.5 and O3 was positively associated with children's respiratory symptoms. Traffic-related land-use types, sports facilities, and commercial land surrounding homes exerted adverse effects on children's respiratory symptoms, whereas the presence of schools in the neighborhood was beneficial. Parental mental health was also associated with children's respiratory symptoms. Postnatal exposure to air pollution and land use types surrounding residences were associated with respiratory health in children aged <2 years. The residential environment is a critical factor affecting children's respiratory health of children aged <2 years.
10. Increased urban greenness associated with improved mental health among middle-aged and older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA)
Environmental Research, Volume 206, 15 April 2022, 112587
Some studies suggest that residential surrounding greenness is associated with improved mental health. Few of these studies have focussed on middle-aged and older adults, explored the modifying effects of social determinants of health, or accounted for the extent to which individuals interact with their neighbourhood environments.
We analysed cross-sectional data collected from 26,811 urban participants of the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging who were between 45 and 86 years of age. Participants provided details on socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviours, and their frequency of neighbourhood interactions. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of greenness, was assigned to participants’ residential addresses at a buffer distance of 500 m. Four self-reported measures of mental health were considered: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10; short scale), past diagnosis of clinical depression, perceptions of mental health, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Regression models were used to describe associations between greenness and these outcomes, and spline models were fit to characterize the exposure-response function between greenness and CES-D-10 scores. Stratified analyses evaluated whether associations varied by sociodemographic status.
In adjusted models, we observed a 5% (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.90, 0.99) reduced odds of depressive symptoms in relation to an interquartile range increase of NDVI (0.06) within a 500 m buffer of the participant's residence. Similarly, we found an inverse association with a self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.92–1.01). Increases in surrounding greenness were associated with improved perceptions of mental health, and the SWLS. Our spline analyses found that beneficial effects between greenness and the CES-D-10 were strongest among those of lower income.
These findings suggest that residential greenness has mental health benefits, and that interventions to increase urban greenness can help reduce social inequalities in mental health.
11. Urban grey spaces are associated with increased allergy in the general population
Environmental Research, Volume 206, 15 April 2022, 112428
The built environment in urban areas may have side effects on children's respiratory health, whilst less is known for adulthood.
To assess the association between increasing exposure to grey spaces and allergic status in an adult general population sample.
2070 subjects (age range 15–84 yrs), living in Pisa/Cascina, Italy, were investigated in 1991–93 through a questionnaire on health status and risk factors, skin prick test (SPT), serum Immunoglobulins E (IgE), and serum antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts.
Land-cover exposure within a 1000 m buffer from each subject's home address was assessed through the CORINE Land Cover program (CLC 1990) within the FP7/HEALS project (2013–2018). Participants' residential addresses were geocoded and the proportion of surrounding grey spaces was calculated.
Through logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounding factors, the effect of a 10% increase in grey spaces exposure on allergic biomarkers/conditions was assessed; the relationship with serum antibodies to BPDE-DNA adducts positivity was also analyzed.
A 10% increase in grey spaces coverage was associated with a higher probability of having SPT positivity (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13), seasonal SPT positivity (OR 1.12, 1.05-1.19), polysensitization (OR 1.11, 1.04-1.19), allergic rhinitis (OR 1.10, 1.04-1.17), co-presence of SPT positivity and asthma/allergic rhinitis (OR 1.16, 1.08-1.25), asthma/allergic rhinitis (OR 1.06, 1.00-1.12), presence of serum antibodies to BPDE-DNA adducts positivity (OR 1.07, 1.01-1.14).
Grey spaces have adverse effects on allergic status and are related to a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in adulthood. Thus, they may be used as a proxy of urban environmental exposure.
12. Pyrolysis characteristics of biodried products derived from municipal organic wastes: Synergistic effect of bulking agents and modification of biodegradation
Environmental Research, Volume 206, 15 April 2022, 112300
Derived from the biodrying of municipal organic wastes (MOWs), biodried products (BPs) are widely identified as renewable energy sources. In this study, for efficient energy recovery, the pyrolysis characteristics of BPs were investigated by comprehensive kinetic analysis, with special focus on the synergistic effect of bulking agents and the influence of biodegradation. Compared with theoretical raw materials (RMs), it was suggested that the synergistic effect of organics and lignocelluloses in RMs promoted decomposition in Stage 1 (400–570 K), especially for the pyrolysis of RM using sawdust, during which the positive effect achieved decomposition in advance with lower overlap ratio (0.9264) and ΔW (−9.50% at 619.0 K) values. Furthermore, compared with RMs, it was indicated that the kinetic indices (Ea and ln A values) of the BPs were upward in Stage 1 and decreased in Stage 2 due to biodegradation. The results of ΔH, ΔG and ΔS indicated that BP pyrolysis required more heat supply as the reaction progressed but formed a more organized activated complex. In addition, biodegradation observably decreased the generation of gas products and typical functional groups of volatiles during BP pyrolysis, such as CO2 and Cdouble bondO, which presented decreasing ratios of 32.18–42.47% and 30.25–46.47%, respectively. In general, the pyrolysis of BPs was intensified by bulking agents and modified by biodegradation.
13. Population management in an urban center using the dynamic integrated solution for an adequate atmospheric environmental quality
Environmental Research, Volume 205, 1 April 2022, 112482
Accelerated growth in urban populations has become a powerful force for human development, particularly in developed countries. Metropolitan cities are centers for technical and economic advancement, but air pollution, overflowing of water, and other climate effects still pose significant problems related to nature, climate, and the environment. Cities are vulnerable to increasingly dense, diverse, and interdependent urban systems. A single extreme occurrence can contribute to a systemic break-up of a city's infrastructure, often like dominoes. In this paper, a dynamic integration-assisted population management solution (DI-PMS) has been proposed. DI-PMS recognizes that the latest facilities' optimal usage of knowledge and technologies is needed to increase urbanization. They are one of the critical priorities of the weather community. Such integrated urban weather, environmental, and climate services will help cities address dangers including storms, floods, heatwaves, and air pollution, especially in climate change. The goal is to create urban facilities that satisfy communities' unique needs by high-resolution forecasting and pollution reduction climate services, which allow the construction of durable, robust, and thriving cities that support the Sustainable Development Goals. Several recent international surveys to explore these topics have been undertaken. DI-PMS gives a brief description of urban hydrometeorological, climate and air pollution activities, outlines the new urban integrated weather and environmental services concept, and emphasizes the need for science to be implemented.
14. The physiological and ecological properties of bacterial persisters discovered from municipal sewage sludge and the potential risk
Environmental Research, Volume 205, 1 April 2022, 112481
Bacterial persisters are a special microbial population and are considered to be the bacterial reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. They can survive antibiotic treatment even in high concentrations of antibiotics and revive in the appropriate conditions. However, the characteristics of bacterial persisters in the municipal sewage sludge and their potential environmental risks have not yet been paid much attention to. In this study, bacterial persisters were discovered from the sludge of wastewater treatment plants in four different regions (Jilin, Lhasa, Shenzhen, and Yili), and the metagenomic analysis confirmed that bacterial persisters were ubiquitous in all four municipal sewage sludge and positively related to the protobacterium populations. At the taxonomic genus level, a total of 57 genera of bacterial persisters were shared by the four sewage sludge, and the genera with abundance exceeding 2% were Acinetobacter, Lysinibacillus, Aeromonas, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Alcaligenes, among which Acinetobacter accounted for 57.24%. Genus Lysinibacillus and Aeromonas were significant in Jilin and Lhasa, respectively. The persistence mechanism of bacterial persisters derived from sludge was also clarified, among which, Aeromonas, Brevundimonas, and Alcaligenes rely on the hipBA toxin-antitoxin system, while Acinetobacter enters the persistence state mainly through the stringent response system based on (p)ppGpp. Moreover, it was found that a typical bacterial persister originated from Acinetobacter, named T9-9, could tolerate a variety of antibiotics, such as 1000 μg/mL of kanamycin, 160 μg/mL of tetracycline, and 30 μg/mL of ciprofloxacin. Even if the ultraviolet intensity was 6–36 times the usual dosage of ultraviolet disinfection in wastewater treatment plants, it could not completely kill T9-9, but the killing efficiency by chlorine disinfection technology could reach 100%. This study pointed out an environmental risk of bacterial persisters that existed in sewage sludge that had been neglected and strongly recommended to improve the disinfection process in the wastewater treatment plant.
15. Intensified nitrogen removal by endogenous denitrification in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant
Environmental Research, Volume 205, 1 April 2022, 112564
In this study, for the first time, endogenous denitrification (ED) was enhanced in a practical anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-[post-anoxic]-[post-oxic] (AAO-AO) process, contributing to a remarkable increase in the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE). The long-term operation (203 days) result showed that the NRE was improved by 7% compared to the theoretical maximum NRE (68–70%) of AAO processes, with the effluent total nitrogen (TN) decreasing from 13.7 (1 d) to 6.1 mg/L (203 d). Approximately 99.4% of the influent COD was transformed to poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in the anaerobic zone. The synthesized PHAs were consumed in the following zones and the secondary sedimentation tank accompanied by over 32.5% N-loss, indicating that the ED process could be responsible for the enhanced NRE. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing results further confirmed that denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms, which are capable of ED, were enriched with the relative abundance of 2.10%. Our findings provide a novel cost- and energy-efficient strategy to improve nitrogen removal without external carbon additions but by enhancing ED performance.
16. Urban morphological indicators of urban heat and moisture islands under various sky conditions in a humid subtropical region
Building and Environment, Volume 214, 15 April 2022, 108906
Most of studies have focused on urban heat island (UHI) but not on urban moisture island (UMI) that is non-negligible in humid subtropical climates. Fixed air temperature and humidity measurements at 14 study sites were conducted in Guangzhou continuously from September to November 2016. The daily variation in UHI intensity (UHII) showed a significant U-shape, and that of UMI intensity (UMII) presented two major changes: a decrease after 6:00 and an increase after 19:00. The UHI and UMI effects were more pronounced at night than during the day and were affected by sky conditions with varied solar radiation and cloud cover. A positive relationship between UHII and UMII at night and an opposite one during the day was observed. The mechanisms behind the UHI and UMI formations and their relationship mainly are the differences of land-surface morphology and boundary layer movement between urban and rural sites. The classification of urban form (including blocks and street canyons with different street orientations) significantly improved the performances of the UHII and UMII regression models. The determination coefficients of the UHII (UMII) models ranged from 0.683 to 0.825 (from 0.497 to 0.803) for the overall data and various sky conditions. Furthermore, the critical urban morphological indicators of diurnal and nocturnal UHII were identified. The green cover ratio and albedo were negatively correlated with diurnal and nocturnal UMII, whereas the impervious plan area ratio showed a positive correlation. The control of urban morphological indicators during urban design is beneficial for mitigating UHI and UMI.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Spatial clustering and source-specific risk of combined pollutants in soils from an industrial area in Shanxi Province, China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 299, 15 April 2022, 118925
Heavy metal (loid)s (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from a typical industrial county of Shanxi were synchronously measured to determine the spatial clustering of combined HMs and PAHs pollution, and the resulting source-specific health risks. The spatial interaction of HMs and PAHs was determined by the Moran's I index, and a bivariate local indicators of spatial association (LISA) analysis showed that the high HMs-high PAHs clusters were mainly distributed in Fencheng and Xijia towns, as well as the main urban areas of Xiangfen County. The spatial clusters of high naphthalene (Nap)-high HMs were more obvious than those of high benzo(a)pyrene (Bap)-high HMs. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF), four sources were identified for both HMs and PAHs, with coal consumption and industrial emission identified as common sources of both pollutants. The source-oriented health risk was determined using an improved health risk assessment model. The cancer risk from the combined pollution industrial emissions was relatively serious for both adults and children, with the risk value exceeding 10−6. Therefore, special attention should be paid to emission control. Based on spatial clustering and source-specific health risk assessment, the largest risk areas and pollutant sources were in the main urban areas of Fencheng and Xijia towns. The spatial interaction patterns and source-specific HMs and PAHs pollution concentrations provide a basis for effective pollution management and control. Finally, a systematic framework for reference was proposed for risk area identification and analysis of the source-oriented health risks of combined HMs and PAHs pollution.
2. Screening for a more sustainable solution for decolorization of dyes and textile effluents using Candida and Yarrowia spp.
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 307, 1 April 2022, 114421
Dyed effluents from textile industry are toxic and difficult to treat by conventional methods and biotechnological approaches are generally considered more environmentally friendly. In this work, yeast strains Candida parapsilosis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida pseudoglaebosa, isolated from wastewater treatment plants, were tested for their ability to decolorize textile dyes. Both commercial textile synthetic dyes (reactive, disperse, direct, acid and basic) and simulated textile effluents (a total of 32 solutions) were added to a Normal Decolorization Medium along with the yeast (single strains and consortia) and the decolorization was evaluated spectrophotometrically for 48–72 h. Yeasts were able to perform decolorization through adsorption and biodegradation for 28 of the dyes and simulated effluents by more than 50%. Y. lipolytica and C. pseudoglaebosa presented the best results with a true decolorization of reactive dyes, above 90% at 100 mg l−1, and simulated effluents at 5 g l−1 of concentration. Enzyme production was evaluated: oxidoreductase was found in the three yeasts, whereas tyrosinase was only found in Y. lipolytica and C. pseudoglaebosa. Y. lipolytica and C. pseudoglaebosa are a potential biotechnological tool for dye degradation in textile wastewaters, especially those containing reactive dyes and a promising tool to integrate in bioremediation solutions, contributing to circular economy and eco sustainability in the water sector since the treated water could possibly be reused for irrigation.
3. The environmental impact of historical Pb-Zn mining waste deposits in Slovenia
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114580
Mining waste deposits (MWDs) represent significant and constant pollution source for the environment worldwide, thus it is very important to identify and diminish their environmental impacts. The aim of this study was to determine long-term environmental impacts and their temporal variations of MWDs in Pb–Zn mining districts in Slovenia and assess stability of potentially harmful element (PHE)-bearing phases in stream water. The results showed that investigated MWDs are important source of PHEs in stream sediments and that PHEs mostly occur as fine-grained and liberated PHE-bearing ore minerals. MWDs have generally stronger impact on sediments of smaller streams draining MWDs and main streams close to their confluences, however, fine-grained PHE-bearing material is transported along major watercourses over long distances causing regional pollution. Main ore minerals are mostly soluble in stream water. However, measured PHE leaching potential of MWDs is negligible. PHE levels in stream waters are thus low, demonstrating that drainage of MWDs predominantly contributes to PHE pollution in solid particulate form. Possible long-term remediation solution that would reduce environmental impact is recovery of metals from fine grain size fractions of MWDs, which could become an effective practice in sustainable management of historical MWDs. However, further studies of MWDs’ secondary resource potential, processing technology and evaluation of environmental aspects of extraction are needed.
4. Uncovering the overcapacity feature of China's industry and the environmental & health co-benefits from de-capacity
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 308, 15 April 2022, 114645
Overcapacity is regarded as an inevitable problem for rapid economic developing countries like China, which also causes serious adverse impacts on the environment and public health. However, few studies have quantified the overcapacity feature and corresponding co-benefit from de-capacity policy. To fill such research gaps, this study constructed a comprehensive assessment model by combining the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, the GAINS-China (Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) model, and a meta-analysis and health impact assessment module, to measure the capacity utilization rate of 41 industrial sectors in 31 Chinese provinces and forecast the environmental and health co-benefits from de-capacity policy in 2050. Results showed that the capacity utilization rate of China's industry is 64.13% in 2018, which is much lower than the threshold value of 75%, indicating serious overcapacity in China's industry. Capacity utilization rates of light industries are higher (around 70%) than heavy industries (50%–60%), and the capacity utilization rate in East and South-Central China is higher (70%–96%) than West China (below 40%). Under a de-capacity scenario in 2050, China's CO2 and PM2.5 emissions are reduced by 1.05 billion tons (9.6%) and 57.8 kilotons (5.8%), respectively. This reduction in PM2.5 emissions results in a substantial health co-benefit, reducing national premature mortality cases by approximately 792,100 (1.6%). Finally, it is recommended that de-capacity priority be given to industries with low capacity utilization rate, as well as regions with intensive heavy industry or high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, severe air pollution, and dense population.
5. Sustainable and efficient technologies for removal and recovery of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater: Recent progress, challenges, and future perspectives
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133102
Due to their numerous effects on human health and the natural environment, water contamination with heavy metals and metalloids, caused by their extensive use in various technologies and industrial applications, continues to be a huge ecological issue that needs to be urgently tackled. Additionally, within the circular economy management framework, the recovery and recycling of metals-based waste as high value-added products (VAPs) is of great interest, owing to their high cost and the continuous depletion of their reserves and natural sources. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art technologies developed for the removal and recovery of metal pollutants from wastewater by providing an in-depth understanding of their remediation mechanisms, while analyzing and critically discussing the recent key advances regarding these treatment methods, their practical implementation and integration, as well as evaluating their advantages and remaining limitations. Herein, various treatment techniques are covered, including adsorption, reduction/oxidation, ion exchange, membrane separation technologies, solvents extraction, chemical precipitation/co-precipitation, coagulation-flocculation, flotation, and bioremediation. A particular emphasis is placed on full recovery of the captured metal pollutants in various reusable forms as metal-based VAPs, mainly as solid precipitates, which is a powerful tool that offers substantial enhancement of the remediation processes’ sustainability and cost-effectiveness. At the end, we have identified some prospective research directions for future work on this topic, while presenting some recommendations that can promote sustainability and economic feasibility of the existing treatment technologies.
6. Pretreatment for alleviation of RO membrane fouling in dyeing wastewater reclamation
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133471
Adsorption and coagulation were commonly used to alleviate reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling caused by dissolved organic matters (DOM), but the effects of changed composition and structure of DOM in dyeing wastewater after adsorption and coagulation on RO membrane fouling have seldom been studied. This study aimed at resolving the mechanism how the RO membrane fouling during dyeing wastewater treatment was alleviated by using adsorption and coagulation. The dyeing wastewater caused serious RO membrane fouling. Pretreatment with granular activated carbon (GAC), polyferric sulfate (PFS) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) were conducted. It was shown that GAC could remove most of the DOM (95%) and preferred to adsorb protein, hydrophobic neutrals and fluorescent compounds. Both coagulants of PFS and PACl preferred to remove polysaccharides (the removal rate was 9–19% higher than that of DOM), high-MW compounds and these compounds with high fouling potential. Afterwards, the RO membrane fouling potential of the dyeing wastewater was tested. The GAC and PFS performed well to alleviate fouling. After GAC treatment, the decline rate of RO flux was similar to that of raw wastewater after 6-fold dilution. With pretreatment by PFS or PACl, the fouling potential of dyeing wastewater was much lower than that of raw wastewater after diluted to the same DOM content. Changes in polysaccharides content in the DOM had more effects on RO membrane fouling than that of proteins after these pretreatment. Although the DOM changed significantly after pretreatment, the fouling type was still intermediate blocking.
7. Effectiveness and mechanism of cyanide remediation from contaminated soils using thermally activated persulfate
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133463
Persulfate (PS)-based advanced oxidation processes have been frequently employed for contaminant remediation, but the effectiveness of PS oxidation for the elimination of cyanide-bearing contaminants from soil, and the underlying mechanisms, have rarely been explored. This study investigated the degradation of two iron-cyanide (Fe–CN) complexes (ferricyanide and ferrocyanide) with thermally activated PS via two remediation strategies, namely one-step oxidation (direct PS oxidation) and two-step oxidation (alkaline extraction followed by PS oxidation). The two-step oxidation process was more effective for the elimination of cyanide pollutants from soil, reaching >94% remediation efficiency for both Fe–CN complexes studied. The presence of dissolved soil components, especially soil organic matter, increased consumption of PS during the remediation process. A combined analysis based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), free radical scavenging, and degradation product identification revealed that SO4radical dot- and HOradical dot were the principal reactive radicals responsible for Fe–CN degradation. Based on the determination of radical species and identification of decomposition products, a transformation pathway for Fe–CN complexes during thermally activated PS oxidation is proposed. Overall, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of the thermally activated PS oxidation technique for cyanide elimination from polluted soil. Further study is required to verify the feasibility of this method for field applications.
8. Remediation of noxious wastewater using nanohybrid adsorbent for preventing water pollution
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133380
Removal of toxic elements from wastewater effluent has got a lot of attention because of their severe negative effects on human and environmental health. In the past few years, rapid urbanization and industrial activities in developing countries have exacerbated the destruction of the environment. Most of the wastewater effluents are discharged untreated or inadequately treated, which has become a major concern due to its impact on sustainability and the environment. This is imperative to implement, innovative and resourceful wastewater treatment technologies requiring low investment. Among the various treatment technologies, cutting-edge processes in nano-material sciences have recently piqued the interest of scientists. Nanohybrid absorbents have the potential in improving wastewater treatment and increase water supply by utilizing unconventional water resources. Carbon nanotubes, titanium oxide, manganese oxide, activated carbon (AC), magnesium oxide, graphene, ferric oxides, and zinc oxide are examples of nano-adsorbents that are used to eliminate pollutants. This also demonstrated the effective removal of contaminants along with the harmful effects of chemicals, colorants, and metals found in wastewater. The present manuscript examines potential advances in nanotechnology in wastewater treatment for the prevention of water and soil pollution. This systematic review aims to highlight the importance of nanohybrid absorbents treatment technology for wastewater treatment and to explain how nanohybrid absorbents have the potential to revolutionize industrial pollution. There are also other published review articles on this topic but the present review covers an in-depth information on nano-adsorbents and their targeted contaminants.
9. Design of laccase–metal–organic framework hybrid constructs for biocatalytic removal of textile dyes
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133382
This study aims to present a simple and effective carrier matrix to immobilize laccase as opposed to complex and tedious immobilization processes and also to use it in the removal of textile dyes. For this purpose, Cobalt (Co) and Copper (Cu) based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared and laccase was immobilized on two different MOFs via encapsulation. The characterization outcomes showed that laccase was well immobilized into MOF supports. Optimum pH and temperature were found for Lac/Co-MOF (pH 4.5 at 50 °C) and Lac/Cu-MOF (pH 5.0 at 50 °C). The Km (0.03 mM) and Vmax (97.4 μmol/min) values of Lac/Cu-MOF were lower than those of Lac/Co-MOF (Km = 0.13 mM, Vmax = 230.7 μmol/min). The immobilized laccases showed good reusability as well as improved resistance to temperature denaturation and high storage stability. For instance, the Lac/Co-MOF and Lac/Cu-MOF retained more than 58% activity after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature. Meanwhile, Lac/Co-MOF and Lac/Cu-MOF maintained 56.5% and 55.8% of their initial activity, respectively, after 12 reuse cycles. Moreover, thermal deactivation kinetic studies of immobilized laccases displayed lower k value, higher t1/2, and enhancement of thermodynamic parameters, which means better thermostability. Finally, the decolorization activities for the Lac/Co-MOF were 78% and 61% at the 5th cycle for Reactive Blue 171 and Reactive Blue 198, respectively. In conclusion, it can be inferred that the MOFs are more sustainable and beneficial support for laccase immobilization and they can be efficient for removing textile dyes from industrial wastes.
10. Uptake, organ distribution and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in crops in abandoned indigenous smelting region
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133321
Inorganic pollution induced by smelting waste has threatened the safety of environment, whereas the impacts on farmlands with regards to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) receive insufficient attention. Herein, the contents, transfer pathways and potential risks of the PTEs in common crops were examined from different farmlands distributed around an indigenous Zn-smelting area in Guizhou, China. The results showed that Tl in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) (up to 3.74 mg/kg) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (up to 1.16 mg/kg) at some sites exceeded the maximum permissible level (MPL) (0.5 mg/kg) for food, and, under the same pollution condition, cabbage and radish were more likely to enrich PTEs, and the edible portion of maize was not prone to Tl risk. Hazard quotient calculations of Tl, Ba, and U were greater than 1, indicating the edible risk of crops for these PTEs. Further characterization of selected soils revealed that MnFe2O4 and Fe2O3 controlled the phase transformation of Tl(III) in rhizospheric soils. Furthermore, distinctive mullite was detected in the soil which confirmed the contribution of high temperature smelting to PTEs pollution. The findings indicate an emergent need for soil remediation around historical indigenous metal smelting areas for the sake of food security.
11. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge with fat-oil-grease (FOG) enhances the destruction of sludge solids
Chemosphere, Volume 292, April 2022, 133530
The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of co-digestion of a sludge-mix of primary sludge (PS)/thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with concentrated fat-oil-grease (FOG) over a wide range of FOG/sludge-mix volumetric feed ratios. The biodegradability (i.e., COD to methane conversion) of PS, TWAS, sludge-mix, and FOG was 43.0, 38.6, 41.8, and 97.7%, respectively, with a pseudo first-order rate of 0.13, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.18 d−1, respectively. Batch co-digestion of sludge-mix and FOG at COD ratios ranging from 93.2:6.8 to 27.3:72.7% resulted in methane production linearly correlated to both the total waste blend and FOG COD feed concentration. An enhanced extent of degradation of the sludge-mix COD to as much as 10.9% (increased from 42.2 to 53.1%) and an increased degradation rate by 17% (increased from 0.12 to 0.14 d−1) was observed when the feed FOG COD was 18.5% of the total waste COD feed. Overall, co-digestion of mixed municipal sludge with FOG is feasible and recommended to meet target biogas/methane levels at municipal wastewater treatment facilities taking into account the trade-off between energy production and solids destruction to fit their particular needs.
12. Wastewater in the food industry: Treatment technologies and reuse potential
Chemosphere, Volume 293, April 2022, 133553
Water is the most extensively used raw material in the food and beverage industry. This industrial sector has a negative impact on the environment and economy as a result of rising water demand and wastewater production. With the increasing scarcity of drinking water, the reuse of wastewater streams has become an important economic and ecological concern. Therefore, the optimisation of water consumption and wastewater reuse in the food industry is essential. On the other hand, several countries limit the reuse of wastewater because of legal curtailment, public health and safety concerns. This represents a major challenge for both industries and administrations due to the technical complexity and financial costs involved. The present review aims at addressing the key issues related to water consumption, wastewater generation, treatment and successful implementation cases of water reuse in the food and beverage industry. Moreover, the various case studies of already employed technologies for the food industry wastewater treatment and reuse have been analysed for their performance. Also, this review reveals future research on the application of other innovative technologies such as ultraviolet irradiation and micro electrolysis. However, the successful implementation of reuse strategies is associated with the holistic evaluation of local factors such as governmental incentives, social acceptance and legislation harmonisation related to the cost, risks, and environmental performance.
13. Fabrication of Ce doped TiO2 for efficient organic pollutants removal from wastewater
Chemosphere, Volume 293, April 2022, 133540
Pristine and Ce doped TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated for toxic pollutants removal from wastewater. Pristine, 2% Ce and 4% Ce doped TiO2 photocatalysts were produced via hydrothermal route. 4% Ce doped TiO2 exhibited 2.41 eV bandgap which is smaller than pure TiO2. The morphology was also investigated and it was established that doping of Ce ions enhanced the surface roughness and reduced the particle size. The surface area was characterized through BET analysis and 4% Ce–TiO2 possess higher surface with large pore diameter which helped the photocatalytic activity. The prepared photocatalysts were investigated on reduction of pollutants from wastewater under visible light. Higher efficiency was obtained for 4% Ce–TiO2 photocatalyst for both model pollutants. The "k” value possessed was also higher for the doped TiO2 catalyst. These analysis reports the optimum level of ceria doping to enhance morphology, surface area and it increased activity than bare TiO2. 4% Ce–TiO2 will be the potential candidate for efficient wastewater management. The 4% Ce doped TiO2 photocatalyst provided 77% and 88% on reducing MB and RhB dyes. The dopant has developed higher surface area, morphology and good recombination rate which reduced the toxic pollutants and changed the wastewater to reuse.
14. Impact of macroeconomic factors on ozone precursor emissions in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 344, 10 April 2022, 130974
In recent years, ground-level ozone pollution is becoming increasingly severe in China. Long-term exposure to such an environment will threaten public health. Here, a Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) model was used to estimate the driving forces of VOCs and NOx, the two most important precursors of surface ozone. The LMDI model can decompose macroeconomic indicators, including per capita gross (PCG), energy intensity (EI), energy structure (ES), and pollutant emission intensity (EP), which can affect precursor emissions. Results indicate that PCG was the primary promoting factor of precursors, while EI and EP suppressed the precursor emissions. That is, the macroeconomic factors can affect precursor emissions, and then affect ozone concentrations. To demonstrate this, we used the random forest model to analyze the relationships between macroeconomic factors and ozone concentrations, together with meteorological elements. We found macroeconomic factors can improve the predictive performance of the Random Forest. The result revealed that it was feasible to restrain precursor emissions through macro-control, and then to adjust ozone concentrations appropriately.
15. Design optimization of industrial energy systems with energy consumption relaxation models for coupling process units and utility streams
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 344, 10 April 2022, 131072
Industrial energy systems, such as in the petrochemical and iron energy-intensive industries, are a utility hub to convert fuels into various forms of energy and then supply them to satisfy the energy requirements from process units. In conventional industrial energy systems design, the forms and quantity of energy required from process units are generally considered as deterministic. As a result, the optimization boundary of energy systems design is reduced in advance, leading to sub-optimal design results. In this study, energy interchangeability in process units is introduced to relax the bounds of energy requirements. These energy interchangeabilities can lead to different distribution patterns of energy requirement. In order to quantify the energy interchangeability of process units, energy consumption relaxation models (ECRMs) are presented. Two kinds of energy interchangeabilities are considered and investigated, one is the heat-based energy interchange between fuels and steam, another is the work-based energy interchange between electricity and steam. A candidate superstructure of industrial energy systems and a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) framework are then reformulated to conduct design optimization of the energy system to minimize the total annual cost (TAC). Lastly, the proposed method and MINLP optimization framework are applied to a large-scale refinery site for the design optimization of the energy system. Compared with the conventional optimized design, the TAC and annual CO2 emission are decreased by 10.96% and 19,845 tons, respectively.
16. Preparation of high performance superhydrophobic PVDF-PbO2-ZrO2 composite electrode and its application in the degradation of paracetamol and industrial oily wastewater
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Volume 911, 15 April 2022, 116231
Superhydrophobic PVDF-PbO2-ZrO2 composite electrode was prepared by electrodeposition of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and zirconia (ZrO2). The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS and water contact angle. The electrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol (APAP) by electrode was studied, the removal rate of APAP by electrode was 98.24% after 100 min, in addition, the degradation pathways include carboxylation of phenolic hydroxyl, Csingle bondN bond breaking and benzene ring opening, then further oxidation to produce linear hydroxypropionic acid, and finally into CO2 and H2O. Moreover, after 120 min degradation, the COD removal rate of the industrial oily wastewater reaches 83.33%. The oil content of the wastewater reduced from 148 to 4 ppm, which proves that the material possesses good practical application.
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